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3  3433  07954361    1 

:  !IIIiii)iiimim:iiiiii>iiiiii 




,  VT. 





1763-1915  ^^ 






this  mdloce  15  dedicated  to  the  memory  of 
Justin  W.  Moody,  with  grateful  recollec- 
tions OF  his  long  and  faithful  SER^^CE  to 
his  townsmen  as  public  servant,  citizen, 
n'eighbor.  and  friend. 


Conscious  that  there  are  many  imperfections  in  this  volume, 
the  Editor  nevertheless  ventures  the  hope  that  it  may  be  found 
to  contain  in  convenient  form  matter  concerning  the  more 
important  periods  of  Waterbury's  history,  biographical  data 
of  a  certain  interest  and  information  about  some  of  the  men 
whose  words  and  deeds  have  earned  distinction  for  the  town. 
No  pretense  is  made  at  giving  full  genealogies  and  many  of  the 
biographical  sketches  are  regrettably  incomplete.  Omission 
of  much  that  might  properly  have  been  included  is,  of  course, 
one  of  the  inevitable  incidents  to  the  undertaking.  Acknowl- 
edgments are  made  to  Mr.  Harry  C.  Whitehill,  Senator 
William  P.  Dillingham  and  Mr.  O.  A.  Seabury  for  their 
effective  assistance  and  unwearied  interest  without  which  the 
work  could  not  have  been  accomplished.  Thanks  are  also 
due  the  members  of  the  staff  of  librarians  at  the  Waterbury 
Public  Library  and  the  Vermont  State  Library  for  their  help- 
ful courtesy.  Many  others  have  evinced  a  kindly  disposition 
to  assist  in  the  compilation  of  military  and  biographical  data; 
to  all  such  the  Editor  expresses  his  sense  of  obligation.  It  will 
be  apparent  that  material  in  many  instances  has  been  verified 
by  recourse  to  such  sources  as  Hemenway's  Gazetteer,  Child's 
Gazetteer  and  Thompson's  Vermont.  The  subscriber  takes 
this  occasion  to  hazard  the  remark  that  some  such  paraphrase 
as  "happy  is  the  town  that  has  no  history"  is  of  no  assistance 
to  one  attempting  utter  justice  to  Waterbury's. 

April  i-November  i,  191 5.  T.  G.  L. 


Chapter  I 

Aboriginal  Trails  —  Period  i 763-1 800  —  Introduction  —  Town 
Charter — Contemporaneous  Events  in  State  and  Nation — 
Survey — Geographical  Description — First  Settler,  James 
Marsh — Incredible  Hardships — Second  Settler,  Ezra  But- 
ler— Other  Early  Settlers  and  Holdings — First  Town  Or- 
ganization— Side  Lights  on  Town  Meetings — Farm  Loca- 
tions— Revolutionary  Soldiers 1-31 

Chapter  II 

Period  i  800-1 830 — Contemporaneous  National  and  State  Events 
— Local  Sentiment — Chittenden  County — Capital  Location 
Dispute — Act  Establishing  Capital  at  Montpelier — Presi- 
dential Electors — Church  Matters — Tax  Redemption  In- 
cident— Highways  and  Turnpikes — Amasa  Pride — Farms 
and  Families — Butler-Hovey  Controversy — Ezra  Butler's 
Political  Activities — Correspondence — War  of  18 12 — Gen- 
eral Peck — Sanders' Letter — Waterbury's  1812  Volunteers 
— Butler  in  Congress — Daniel  Webster's  Resolution — But- 
ler's Speech — Wells  Family — Calkins  Family — Kennan 
Family — Dan  Carpenter  and  Family — Calkins'  Reminis- 
censes — "Era  of  Good  Feeling" — State  under  M.  Chitten- 
den, Galusha,  Skinner  and  Van  Ness  Administrations — La- 
Fayette's  Visit — Governor  Butler's  Terms — Anti-Masonic 
Movement 33-62 

Chapter  III 

Period  i  830-1 850 — Contemporaneous  State  Political  Affairs — 
Henry  F.  Janes,  Postmaster — Mr,  Janes  in  Congress — 
Legislative  Lamentation — Leander  Hutchins — The  "Corner 
Store" — Harrison  &  Tyler  Campaign — Death  of  the  Presi- 
dent— Tyler's  Succession — Anti-Slavery  Convention — The 
Dillingham  Family — Deacon  Paul  Dillingham — Paul  Dil- 
lingham, Jr. — Political  Career — Saxe's  Poem — Mr.  Dilling- 
ham in  Congress — As  Lieutenant-Governor  and  Governor — 
Personal  Characteristics  —  Anecdotes  —  Luce  Family — 
Mexican  War — Mr.  Lucius  Peck  in  Congress — "The  Free 
Mountaineer" — Central  Vermont  Railway — License  Laws 
AND  Votes — Moody  Family — Chauncey  Lyon — Dr.  Thomas 
B.  Downer — John  D.  Smith  Family — Dr.  Will  F.  Minard — 
The  Henry  Family — Various  Families — Longevity 63-103 

Chapter  IV 

Period  i  850-1 875 — Population  and  Grand  List — Merchants  and 
Business — Town  Meetings — Pierce  Administration — Bio- 
graphical of  Warren  and  Parker — Politics — ^Alternation 



OF  Voting  Places,  Village  and  Center — Arch  Bridge — Mer- 
chants— Premonitions  of  Disunion —  Resume  of  Water- 
bury's  Votes — Abolition  Sentiment — Lincoln's  Early  Ad- 
ministration— First  Call  for  Troops — Waterbury's  Re- 
sponse— Representation  in  Various  Regiments — Different 
Battles — List  of  Commissioned  Officers — Non-Commis- 
sioned Officers — Privates — Action  at  Town  Meetings — 
General  Wells — General  Henry — Major  Dillingham — 
Colonel  Janes — March  of  Events — Readjustment  and  Re- 
construction— Presidential  Vote  in  1868 — Biographical — 
Post-Bellum  Memories — Business  in  Waterbury — Reca- 
pitulation of  Town  Vote 105-153 

Chapter  V 

Period  1876-1900 — Town,  Gubernatorial  and  Presidential  Elec- 
tions— Mount  Mansfield  Railroad  Appropriation — Colum- 
bian United  Electric  Franchise — Incorporation  of  the  Vil- 
lage in  1882 — First  Village  Officers — Tax  Rates — Street 
Lights — Water  Supply — Bond  Issue — Telephone  and  Tele- 
graph Franchises — New  Additions  to  Village — List  of  Vil- 
lage Officers  to  Date — Recapitulation  of  Improvements — 
First  Telephone — Senator  William  P.  Dillingham — Ver- 
mont State  Hospital — Dr.  Don  D.  Grout — Seabury  Family 
— Moses  Knight — Edwin  F.  Palmer — Dr.  Emory  G.  Hooker 
— George  W.  Randall — Other  Sketches — Waterbury  Rec- 
ord— Spanish  War — Century  End  Events 155-194 

Chapter  VI. 

Period  1900-1915 — Senator  Dillingham's  Election — Guberna- 
torial AND  Presidential  Votes — License  and  No-License 
Votes — Miscellaneous — R6sum6  of  Industrial  Life — Early 
Manufacturers — Town  Litigations — Various  Legislative 
Acts — Religious  History  and  Churches — The  Library 
Beginnings  and  Present  Condition — Horace  Fales  Fund — 
Biographical  Sketch  of  the  Fales  Family — Mark  Carter 
Canerdy's  Gift — Dr.  Henry  Janes'  Gift — Early  Efforts  at 
Securing  Public  Schools — Present  High  School — Water- 
bury Alumni  and  Students  from  the  State  Universities 
and  Colleges — Green  Mountain  Seminary — Women's  Clubs 
— Waterbury's  State  and  Federal  Officers — Town  Rep- 
resentatives—State Senators — Town  Clerks — Sheriffs — 
Banking  History — Professional  and  Business  Firms  of 
Today— Lodges,  Organizations,  etc. — Fire  Record— Soldiers' 
Monument — Conclusion 195-272 

Appendix — Memorial  Day  Address 273-286 


I 763-1 800 

The  site  of  the  town  of  Waterbury  lay  in  the  track  of  the 
murderous  French  officer,  Hertel  de  Rouville,  who  with  other 
French  officers  led  a  band  of  Indians  upon  an  expedition  of 
plunder  and  massacre  against  the  ill-fated  town  of  Deerfield, 
Massachusetts,  in  the  early  part  of  1704.  The  expedition 
came  down  from  Canada  by  the  way  of  Lake  Champlain. 
They  branched  ofT  at  the  mouth  of  the  Winooski  River  and 
followed  the  trail  of  that  river  through  its  peaceful  valley  until 
they  came  to  the  upper  waters  of  the  stream,  from  which  they 
again  branched  off  through  a  gap  in  the  Green  Mountains  and 
followed  the  White  River  Valley  until  they  debouched  upon 
the  Connecticut  River,  the  frozen  surface  of  which  served  as 
a  highway  directly  to  their  objective  point.  The  march  was 
made  by  easy  stages  until  at  length  they  reached  a  blufT  above 
the  doomed  town  and  prepared  for  their  unspeakable  orgy  of 
blood.  The  horrible  story  of  massacre,  pillage,  rapine  and 
burning  of  that  night  of  February  28  and  morning  of  the  29th 
is  familiar  to  every  New  England  school  boy.  What  is  not 
often  mentioned,  however,  is  the  main  object  of  the  expedition 
as  tradition  gives  it.  It  is  related  that  the  chief  purpose,  to 
which  other  plunder  and  captives  were  merely  incidental,  was 
to  recover  the  church  bell  from  the  Deerfield  Meeting  House. 
This  bell  was  said  to  have  been  taken  from  a  French  vessel  by 
a  Colonial  privateer  while  it  was  being  transported  to  its 
destination,  one  of  the  Catholic  churches  of  Canada.  On 
this  raid  the  340  French  and  Indians  secured  the  bell  and 
carried  it  back  to  Canada  by  the  same  route,  up  the  Connecti- 
cut, across  to  the  Winooski  headwaters  and  thence  down  the 
valley  repassing  the  site  of  Waterbury,  to  the  river's  mouth. 
The  bell  was  hung  in  the  Chapel  St  Regis  and  was  used  to  call 
the  Children  of  the  Faith  to  the  Jesuit  services  (3  Sylvester's 
Indian  Wars  of  New  England,  p.  54).     No  authentic  records 


are  extant  of  the  occupation  of  this  part  of  the  Winooski 
Valley  prior  to  the  date  of  the  coming  of  a  surveying  party  in 
1782.  As  the  river  valley  aflforded  a  natural  trail  to  Indian 
war  and  hunting  parties  passing  over  southeasterly  from  Lake 
Champlain  to  the  Connecticut,  there  is  little  likelihood  of  the 
region  ever  being  for  long  the  home  of  the  less  nomadic  off- 
shoots of  the  Iroquois  tribe  (well  known  to  have  had  a  bent 
for  agriculture  and  peaceful  pursuits),  lying  as  it  did  directly 
in  the  pathway  of  hostile  marauders.  To  be  sure,  here  and 
there  in  the  Winooski  Valley  are  evidences  of  aboriginal  efforts 
at  agriculture,  but  nothing  has  been  found  that  would  indicate 
a  prolonged  sojourn  in  the  region.  The  usual  earthenware 
vessels,  flint  arrow  heads,  axes,  pottery,  fire-stones,  and  even 
rudely  cultivated  corn  patches  and  sites  of  lodges  have  been 
encountered  just  as  they  are  found  almost  everywhere  in  the 
United  States.  There  are  Indian  earthworks  too,  now  and 
then,  and  burial  places.  We  are  told  with  great  circumstan- 
tiality the  story  of  the  tapped  maple  trees  on  the  Moss  place, 
and  the  theories  about  a  permanent  occupation  of  North  Hill 
by  the  Indians  as  evidenced  by  these  tapped  trees.  It  was 
not,  however,  until  after  the  Indian  mission  was  established, 
following  the  subjection  of  Canada  to  British  rule,  that  the 
Indians  in  this  part  of  Vermont  evinced  any  pronounced  desire 
for  a  domestic  or  sedentary  life.  In  scattered  villages  were 
a  few  on  both  the  Lamoille  and  Winooski  rivers  who  kept 
fowls  and  cattle.  It  is  stated  upon  no  less  an  authority  than 
Mr.  Joshua  Merriam  of  Waterbury  Center  that  the  hens  kept 
by  these  domesticated  Indians  were  marvelous  layers,  besides 
being  the  object  of  awe-struck  admiration  for  their  supernatural 
gifts  as  soothsayers.  "  It  was  a  type  of  these  hens, "  says  Mr. 
Merriam,  "that  crowed  near  Captain  Miller's  camp  during 
the  battle  (at  Plattsburg)  of  September  11,  1814,  and  Captain 
Miller  being  of  the  same  faith  had  those  hens  sent  back  near 
Montpelier  as  fatidic  fowls."  The  allusion,  of  course,  is  to 
the  crowing  of  a  hen  upon  the  mast  as  prophetic  of  victory  and 
the  particular  type  was  known  as  a  "buff  Coossuck."  Upon 
the  whole,  it  is  a  safe  inference  that  the  Winooski  Valley  was 
used  chiefly  by  the  Indians  as  a  highway  or  trail  way. 

PERIOD    1763-1800  3 

At  the  date  of  the  granting  of  the  royal  charter  by  George 
III  through  his  "Trusty  and  Well-beloved  Benning  Went- 
worth,  Esq."  to  "Our  loving  subjects,"  etc.,  on  the  7th  day  of 
June,  1763,  the  township  of  Waterbury  came  into  documen- 
tary existence,  though  its  municipal  and  civic  life  did  not 
begin  until  nearly  twenty-seven  years  later,  March  31st,  1790. 
That  the  phrase,  "our  loving  subjects,"  as  used  in  the  royal 
grant  was  merely  in  conformity  with  the  stilted  style  and 
grandiose  verbiage  of  kingly  usage  is  grimly  evidenced  by  the 
attitude  of  New  Englanders  and  other  colonists  at  the  date  of 
the  charter.  The  almost  absolute  isolation  of  this  region  at 
that  time  from  the  gathering  storm  between  the  Colonies  and 
England  was  sufficient  to  set  apart  this  geographical  portion  of 
what  later  became  the  State  of  Vermont  from  any  participation 
in  the  ante-revolutionary  doings  of  historical  interest,  but  the 
embers  of  discontent  and  rebellion  were  being  fanned  into 
flame  in  New  England  and  to  a  lesser  degree  even  in  New  York. 
It  was  as  if  Waterbury  town  were  segregated  with  others  in 
this  part  of  Vermont  from  the  eddies  and  whirlpools  of  insur- 
rection and  her  lovely  valleys,  hills  and  streams  preserved  in 
peace  for  the  important  part  in  the  building  of  a  common- 
wealth she  was  destined  to  play. 

Patrick  Henry  at  this  time  was  inflaming  the  people  of 
Virginia  in  the  famous  tobacco  cases  involving  the  royal  right 
of  veto  of  Colonial  acts,  wherein  "a  lowly  parson's  private 
right  was  obscured  by  the  gathering  shadow  of  a  public  wrong." 
James  Otis  in  Massachusetts  was  carrying  conviction  by  sheer 
force  of  logic  and  knowledge  of  government  and  law.  The 
"loving  subjects"  of  George  III  were  strangely  averse  to  his 
enforcement  of  navigation  laws  authorizing  arbitrary  seizures 
of  merchantmen,  the  imposition  of  direct  and  indirect  taxes 
for  the  raising  of  revenue  and  the  use  of  this  revenue  for  the 
maintenance  of  standing  armies  of  royal  troops  in  Massachu- 
setts. Such,  then,  was  the  outside  situation  when  the  charters 
of  Waterbury,  Burlington,  Colchester,  Essex,  Williston,  Bolton, 
Duxbury,  Moretown,  Jericho,  Underhill,  Middlesex  and  Berlin 
were  granted  by  Governor  Benning  Wentworth  at  Portsmouth, 
New  Hampshire,  the  then  seat  of  government  of  the  Grants. 


Following  a  general  policy  of  encouraging  settlement  by 
Connecticut  citizens  who  sought  to  transplant  pioneer  stock 
in  virgin  territory,  the  grant  of  land  for  Waterbury  township 
was  made  to  John  Stiles  and  sixty-five  other  individual  pro- 
prietors, nearly  all  of  Connecticut  and  New  Jersey,  in  the 
quaint    phraseology    following : 

waterbury  \  „  „ 

>  George  the  Third, 
p.s.        J 

By  the  Grace  of  God,  of  Great  Britain,  France  and  Ireland,  King,  De- 
fender of  the  Faith  ect. 
To  all  Persons  to  whom  these  Presents  shall  come,     Greeting. 

Know  ye.  That  We  of  our  special  Grace,  certain  Knowledge,  and  meer 
Motion,  for  the  due  Encouragement  of  settling  a  New  Plantation  within 
our  said  Province,  by  and  with  the  Advice  of  our  Trusty  and  Well-beloved 
Benning  Wentworth,  Esq;  Our  Governor  and  Commander  in  Chief  of  our 
said  Province  of  New  Hampshire,  in  New  England,  and  of  our  Council  of 
the  said  Province;  Have  upon  the  Conditions  and  Reservations  hereinafter 
made,  given  and  granted,  and  by  these  Presents,  for  us,  our  Heirs,  and 
Successors,  do  give  and  grant  in  equal  Shares,  unto  Our  loving  Subjects, 
Inhabitants  of  Our  said  Province  of  New  Hampshire,  and  Our  other  Govern- 
ments, and  to  their  Heirs  and  Assigns  forever,  whose  names  are  entred  on 
This  Grant,  to  be  divided  to  and  amongst  them  into  Seventy  two  equal 
Shares,  all  that  Tract  or  Parcel  of  Land  situate,  lying  and  being  within 
our  said  Province  of  New  Hampshire  containing  by  Admeasurement, 
23040  Acres,  which  Tract  is  to  contain  Six  Miles  square,  and  no  more;  out 
of  which  an  Allowance  is  to  be  made  for  High  Ways  and  unimprovable 
Lands  by  Rocks,  Ponds,  Mountains  and  Rivers,  One  Thousand  and  Forty 
Acres  free,  according  to  a  Plan  and  Survey  thereof,  made  by  Our  said 
Governor's  Order,  and  returned  into  the  Secretary's  Office,  and  hereunto 
annexed,  butted  and  bounded  as  follows.  Viz.  Beginning  at  the  South 
Easterly  corner  of  Bolton  on  the  Northerly  side  of  Onion  or  French  River, 
from  thence  Easterly  up  said  River  (&  bounding  on  the  same  so  far  as  to 
make  Six  Miles  on  a  streight  Perpendicular  Line,  with  the  Easterly  Line 
of  said  Bolton,  from  thence  Northerly  on  a  Parrallel  with  the  East  line  of 
Bolton  six  Miles,  from  thence  Westerly  about  six  Miles  to  the  North  East- 
erly Corner  of  said  Bolton,  from  thence  southerly  by  said  Bolton  East  line 
six  Miles  the  place  begun  at — And  that  the  same  be,  and  hereby  is  Incor- 
porated into  a  Township  by  the  name  of  Waterbury  And  the  inhabitants 
that  do  or  shall  hereafter  Inhabit  said  Township  are  hereby  declared  to  be 
Enfranchised  with  and  Intitled  to  all  and  every  the  Priviledges  and  Im- 
munities that  other  Towns  within  Our  Province  by  Law  Exercise  and  En- 
joy: And  further,  that  the  said  Town  as  soon  as  there  shall  be  Fifty 
Families  resident  and  settled  thereon,  shall  have  the  Liberty  of  holding 
Two  Fairs,  one  of  which  shall  be  held  on  the  And  the 

PERIOD    1 763-1 800  5 

other  on  the  annually  which  Fairs  are  not  to  continue 

longer  than  the  respective  following  the  said 

and  that  as  soon  as  the  said  Town  shall  consist  of  Fifty  Families, 
a  Market  may  be  opened  most  advantagious  to  the  Inhabitants.  Also, 
that  the  first  Meeting  for  the  Choice  of  Town  Officers,  agreable  to  the  Laws 
of  our  said  Province,  shall  be  held  on  the  20th  Day  of  July  next,  which  said 
Meeting  shall  be  Notified  by  Cap  Isaac  Woodruff  Jun'  who  is  hereby  also 
appointed  the  Moderator  of  the  said  first  Meeting  which  he  is  to  Notify 
and  Govern  agreable  to  the  Laws  and  Customs  of  our  said  Province,  and 
that  the  annual  Meeting  for  ever  hereafter  for  the  Choice  of  such  Officers 
for  the  said  Town,  shall  be  on  the  Second  Tuesday  of  March  annually.  To 
Have  and  to  Hold  the  said  Tract  of  Land  as  above  expressed,  together 
with  all  Privileges  and  Appurtenances,  to  them  and  their  respective  Heirs 
and  Assigns  forever,  upon  the  following  Conditions,  viz. 

I  That  every  Grantee,  his  Heirs  or  Assigns  shall  plant  and  cultivate 
five  Acres  of  Land  within  the  Term  of  five  Years  for  every  fifty  Acres  con- 
tained in  his  or  their  Share  or  Proportion  of  Land  in  said  Township,  and 
continue  to  improve  and  settle  the  same  by  additional  Cultivations,  on 
Penalty  of  the  Forfeiture  of  his  Grant  or  Share  in  the  said  Township  and 
of  its  reverting  to  Us,  our  Heirs  and  Successors,  to  be  by  Us  or  Them  Re- 
granted  to  such  of  Our  Subjects  as  shall  effectually  settle  and  cultivate  the 

II  That  all  white  and  other  Pine  Trees  within  the  said  Township,  fit 
for  Masting  Our  Royal  Navy,  be  carefully  preserved  for  that  Use,  and  none 
to  be  cut  or  felled  without  Our  special  Licence  for  so  doing  first  had  and 
obtained,  upon  the  Penalty  of  the  Forfeiture  of  the  Right  of  such  Grantee, 
his  Heirs  and  Assigns,  to  Us,  our  Heirs  and  Successors,  as  well  as  being 
subject  to  the  Penalty  of  any  Act  or  Acts  of  Parliament  that  now  are,  or 
hereafter  shall  be  Enacted. 

III  That  before  any  Division  of  the  Land  be  made  to  and  among  the 
Grantees,  a  Tract  of  Land  as  near  the  Centre  of  the  said  Township  as  the 
Land  will  admit  of,  shall  be  reserved  and  marked  out  for  Town  Lots,  one 
of  which  shall  be  allotted  to  each  Grantee  of  the  Contents  of  one  Acre. 

IV  Yielding  and  paying  therefor  to  Us,  our  Heirs  and  Successors  for 
the  space  of  ten  Years,  to  be  computed  from  the  Date  hereof,  the  Rent  of 
one  Ear  of  Indian  Corn  only,  on  the  twenty-fifth  Day  of  December  annually, 
if  lawfully  demanded,  the  first  Payment  to  be  made  on  the  twenty-fifth 
Day  of  December,  1763. 

V  Every  Proprietor,  Settler  or  Inhabitant,  shall  yield  and  pay  unto 
Us,  our  Heirs  and  Successors  yearly,  and  every  Year  forever,  from  and 
after  the  Expiration  of  ten  Years  from  the  above  said  twenty-fifth  Day  of 
December,  which  will  be  in  the  Year  of  Our  Lord  1773  One  shilling  Procla- 
mation Money  for  every  Hundred  Acres  he  so  owns,  settles  or  possesses, 
and  so  in  Proportion  for  a  greater  or  lesser  Tract  of  the  said  Land;  which 
money  shall  be  paid  by  the  respective  Persons  above  said,  their  Heirs  or 
Assigns,  in  our  Council  Council  Chamber  in  Portsmouth,  or  to  such  Officer 


or  Officers  as  shall  be  appointed  to  receive  the  same;  and  this  to  be  in  Lieu 
of  other  Rents  and  Services  whatsoever. 

In  Testimony  Whereof  we  have  caused  the  Seal  of  our  said  Province  to 
be  hereunto  affixed.  Witness  Benning  Wentworth,  Esq;  Our  Governor 
and  Commander  in  Chief  of  Our  said  Province,  the  Seventh  Day  of  June 
In  the  Year  of  Lord  Christ,  One  Thousand  Seven  Hundred  and  Sixty  three 
And  in  the  Third  Year  of  Our  Reign. 

B.  Wentworth. 
By  His  Excellency's  Command, 
With  Advice  of  Council, 
T.  Atkinson  Jun""  Sec'^y 
Prov*  of  New  Hamp'  June  7th  1763 
Recorded  According  to  the  Original  Charter  under  the  Pro''  Seal 

T  Atkinson  Jun'  Sec'' 


John  Stiles  Esq' 

Josiah  Crane 

Hezekiah  Thompson 

Jesse  Muir 

Abner  Frost 

Nathi  Potter 

Kennedy  Vance 

David  Ball 

Manen  Force 

Jeremiah  Mulford 

Joseph  Bagdly 

Sam'  Bedford 

jei-eah  Pangboon 

David  Baker 

Will"  Pierson 

Jon»  Dayton  3d 

Abra™  Rool 

Eben'  Price 

Ichabod  Deane 

Will™  Willcocks 

Hon*"'"  James  Nevin    | 

Jos'"  Newmarch  f  Esq" 

Nathi  Barren 

Jon*  Crane  Esq' 
John  Nixson 
Zophar  Squire 
David  Potter 
John  Dickinson 
Daniel  Bedford 
Joseph  Abbets 
Thomas  Gardner 
Charles  GiUam 
Thomas  Miller 
Nath'  Salmon 
Nath'  Wade 
Nath'  Baker 
Henry  Baker 
Will™  Pearson  Jun' 
Will"  Mills 
Thos.  Willis 
Jesse  Clark 
Elias  Bedford 
Patridge  Thatcher 
Meshech  Wear  Esq. 
John  Page  Esq' 
Cap'  Ezekiel  Worthen 

Isaac  Woodruff  Jun' 
Isaac  Roll 
John  Boyle 
David  Lacey 
Jonath"  Stiles 
James  Cory 
Will™  Connet 
James  Pufiosey 
James  Osborn 
Joseph  Osborn 
Steph"  Bedford 
James  Scudder 
David  Meeker  Jun' 
Daniel  Baker 
John  Meeker 
John  Mills 
Bernerdus  Van  Neste 
John  Marsh 
Benj»  Williams 
Sam'  Averill 

His  Excellency  Benning  Wentworth  Esq'  a  Tract  of  Land  to  Contain 
Five  Hundred  Acres  as  marked  B-W  in  the  plan  which  is  to  be  Accounted 
two  of  the  within  shares.  One  whole  Share  for  the  Incorporated  Society 
for  the  Propagation  of  the  Gospel  in  Foreign  Parts,  One  Share  for  a  Glebe 
for  the  Church  of  England  as  by  Law  Establish'd  one  Share  for  the  first 
settled  Minister  of  the  Gospel,  And  one  Share  for  the  benefit  of  a  school 
in  said  Town 

Province  of  New  Hamp'  June  7""  1763 

Recorded  According  to  the  Back  of  the  Original  Charter  of  Waterbury 
under  the  Pr°  Seal 

T  Atkinson  Jun'  Sec'^ 

PERIOD    1 763-1 800 

To  the  tract  described  in  the  charter  were  added  strips 
from  Bolton  and  Middlesex  which  became  annexed  to  Water- 
bury  under  the  Laws  of  1850  and  1851.  The  boundaries  of 
these  additions  were  described  in  the  following  Acts: 

So  much  of  the  town  of  Middlesex,  as  is  contained  in  lots  numbered 
fifty,  fifty-five,  fifty  six,  fifty-seven,  fifty  eight,  sixty-three  and  sixty  four, 
in  the  fourth  division,  and  lying  on  the  westerly  side  of  Hog-back  mountain,' 
and  so  much  of  the  undivided  land  in  said  Middlesex  as  lies  westerly  of  a 
line  commencing  at  the  most  south-Easterly  corner  of  the  aforesaid  lot 
number  sixty-four  and  running  south,  thirty  six  degrees  west,  and  parallel 
with  the  present  line  between  Waterbury  and  Middlesex  to  the  northerly 
line  of  the  Governor's  right,  so-called,  and  thence  on  the  northerly  line  of 
the  Governor's  right  to  Waterbury  line,  is  hereby  annexed  to  said  town  of 
Waterbury,  and  shall  hereafter  constitute  a  part  of  the  town  of  Water- 
bury, the  same  as  if  it  had  been  included  in  the  original  charter  thereof. 

[Approved  October  30,  1850,  Sess.  Laws  1850,  p.  46.] 

So  much  of  the  town  of  Bolton  in  the  county  of  Chittenden  as  is  here- 
inafter described,  to  wit:  beginning  on  the  north-Easterly  corner  of  lot 
number  one  hundred  and  nine  in  the  first  division;  thence  westerly  in  the 
northerly  line  of  lots  number  one  hundred  and  nine,  one  hundred  and  ten, 
one  hundred  and  eleven,  and  one  hundred  and  twelve  to  the  northwesterly 
Corner  of  said  lot  one  hundred  and  twelve;  thence  northerly,  in  the  west- 
erly line  of  lot  number  one  hundred  and  five,  and  the  other  lots  in  the  fourth 
tier  of  lots,  to  the  southerly  line  of  that  part  of  Stowe,  which  was  formerly 
Mansfield;  thence  easterly  in  the  southerly  line  of  said  Stowe,  to  the  cor- 
ner of  Waterbury;  thence  southerly  in  the  line  between  said  Bolton  and 
said  Waterbury,  to  the  northeasterly  corner  of  lot  number  one  hundred 
and  nine,  the  place  of  beginning,  is  hereby  annexed  to  the  town  of  Water- 
bury, in  the  county  of  Washington,  and  shall  hereafter  constitute  a  part 
of  the  town  of  Waterbury,  the  same  as  if  it  had  been  included  in  the  origi- 
nal charter  thereof.  Said  piece,  so  annexed  to  said  Waterbury,  contains 
forty-four  lots  of  land;  Provided,  the  rents  and  proceeds  of  lot  number 
ten  (back  lot)  and  lot  number  one  hundred  and  eight,  be  and  remain  pay- 
able to  the  town  of  Bolton,  in  the  same  manner  as  though  said  lots  had 
not  been  annexed  to  the  town  of  Waterbury. 

[Approved  October  30,  1851,  Sess.  Laws  1851,  p.  64.] 

The  next  date  of  importance  in  the  history  of  the  town  w£is 
May  10,  1770,  when  at  a  meeting  of  the  proprietors  in  New 
Milford,  Connecticut,  it  was  voted  to  lay  out  the  township 
by  survey;  this  meeting  was  adjourned  to  September  25,  1770, 
and  again  to  October  25,  1770,  at  Newark,  New  Jersey,  where, 
at  another  meeting,  November  15,  1770,  the  various  portions 
or  divisions  of  the  original  tract  granted  to  the  proprietors  were 


allotted  by  number.  Thereafter  there  were  meetings  of  the 
proprietors  April  13,  1773,  and  the  second  Tuesday  in  May, 
1773,  at  Kent,  Province  of  New  York  (now  Londonderry, 
Vermont),  at  which  a  second  division  or  apportionment  of  lots 
was  made.  Little  or  nothing  afifecting  Waterbury  as  a  town 
occurred  between  1773  and  the  close  of  the  Revolution,  but 
mention  must  be  made  of  the  alternate  ebbings  and  flowings 
of  the  fortunes  of  the  political  division  of  which  the  town  was 
soon  to  become  an  integral  part.  Pending  the  carrying  out 
of  the  plan  of  confederation,  the  Continental  Congress  was 
torn  with  sectional  strife  and  jealousy.  New  England  states, 
particularly  those  whose  land  grants  were  extensive,  were  the 
objects  of  many  bitter  attacks  of  a  polemic  and  forensic  kind ; 
these  emanated  for  the  most  part  from  southern  sources  but 
in  all  their  clashings  the  respective  adversaries  could  not  excel 
in  bitterness  those  doughty  protagonists  of  New  Hampshire 
and  New  York,  who  came  almost  to  sword's  points  over 
possession  of  the  Green  Mountain  Territory.  Not  quite  a 
year  after  the  Declaration  of  Independence  Vermont  petitioned 
the  Continental  Congress  to  be  admitted  as  a  state  into  the 
Union.  Then  began  a  series  of  backings  and  fillings;  the 
people  of  Vermont,  almost  at  the  point  of  fruition  of  their 
hopes  for  admission,  saw  them  dashed  to  earth  repeatedly; 
meanwhile  the  struggle  for  the  territory  west  of  the  Connecti- 
cut River  and  the  southwestern  part  of  what  is  now  Vermont 
waxed  furious;  New  York  had  been  and  remained  insistent 
upon  her  claim  to  what  was  then  called  the  New  Hampshire 
grants.  An  attempt  had  been  made  at  an  amicable  test  of 
title  to  the  disputed  territory  under  the  Bennington  grant  by 
Governor  Wentworth  in  pursuance  of  an  arrangement  with 
the  Royalist  Governor  of  New  York,  by  which  it  was  agreed 
that  no  further  grants  should  be  made  until  the  boundary 
question  then  pending  should  be  settled.  But  Governor 
Wentworth  continued  to  grant  charters,  so  that  by  the  end 
of  1763  he  had  chartered  one  hundred  thirty-eight  towns  all 
coming  under  the  political  power  of  New  Hampshire,  among 
which  was  the  township  grant  of  Waterbury.  The  claims  of 
New  York  Tories  and  the  counter-claims  of  settlers  holding 

PERIOD    1763-1800  9 

under  the  original  grants  in  resisting  regrants  continued  to 
vex  the  people,  even  during  the  Revolution,  until  over  forty 
years  had  elapsed  from  the  date  of  the  Bennington  charter  to 
a  final  settlement. 

Still  remote  from  the  stirring  scenes  that  were  being  enacted 
along  the  shores  of  Lake  Champlain  and  in  the  southern, 
southwestern  and  more  populous  parts  of  Vermont,  the  valley 
of  the  Winooski  remained  sparsely  settled,  and  the  valley  was 
peaceful  until  October,  1780,  when  a  band  of  three  hundred 
Indians,  bent  upon  the  capture  of  one  Whitcomb  at  Newbury, 
ascended  the  Winooski  River  from  Lake  Champlain.  Passing 
through  the  valley  and  probably  over  the  site  of  Waterbury, 
the  band  of  marauders  came  at  length  to  the  spot  where  Mont- 
pelier  now  stands;  through  the  representations  of  certain 
white  captives  the  Indians  were  diverted  from  their  original 
purpose  and  made  a  descent  upon  the  town  of  Royalton,  then 
a  thriving  settlement,  though  it  had  received  its  charter  only 
the  year  before.  After  killing  two  men  and  capturing  over  a 
score  of  prisoners,  they  put  women  and  children  to  flight, 
burned  the  village,  seized  and  drove  off  many  cattle  and  horses 
and  returned  on  their  way  to  Canada  through  the  Winooski 

The  first  survey  of  the  town  is  ascribed  to  Colonel  Partridge 
Thatcher  in  1782,  by  Reverend  C.  C.  Parker  in  his  discourse  of 
February  10,  1867.  Mr.  Thatcher  was  prominent  among  the 
original  proprietors  and  presided  at  their  meeting  in  New  Mil- 
ford,  Connecticut,  and  afterwards  at  Arlington.  The  beauti- 
ful tributary  of  the  Winooski  River,  known  as  Thatcher's 
Branch,  takes  its  name  from  the  pioneer  from  Connecticut  who 
built  his  surveyor's  camp  at  a  spot  in  the  rear  of  the  double 
tenement  building  now  owned  by  Thomas  O'Neill,  between 
the  branch  and  the  railway  line,  a  few  rods  northwest  of  the 
twin  bridges.  A  later  survey  on  record  in  the  Town  Clerk's 
office  in  Waterbury,  dated  in  1774,  is  there  attributed  to 
Jabez  Pritchard,  Isaac  Hitchcock,  William  Daviss,  Partridge 
Thacher  and  Paul  Averill,  in  which  the  last  four  men,  including 
Mr.  Thacher,  are  described  as  "Chain  Bearers,  Markers,  etc." 
A  copy  of  the  record  is  given  herewith: 



A  Survey  of  the  Township  of  Waterbury 

Lying  on  Onion  River,  A  Township  Lately  Granted  by  his  Excellency 
Benning  Wentworth  Esq'  Governor  of  The  Province  of  New  Hampshire 
Bounded  as  followeth:  Beginning  at  the  south  East  Corner  of  Bolton  on  the 
North  east  Bank  of  '^  River  from  thence  Run  North  36  Degrs  and  33 
East  six  Miles  by  said  Town  Numbring  each  Mile  as  was  run  then 
Beginning  at  the  aforesaid  Corner  at  the  River  and  runing  by  said  River 
untill  it  makes  six  Miles  on  a  Right  angle  from  the  aforesaid  Bolton  Line 
to  the  South  East  Corner  of  said  Waterbury  which  is  a  Pine  Tree  standing 
on  the  Bank  of  said  River  Marked  Jabez  Pritchard  Partridge  Thacher 
Dale  &c  from  thense  Running  six  Miles  on  a  Paralel  Line  with  the  first 
described  Line  Between  Bolton  and  Waterbury  Marking  Each  Number  of 
Miles  as  run  then  Proceeding  to  Lay  out  a  division  of  Land  of  one  Hundred 
acres.  Each  original  Right  Said  Division  Lying  in  the  Teer  of  Lots  being 
Twenty  four  Lots  in  Each  Teer  being  20  Chains  Wide  and  51  Chains  and 
50  Links  of  said  Length  Being  Allowed  For  highways  the  First  Teer  of 
Lots  Butting  on  a  ...  Running  Back  of  the  Entervail  said  Line 
Beginning  at  the  Town  Line  Between  Waterbury  &  Bolton  20  Chains  From 
the  River  runing  a  Right  Angle  from  said  Town  Line  Beginning  to  N°  the 
First  Teer  of  Lots  at  the  West  side  of  the  Intervail  Numbering  on  to  N°  24 
Each  Lot  being  Numbred  at  the  S.  E.  Corner  of  said  Lot  the  Second  Tear 
of  Lots  being  Numbred  at  the  North  East  Corner  of  said  Lots  beginning 
with  No.  25     .      .      .     East  Side  of  said  Town  and  so  on  in  succession 

48  The  Third  Teer  being  Numbered  at  the  South 
Corner  of  Each  Lot  begining  with  N°  49  so  on  through  said  Town  ending 
with  N°  72  Said  Work  was  done  in  the  year  1774. 
By  Jabez  Pritchard 



Chain  Bearers 
Markers  &c. 

Partridge  Thacher 
Isaac  Hitchcock 
William  Daviss 
Paul  Averill 
Recorded  by  Samuel  Averill  Jun'  Register. 

At  this  point  it  is  deemed  appropriate  to  advert  to  the  early 
geographical  divisions  of  the  town.  The  original  intention 
was  to  have  the  Waterbury  tract  six  miles  square  and  to  con- 
tain about  23,040  acres.  We  have  already  described  the 
annexations  from  Middlesex  on  the  east  and  Bolton  on  the 
west,  which,  of  course,  enlarged  that  first  tract.  A  survey 
was  made  in  three  divisions;  this  soon  gave  rise  to  confusion 
and  uncertainty  regarding  true  boundaries.  One  hundred 
acres  were  included  in  the  first  division  lots;  thirty-one  in  the 
second  and  one  hundred  and  twenty- four  in  the  third,  leaving 



2  Q 

O     <u 

PERIOD    1763-1800  II 

an  undivided  parcel  of  forty-seven  acres  to  each  right.  Recog- 
nizing the  value  of  river  land,  the  proprietors  evidently  had 
it  in  mind  to  set  ofT  to  each  right  an  interval  area  of  thirty-one 
acres  on  the  VVinooski.  With  this  in  view  they  started  with 
a  point  or  place  of  beginning  on  what  was  erroneously  taken  to 
be  the  east  line  of  Bolton  for  the  first  division.  The  river 
land  was  found  to  be  insufficient  when  the  second  division  was 
lined  out  and  the  other  small  lots  were  located  in  the  center 
part  of  the  town.  The  third  division  lay  north  of  the  first 
and  ran  nearly  to  the  Stowe  line;  the  Governor's  plot  (marked 
B.  W.)  of  five  hundred  acres  is  described  by  Mr.  H.  F.  Janes 
in  his  supplementary  paper  to  the  Parker  historical  sketch  as 
having  been  surveyed  in  the  southeast  corner  of  the  town; 
adjacent  to  this  was  one  portion  of  undivided  lands  and  the 
other  part  lay  between  the  third  division  and  the  south 
Stowe  line.  The  mistake  of  the  surveyor  of  the  first  division 
consisted  in  taking  in  the  width  of  two  Middlesex  lots  when 
he  sought  a  place  of  beginning.  This  error  with  others  was 
subsequently  rectified  but  the  falls  which  are  located  in  the 
territory  of  Waterbury  properly  and  should  be  known  as 
Winooski  Falls  were  always  known  as  Bolton  Falls. 

The  town  is  bounded  on  the  south  by  the  Winooski  River. 
This  beautiful  stream  is  broken  by  the  falls  three  miles  below 
the  village  and  is  described  in  Thompson's  Gazetteer  of  Ver- 
mont as  having  worn  "a  channel  through  the  rocks,  which,  in 
times  past,  undoubtedly  formed  a  cataract  of  no  ordinary 
height  below,  and  a  considerable  lake  above.  The  chasm  is 
at  present  about  one  hundred  feet  wide  and  nearly  as  deep. 
On  one  side  the  rocks  are  nearly  perpendicular,  some  of  which 
have  fallen  across  the  bed  of  the  stream  in  such  a  manner  as 
to  form  a  bridge,  passable,  however,  only  at  low  water.  On 
the  same  side  the  rocks,  which  appear  to  have  been  loosened 
and  moved  by  the  water,  have  again  rested  and  become  fixed 
in  such  a  position  as  to  form  several  caverns  or  caves,  some  of 
which  have  the  appearance  of  rooms  fitted  for  the  convenience 
of  man." 

The  water  power  was  first  utilized  for  saw  mill  purposes  by 
Benjamin  Palmer  who  built  a  dam  and  erected  a  mill.  This 
was  afterwards  carried  away  by  a  flood. 


A  lesser  stream  is  the  Waterbury  River,  flowing  from  its 
source  in  Morristown  in  a  southerly  direction  through  Stowe 
and  the  westerly  part  of  Waterbury  until  it  debouches  into 
the  Winooski  one  mile  below  town. 

Thatcher's  Brook,  or  Branch,  has  its  source  in  Stowe  and 
nearly  divides  Waterbury  in  two  parts  emptying  into  the 
Winooski  at  the  northwesterly  end  of  the  village,  flowing 
through  lands  owned  by  Doctor  Henry  Janes,  at  his  death. 
This  stream  has  been  mentioned  as  having  taken  its  name  from 
one  of  the  surveying  party.  The  name  was  indifferently  spelled 
"Thacher"  and  "Thatcher"  in  the  early  records.  In  Stowe 
is  also  the  source  of  Alder  Brook  which  empties  into  the  Water- 
bury River  near  where  the  Free  Will  Baptist  Meeting  House 
stands.  Saw  mills  and  factories  of  various  kinds  were  located 
on  this  brook.  The  stream  has  a  precipitous  descent  at  the 
picturesque  falls.  Other  streams  on  which  mills  have  been 
erected  at  different  times  are  Cotton  Brook  and  Ricker's 

The  general  contour  of  the  township  is  suggestive  of  an 
oblong  amphitheater,  situated,  as  it  is,  in  the  beautiful  vale 
or  depression  between  the  Green  Mountain  Range  on  the  west 
and  the  mountainous  spur  on  the  east  called  the  Hogbacks. 
The  soil  is  all  tillable  in  the  valleys  and  peculiarly  adapted  to 
grazing  purposes  on  the  uplands.  Roughly  speaking,  as  has 
been  indicated,  the  town  is  bounded  on  the  north  by  Stowe, 
east  by  Middlesex,  south  by  the  Winooski  River  and  west  by 
Bolton  and  lies  in  longitude  4''  17'  and  latitude  44°  23'. 

In  nearly  every  instance  the  immediate  grantees  from 
Benning  Wentworth  were  not  bona  fide  settlers  on  the  tracts 
covered  by  the  grants;  for  the  most  part  they  were  land  specu- 
lators who  parted  with  their  rights  to  those  who  assumed  the 
burdens  of  pioneering  with  the  titles  they  purchased.  Of 
course  there  were  many  instances  of  the  chain  of  title  passing 
through  several  grantees  before  it  reached  one  willing  to  face 
the  perils  and  hardships  of  an  unbroken  wilderness.  Such  a 
person  was  the  first  settler  of  Waterbury,  James  Marsh,  a 
native  of  New  Canaan,  Connecticut,  whose  early  struggles 
and   almost  superhuman  endurance   in   his  battle  with   the 

PERIOD    1 763-1800  13 

wilderness  have  already  been  made  the  subject  of  a  thrilling 
and  pathetic  narrative  by  the  gifted  clergyman,  Reverend 
C.  C.  Parker,  in  his  discourse  on  the  early  history  of  Water- 
bury.  Indeed,  this  mention  of  James  Marsh's  share  in  the 
settlement  of  Waterbury  is  made  with  great  hesitation  in  the 
light  of  the  simple  but  soul-stirring  account  of  Mr.  Parker. 

That  James  Marsh  was  of  the  best  quality  of  pioneer  timber 
is  attested  by  his  early  experiences  as  a  trooper  in  the  French 
wars.  Ever  alert  for  seasoned  veterans  who  knew  how  to 
fight  and  endure,  the  drafting  officers  for  the  Colonists  marked 
him  as  their  prey  in  the  early  days  of  the  Revolution.  Having 
removed  with  his  family  from  Canaan  to  Cornwall,  Connecti- 
cut, he  found  that  his  wife's  enfeebled  condition  and  his  large 
family  of  children  of  tender  years  required  his  personal  care 
and  attention;  doubtless  thinking  that  his  previous  military 
service  had  gained  for  him  the  right  to  turn  his  attention 
to  the  needs  of  his  family,  he  sold  his  home  in  Canaan  and 
hired  ds  a  substitute,  for  $100,  a  man  to  respond  in  his  place 
and  stead  to  a  call  for  minute  men.  Then  to  put  himself 
beyond  the  reach  of  the  draft,  he  sold  his  Cornwall  place 
and  purchased,  rather  too  hurriedly  it  would  seem,  a  right 
of  land  in  Bath,  New  Hampshire,  and  one  in  Waterbury, 
Vermont,  in  1780,  this  latter  from  a  Mr.  Steele  whose  name 
does  not  appear  in  the  list  of  original  proprietors  but  whose 
title  was  derived  from  some  one  in  that  list.  Leaving  Corn- 
wall with  his  family,  Mr.  Marsh  proceeded  to  Bath,  New 
Hampshire,  where  he  remained  long  enough  to  discover  that 
his  title  to  his  land  purchase  there  was  defective.  Upon  the 
assurances  of  others  who  professed  to  be  willing  to  begin  a 
settlement  in  Waterbury,  Marsh  again  braved  the  uncer- 
tainties of  a  new  move  and  came  to  the  site  of  Waterbury 
in  the  spring  of  1783  and  selected  his  holding,  cleared  a  plot 
of  ground  on  the  northerly  slope  of  what  is  now  the  cemetery, 
extending  toward  the  river,  and  planted  it  to  corn.  He 
returned  and  awaited  the  ripening  of  his  crop,  which  he 
gathered  on  a  second  visit  in  the  fall,  storing  it  in  a  roughly 
built  corn  crib  against  his  needs  for  the  following  year.  Mind- 
ful of  his  family's  dependence  he  brought  his  wife  and  eight 


children  with  him,  in  the  early  part  of  1784,  as  far  as  the 
fort  at  Corinth,  where  he  left  Mrs.  Marsh  and  five  children 
for  the  time,  while  he  with  two  young  sons  and  a  daughter 
proceeded  to  his  holding  in  Waterbury.  This  journey  was 
made  on  snowshoes  under  extraordinary  difficulties ;  what 
with  the  care  of  the  three  children  and  the  labor  of  hauling 
sufficient  provisions  for  the  journey  on  a  hand  sled,  the  sturdy 
pioneer's  task  might  easily  have  daunted  the  spirit  of  a  stronger 
and  younger  man. 

Upon  his  arrival  he  took  his  children  and  what  was  left 
of  his  provisions  to  the  Thatcher  cabin,  which  the  surveying 
party  had  erected  for  temporary  use  two  years  before.  After 
a  life  of  hardships,  laboring  under  a  burden  of  poverty  inci- 
dental to  his  wanderings,  ever  mindful  of  his  duty  as  a  father 
and  husband,  the  prospect  of  a  fixed  place  of  abode,  however 
humble,  must  have  cheered  the  heart  of  the  lonely  settler, 
when  suddenly  he  was  confronted  by  the  paralyzing  fact 
that  his  small  store  of  corn,  so  carefully  harvested  and  hoarded 
on  his  last  visit,  had  nearly  all  disappeared.  Having  relied 
upon  this  store  to  eke  out  temporarily  a  scanty  sustenance 
for  himself  and  his  family,  he  had  provided  for  little  more 
than  was  sufficient  for  his  needs  on  his  journey.  His  immediate 
necessities  he  managed  to  relieve  precariously  by  hunting 
and  fishing;  no  grain  was  to  be  had  nearer  than  Corinth, 
about  thirty  miles  away  over  a  rough  and  dangerous  trail. 

In  his  dilemma  Marsh  set  about  laying  in  a  week's  store 
of  provisions  from  hunting  and  fishing;  after  working  on  his 
clearing  and  replanting  his  crop  from  his  scanty  supply  of 
seed,  he  set  out  to  return  to  Corinth  for  the  other  members 
of  the  family,  leaving  alone  his  son,  Elias,  aged  fifteen,  his 
daughter  Irene,  of  twelve,  and  James,  a  small  boy.  Incredible 
as  it  now  seems,  such  absences  of  their  elders  were  not  un- 
usual in  the  days  when  self-reliance  was  the  heritage  of  all 
children  of  the  wilderness.  The  story  runs  that  the  week's 
supply  of  provisions  had  been  too  nicely  calculated  and  the 
week  end  brought  with  it  an  end  of  available  food  for  the 
three  growing  youngsters.  As  if  to  vindicate  their  father's 
judgment  in  their  self-reliance,  the  children  started  for  the 

PERIOD    1763-1800  15 

falls  to  catch  fish  for  food ;  in  attempting  to  cross  Waterbury 
River  on  a  pole  of  buttonwood,  little  Irene  lost  her  balance  and 
fell  into  the  river,  whence  she  was  rescued  by  her  two  brothers. 
For  a  week  the  brave  youngsters  subsisted  on  what  wild 
vegetables  they  could  find  and  finally  started  for  the  home  of 
Mr.  Jesse  McFairlane,  near  Richmond,  thirteen  miles  north- 
west of  the  Marsh  holding.  The  wonderful  courage  and  en- 
durance of  the  children  of  the  wilds  has  been  made  the  subject 
of  many  a  household  talk  with  the  youngsters  of  Waterbury 
and  the  grown-ups,  as  well.  The  tale  of  how  they  met  a  bear 
on  this  memorable  journey,  how  their  faithful  hunting  dog  that 
had  shared  their  hardships  put  the  huge  beast  to  flight  and 
how,  after  a  long  weary  tramp  without  food,  they  came  at  last 
to  a  haven  of  rest,  safety  and  plenty,  in  the  home  of  Mr.  Mc- 
Fairlane has  been  told  and  retold  and  still  remains  ever  new. 

Meanwhile  the  elder  Marsh  had  arrived  at  Corinth  and 
attempted  an  immediate  removal  of  his  wife  and  the  remain- 
ing members  of  the  family  to  Waterbury,  but  was  obstructed 
by  delays  of  various  kinds  so  that  three  weeks  elapsed  before 
the  family  was  able  to  make  a  start.  Meanwhile  the  father 
was  desperately  frantic  with  anxiety  for  the  safety  of  those  he 
had  left  alone — an  anxiety  that  gave  way  to  despair  when, 
upon  arriving  at  the  surveyor's  cabin  in  Waterbury,  he  found 
it  empty  and  deserted  and  no  signs  of  recent  occupancy  visible. 
A  prey  to  the  most  poignant  distress,  the  unhappy  father  dis- 
patched a  youth,  who  had  returned  with  his  party  from  Corinth, 
to  the  McFairlane  farm  on  the  bare  chance  of  learning  some- 
thing about  the  children ;  the  finding  of  the  children  in  a  place 
of  safety  tenderly  cared  for,  the  joyous  return  and  the  affecting 
family  reunion  in  the  rude  cabin  near  Thatcher's  Branch,  all 
combine  to  round  out  the  rough  epic  of  the  early  attempts  at 
settlement  in  Waterbury. 

But  James  Marsh  was  not  destined  long  to  be  favored  of 
Fortune ;  the  problem  of  subsistence  for  those  dependent  upon 
him  was  ever  uppermost;  obliged  to  wait  for  the  harvest  of 
his  corn  crop  before  Indian  meal  could  be  ground,  the  family 
lived  on  what  wild  onions  could  be  found  growing  in  the 
vicinity,  while  Marsh  was  beating  the  woods  and  fishing  the 


streams  for  food ;  now  and  then  a  chance  moose,  buck  or  bear 
would  be  added  to  the  larder.  What  time  could  be  spared 
from  the  providing  of  food  was  devoted  to  the  building  of  a 
log  house  on  the  site  already  cleared,  which  is  described  by 
Mr.  Parker  as  "a  little  to  the  west  of  the  grave  yard  hill"; 
after  the  permanent  home  had  been  erected,  the  family  moved 
in  and  began  preparations  for  the  coming  winter.  One  can 
imagine  the  glow  of  hope  that  warmed  the  breast  of  James 
Marsh  when  he  observed  that  his  corn  crop  raised  on  the  river 
bottom  land  promised  to  be  bountiful ;  nor  need  the  imagina- 
tion be  strained  at  the  luckless  man's  discouragement  when  a 
sudden  flood  rendered  useless  all  but  twenty  bushels  of  the 
corn  that  promised  so  well. 

By  dint  of  taking  such  spoils  of  the  hunt  as  moose,  deer 
and  bear,  and  fish  from  the  streams,  the  Marsh  family  kept 
starvation  at  bay,  though  the  problem  of  getting  grain  for 
bread  was  ever  present.  At  times  it  was  possible  to  exchange 
bear,  deer  and  beaver  skins  for  grain  in  the  distant  settlements 
of  Jericho,  Williston  and  Richmond.  With  the  arrival  of  the 
spring  of  1785  the  loneliness  and  isolation  of  the  Marsh  family 
was  greatly  lessened  by  the  coming  of  another  hardy  settler 
who  was  the  second  in  order  of  arrival.  The  name  of  this 
second  settler  was  Ezra  Butler,  a  man  destined  to  stamp  him- 
self indelibly  on  the  history  of  Waterbury  and  Vermont. 
Mr.  Butler,  however,  did  not  remain  very  long  on  the  occasion 
of  his  first  visit  before  returning  whence  he  came  to  remain 
until  the  following  spring  of  1786,  at  which  time  he  again 
returned  to  Waterbury.  An  interval  of  one  year  and  a  half 
elapsed  before  another  and  third  settler,  Mr.  Caleb  Munson, 
joined  the  infant  colony. 

With  the  arrival  of  Mr.  Munson  and  his  family  ends  the 
sombre  chronicle  of  the  ill-starred  James  Marsh.  Overjoyed 
as  he  was  at  the  prospect  of  Mr.  Munson's  coming,  Marsh 
went  to  the  settlement  of  Richmond  to  meet  and  escort  his 
new  neighbor  to  his  home  site,  March  29,  1788;  he  crossed  the 
river  to  the  home  of  a  Mr.  Brownson  for  the  purpose  of  re- 
molding some  pewter  spoons;  waiting  until  nightfall,  he 
attempted  to  recross  the  river  then  filled  with  floating  ice- 

PERIOD    1 763-1800  17 

cakes,  only  to  fall  into  an  open  space  and  drown.  Upon  the 
recovery  of  his  body  several  days  later,  the  funeral  and  burial 
was  held  at  Richmond.  It  was  as  if  James  Marsh  had  been 
marked  out  as  the  sport  and  plaything  of  a  malign  influence, 
diabolical  in  ingenuity  and  remorseless  in  purpose.  No  sooner 
had  the  possibilities  of  a  permanent  settlement  in  his  wilder- 
ness began  to  assume  actual  form  than  he  was  removed  from 
the  scene  of  his  hardly  won,  puny  success.  The  part  James 
Marsh  played  in  the  history  of  the  town  is  valuable,  not  only 
because  he  happened  to  be  the  first  settler  but  also  for  the  evi- 
dence it  furnishes  of  the  unconquerable  spirit  which,  left  un- 
dismayed in  the  face  of  almost  insuperable  obstacles,  still 
animated  the  pioneers  of  those  days  and  remains  to  us  as  an 
example  of  self-reliance,  persistence,  industry  and  courage. 

The  building  of  a  new  community  involves  something  more 
than  mere  physical  endurance  and  capacity  for  gruelling  toil; 
it  brings  out  whatever  latent  powers  of  leadership  may  be 
possessed  by  the  builders.  It  is  no  small  task  to  reduce  to 
something  like  an  orderly  system  the  government  of  the  smallest 
hamlet,  and  yet  this  task  must  be  undertaken  from  the  sheer 
necessity  conditions  impose.  The  town  of  Waterbury  was 
fortunate  in  having  in  the  person  of  its  second  settler,  Ezra 
Butler,  a  veritable  tower  of  strength;  indeed,  the  first  fifty- 
three  years'  record  of  the  town's  life  has  to  do  largely  with  the 
sayings  and  doings  of  this  remarkable  man,  directly  or  indi- 

Mr.  Butler,  though  a  native  of  Worcester  County,  Massachu- 
setts, spent  his  early  life  in  West  Windsor,  Vermont,  and 
Claremont,  New  Hampshire.  He  was  born  in  the  town  of 
Lancaster,  Worcester  County,  Massachusetts,  the  fifth  of 
seven  children,  to  Asaph  and  Jane  (McAllister)  Butler,  Sep- 
tember 24,  1763,  just  three  months  and  seventeen  days 
after  the  date  of  the  charter  of  Waterbury.  Before  Ezra 
Butler  had  completed  his  seventh  year,  his  father  brought 
his  family  to  West  Windsor,  Vermont;  shortly  afterwards  his 
mother  died  and  he  went  to  live  with  the  family  of  his  eldest 
brother,  Joel,  with  whom  he  spent  about  seven  years.  At  the 
age  of  fourteen  young  Butler's  business  in  life  began  in  earnest; 


according  to  the  custom  then  widely  prevalent  he  "  bound  him- 
self out,"  or  became  an  apprentice  under  a  formal  indenture  of 
apprenticeship  to  Doctor  Thomas  Sterne  of  Claremont,  New 
Hampshire,  "to  learn  the  art,  trade  and  mystery  of  a  hus- 
bandman." An  indenture  in  those  days  was  a  legal  instru- 
ment written  in  duplicate,  the  line  of  division  of  whose  parts 
was  literally  "indented";  both  parts  were  signed  by  the  parties 
to  the  agreement  and  duly  exchanged.  The  text  of  the  instru- 
ment under  which  Ezra  Butler  served  as  an  apprentice  is 
given  here  as  throwing  a  vivid  side  light  on  the  obligations  of 
a  person  so  bound  to  his  master,  who,  on  his  side,  undertook 
to  stand  in  loco  parentis  in  many  respects  to  the  other  party  to 
the  agreement: 

This  Indenture  Witnesseth  that  Ezra  Butler  a  minor  aged  fourteen  years 
years*  the  twenty  forth  day  of  September  last,  son  of  Asaph  Butler  of 
Wethersfield  in  the  county  of  Cumberland  in  the  State  of  New  York  other- 
wise called  the  State  of  Vermont  .  .  .  hath  put  himself  and  by  these 
presents  doth  voluntarily  and  of  his  own  free  will  and  accord  and  with  the 
Consent  of  his  said  Father  the  said  Asaph  Butler  put  and  bind  himself  as 
apprentice  to  Thomas  Sterne  of  Claremont  in  the  County  of  Cheshire  in 
the  State  of  New  Hampshire  Physician  to  learn  the  art,  trade  and  mystery 
of  a  husbandman  &  with  him  the  said  Thomas  Sterne  his  executors  or 
administrators  after  the  manner  of  an  apprentice  to  serve  from  the  said 
twenty  forth  day  of  September  last  for  and  During  the  Term  of  seven  years 
from  thence  next  insuing  to  be  compleat  and  Ended:  During  all  which 
Term  the  said  Apprentice  his  s**  master  faithfully  shall  serve,  his  secrets  keep 
and  lawfull  commands  everywhere  Gladly  Obey.  He  shall  do  no  Damage 
to  his  said  Master  nor  suffer  it  to  be  done  by  Others,  without  letting,  or 
giving  notice  thereof  to  him  the  s<*  Thomas  Sterne,  he  shall  not  waste  the 
Goods  of  his  said  master  nor  lend  them  unlawfully  to  any.  He  shall  not 
Commit  fornication,  nor  Matrimony  contract  within  the  said  term.  At 
cards,  dice  or  any  other  unlawfull  Game  he  shall  not  play:  He  shall  not 
absent  himself  by  Day  or  by  Night  from  the  service  of  his  said  master 
without  his  Leave;  nor  haunt  Ale  Houses,  Taverns  or  play  Houses  but  in 
all  things  behave  himself  as  a  faithfull  Apprentice  ought  to  do  towards 
his  said  master  and  all  his,  during  said  Term.  And  the  said  Thomas  Sterne, 
for  himself,  his  executors  and  administrators  doth  hereby  covenant  and 
Promise  to  Teach  &  instruct,  or  cause  the  said  Apprentice  to  be  taught  «& 
instructed  in  the  trade,  art  &  Business  of  Husbandry  by  the  best  way  or 
means  he  may  or  can  (if  said  Apprentice  be  capable  to  learn)  and  to  find  & 
provide  unto  said  apprentice  good  and  sufficient  meat,  Drink,  Washing  and 
lodging  &  apparril  (and  in  sickness  medicine  &  attendance)  and  Teach  him 
to  read,  write  &  Cypher  so  as  to  transact  Common  business  among  men 

PERIOD    1763-1800  19 

during  s"*  Term:  And  at  the  Expiration  thereof  to  give  unto  the  said  Ap- 
prentice Two  suites  of  apparrel  for  all  parts  of  his  Body,  One  of  them  to  be 
suitable  for  Lord's  Day:  and  also  to  pay  unto  the  said  apprentice  so  much 
lawfull  money  (then  passing)  as  shall  be  equal  in  value  to  sixty  ounces  Troy 
■weight  of  Silver;  or  otherways  as  shall  be  Equivalent  to  Eighty  Bushels,  of 
good  Merchantable  Wheat  at  the  price  it  shall  then  be  Comonly  sold  at. 
In  Testimony  whereof  the  Parties,  to  these  presents  have  interchangeably 
set  their  hands  and  seals  the  Ninth  day  of  July  Anno  Domini  1778 

(sgd.)     T.  Sterne  {  Seal  \ 
Sign^  Sealed  &  Delv<*  in  presence  of 
*allowing  that  he  began  his  service  from  s'd 
twenty  forth  Day  of  September,  this  wrote 
before  signing  &  sealing. 
Seth  Lewis 
James  Goodwin 

Indorsed:  "  December  31st  1784.  this  may  certify  that  we  the  Subscrib- 
ers have  settled  all  matters  relative  to  the  Indenture  and  all  accounts  to 
this  Day." 

(sgd)    T.  Sterne. 

Ezra  Butler. 

It  appears  from  the  indenture  and  the  indorsement  thereon 
that  his  formal  term  of  service  was  about  seven  years  and 
three  months;  Mr.  Parker's  sketch  refers  to  a  period  of  six 
months  during  this  term  when  the  young  apprentice  served  in 
the  Revolutionary  army  and  says  that,  but  for  this  interval,  he 
continued  with  Doctor  Sterne  until  he  came  of  age.  Leaving 
the  service  of  Doctor  Sterne,  young  Mr,  Butler,  after  a  few 
months  spent  in  Weathersfield,  started  with  his  brother  Asaph 
for  Waterbury  in  March,  1785.  The  first  part  of  the  journey 
was  made  with  a  team  of  oxen  as  far  as  the  home  of  Judge 
Paine  of  Williamstown,  the  remainder  on  snowshoes  with  a 
handsled  to  carry  their  necessary  outfit.  Arriving  at  Water- 
bury  on  the  20th  of  March,  they  were  warmly  greeted  by  the 
Marsh  family  whose  nearest  neighbor  for  two  years  had  been 
Thomas  Mead  in  Middlesex,  seven  miles  away.  Allowing  no 
precious  time  to  elapse  the  young  brothers  set  about  the 
business  of  home-making.  They  selected  a  plot  of  ground, 
suitable  to  their  purpose,  probably  without  much  thought 
as  to  the  validity  of  its  title. 

After  clearing  the  ground  and  putting  in  a  planting  of  corn, 
they  returned  to  their  former  home  in  Weathersfield  where 


Ezra  Butler  was  married,  in  June  of  that  year,  to  Miss  Try- 
phena  Diggins.  The  newly  married  pair  came  to  Waterbury 
shortly  after  the  wedding,  making  the  trip  and  carrying 
necessary  household  utensils  on  horseback.  It  is  easy  to 
understand  what  uncertainties  attended  the  slipshod  methods 
of  conveyancing  in  those  early  days ;  defective  land  titles  were 
the  rule  rather  than  the  exception,  as  the  unfortunate  James 
Marsh  had  found,  and  as  Ezra  Butler  discovered  with  reference 
to  his  original  selection.  Mr.  Butler's  brother,  Asaph,  having 
settled  for  himself  in  Richmond,  was  no  longer  able  to  assist 
in  the  selection,  clearing  and  improving  a  new  home  site. 
This  time  Mr.  Butler  picked  out  a  plot  situated  on  the  right- 
hand  side  of  the  main  road  near  the  present  residence  of  Mr. 
George  Wells,  at  the  base  of  the  hill,  on  what  is  now  the 
Burlington  road. 

Here  to  his  log  cabin  he  brought  his  wife  and,  with  his 
meager  effects,  took  possession  in  September,  1786.  This 
last  property  remained  his  home  for  the  rest  of  his  life  and 
somprised  a  tract  including  that  afterwards  owned  by  the 
ctate  for  the  purposes  of  a  Reform  School,  as  well  as  the  land 
on  which  Doctor  Henry  Janes  lived  and  died.  The  whole  tract 
was  divided  after  Ezra  Butler's  death,  the  portion  farthest 
northwesterly  going  to  Russell  Butler  and  that  nearest  the 
village  to  Mrs.  Henry  F.  Janes. 

The  first  framed  house  built  in  Waterbury  was  erected  by 
Ezra  Butler;  the  building  still  stands  with  its  steep  roof  and 
central  chimney  designed  to  furnish  open  fireplaces  for  four 
rooms,  a  few  rods  to  the  southeast  of  Mr.  Butler's  first  home- 
site.  For  many  years  it  was  occupied  by  Mr.  Russell  Butler, 
afterwards  by  Deacon  Parker,  and  now  by  George  Wells. 
Here  was  born  Polly  Butler,  the  first  white  child  in  Waterbury, 
October  23,  1788.  The  tale  of  the  days  of  the  first  three  years 
of  Mr.  Butler's  residence  in  his  new  home  was  nearly  identical 
with  that  of  the  Marsh  family;  there  were  the  same  insistent 
problems  of  subsistence;  there  was  the  same  monotonous 
round  of  toil  and  hardship;  there  were  the  same  dangers  of 
isolation,  Ijut  with  all  these  there  was  the  exultation  of  a  strong 
man  who  has  tangible  evidence  of  his  prowess  in  accomplished 


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PERIOD    1 763-1 800  21 

The  next  important  date  in  order  is  the  year  1790,  when 
a  warrant  was  issued  to  Ezra  Butler  to  convoke  a  meeting  of 
freemen  to  perfect  the  town  organization  of  Waterbury,  at 
which  he  was  chosen  as  town  clerk  in  March,  1790.  Mean- 
while, Vermont  had  undergone  certain  vital  governmental 
changes.  The  Revolution  had  ended  in  1783,  the  year  of 
Marsh's  advent  to  Waterbury.  Approximately,  the  period 
of  state  incubation  was  from  1776  to  1791 ;  the  new  common- 
wealth had  passed  successively  through  the  travail  of  a  decla- 
ration of  independence,  the  adoption  of  a  constitution,  the 
election  of  state  officers  and  the  long-desired  adjustment  of 
the  rival  claims  of  New  Hampshire,  Massachusetts  and  New 
York,  to  Green  Mountain  territory.  Nationally,  the  Articles 
of  Confederation  of  the  thirteen  original  states  had  been 
replaced  by  the  Constitution  of  1789,  and  the  Federal  Congress 
declared  finally  on  the  i8th  of  February,  1791,  that  on  the 
4th  of  March,  next  ensuing,  Vermont  should  be  admitted  "as 
a  new  and  entire  member  of  the  United  States  of  America." 
Thomas  Chittenden  had  served  as  governor  since  1778,  first 
as  chief  executive  of  the  independent  state,  and  after  1791 
continuing  as  the  head  of  the  new  member  of  the  Federal 
family  of  states  until  his  resignation  in  1797.  The  civic 
birth  of  Waterbury,  then,  occurred  in  1790,  the  year  before 
Vermont's  admission  to  the  Union,  and  during  Governor 
Chittenden's  administration.  Up  to  and  including  the  year 
1799,  the  name  of  Ezra  Butler  appears  successively  in  the 
town  records  in  one  or  another  official  capacity,  and  always 
in  connection  with  some  local  movement  for  growth  and 

The  town  started  its  municipal  life  with  Richard  Holden, 
Caleb  Munson  and  E.  Butler  as  the  first  selectmen, 
Munson  serving  as  treasurer,  Elias  Marsh,  son  of  James 
Marsh,  as  constable,  and  Phineas  Waters,  first  highway 
surveyor  and  fence  viewer.  At  a  point  near  where  Stowe 
Street  crosses  the  railway  the  first  school  building  was  located. 
The  daughters  of  Mr,  Reuben  Wells  were  teachers  in  a  private 
school  at  or  about  this  time.  It  was  not  until  after  the  new 
century  was  ushered  in  that  any  attempt  to  build  a  county 


grammar  school  was  made.  This  attempt  proved  abortive 
in  the  end  for  the  town  declined  to  finish  the  work  already 
undertaken  and  carried  forward  in  the  building  by  private 
subscription.  Apparently  this  official  precedent  must  have 
had  undue  weight  for  many  years  afterwards  as  to  adequate 
housing  for  the  town's  schools. 

At  the  March  meeting  of  the  town  in  1793  it  was  voted 
that  "Swine  may  Run  at  large  Being  well  Yolked  and 
Wringed,"  but  this  piece  of  municipal  legislation  suffered 
the  fate  of  other  ill-considered  measures,  for  at  the  town 
meeting  in  1794  it  was  voted  that  "Swine  shall  not  Run 
at  large."  A  peculiarly  tough  Gordian  knot  was  required  to 
be  summarily  cut  at  the  town  meeting,  March  ist,  1796,  in 
which  the  office  of  constable  was  involved.  It  was  voted: 
"We  will  set  up  at  Vendue  the  Office  of  Constable — and  it 
was  struck  off  to  Robert  Parcher  who  Bid  three  Shillings  and 
Six  pence  for  the  Office — and  procured  Richard  Holden  for 
his  Bondsman  who  was  accepted  by  the  Town";  but  local 
patriotism  triumphed  temporarily  for  we  read  in  the  record 
of  March  4,  1799:  "Voted  that  we  Set  up  the  Office  of  Con- 
stable at  Vendue  and  John  Peck  oflfered  to  serve  as  Constable 
without  any  compensation  from  the  town  and  at  the  same  time 
procure  Good  Bonds."  John  got  the  job  and  a  new  era  of 
civic  virtue  began.  But  this  era  proved  short-lived,  for  at 
the  meeting  on  the  loth  day  of  March,  1800,  it  was  again 
voted :  "That  we  set  up  the  Office  of  first  constable  at  Vendue 
and  it  is  struck  off  to  Isaac  Woolson  who  is  to  receive  Ninety 
five  cents  for  his  services  and  procure  Good  Bonds. "  Ephraim 
was  joined  unto  his  idols.  Conservatism  held  sway  in  the 
councils  of  the  town  fathers,  as  witnesseth  the  following  from 
the  minutes  of  town  meeting  of  September,  1802:  "Voted  not 
to  grant  to  Doc*'  Daniel  Bliss  the  priveledge  of  seting  up  a 
Pest  House  or  Houses  the  insuing  season  for  the  enoculation 
of  the  small  Pock."  To  make  assurance  doubly  sure,  at  the 
town  meeting  of  January,  1803,  it  was  voted:  "Not  to  intro- 
duce the  small  Pox  into  this  town  by  inoculation." 

Education  was  not  overlooked.  At  the  March  meeting  of 
1803  it  was  voted  "to  raise  two  Cents  on  the  Dollar  on  the 

PERIOD    1 763-1 800  23 

Grand  List  of  1800  for  the  support  of  schools  payable  in  good 
Wheat  and  six  Shillings  per  Bushel,  Rye  at  four  &  In^  Corn 
at  three  shillings  the  Bus'."  Also  "that  the  sum  of  Money 
received  for  the  support  of  Schools  be  Apportioned  on  the 
Schollors  from  four  to  Eighteen  years  old."  These  excerpts 
from  the  town  records  are  given  as  tending  to  illuminate  the 
conditions  of  that  trying  first  decade  of  town  government. 
It  must  be  remembered  that  the  town  builders  were  more 
intent  upon  carrying  out  their  practical  object  than  upon  the 
niceties  of  system  and  cut-and-dried  methods.  They  realized 
that  they  were  confronted  by  a  solemn  duty  and  were  looked 
to  for  results,  which  they  undertook  to  accomplish  without 
any  unnecessary  red  tape  or  ceremony.  They  realized  that 
there  would  still  be  plenty  of  time  for  that  sort  of  thing  after 
the  town  had  emerged  from  its  swaddling  clothes. 

The  town  was  first  represented  in  the  General  Assembly  by 
Daniel  Bliss  in  1792.  Though  the  government  of  the  state 
approximated  very  closely  to  a  true  democracy,  the  arbitrary 
designations  of  republicans  and  federalists  as  then  applied  to 
the  two  great  political  parties,  convey  no  distinctive  signifi- 
cance today.  The  legislative  power  was  reposed  in  the  House 
of  Representatives  but  each  bill  passed  by  the  House  was 
required  to  be  submitted  to  the  Governor  and  the  Council  of 
twelve  persons  for  their  action.  If  this  checking  body  opposed 
any  measure  in  its  executive  capacity,  its  passage  was  sus- 
pended until  the  next  legislative  session  and  the  people  in  this 
way,  expressed  by  a  modified  sort  of  referendum  their  approval 
or  disapproval. 

Seemingly  there  was  no  representative  for  Waterbury  in 
I793»  but  the  line  appears  to  have  remained  unbroken  from 
the  year  1794,  when  Ezra  Butler  was  first  chosen.  Mr.  Butler 
was  reelected  for  each  successive  session  to  and  including  1807, 
except  the  years  1798  and  1805,  when  George  Kennan,  of 
whom  more  anon,  was  the  choice  of  the  freemen  of  Waterbury. 
The  last  decade  of  the  eighteenth  century  witnessed  the 
town's  growth  from  fifteen  families  and  a  population  of  about 
ninety-three  to  six  hundred  forty-four  souls.     A  thrifty  and 


permanent  air  was  given  the  growing  town  by  the  rapid  estab- 
lishment of  the  homes  of  constantly  arriving  settlers. 

Caleb  Munson,  the  third  settler  came  here  from  Torrington, 
Connecticut,  in  1788  and  made  his  selection  of  a  tract  on  the 
large  meadow  above  the  town,  through  which  the  railroad 
passes  and  a  part  of  which  is  now  owned  by  Emerson  L.  John- 

Richard  Holden,  who  afterward  was  sent  in  1793  as  a  dele- 
gate to  the  Constitutional  Convention,  planted  his  household 
gods  on  the  spot  where  the  State  Hospital  Nurses'  Annex 
now  stands,  known  in  early  days  as  the  Peck,  Sheple  or  Doctor 
Fales  place.  The  interval  or  property  now  occupied  by  A.  M. 
Brigham  was  the  home  site  of  Amos  Waters  in  1788.  The 
next  place  west  of  this  at  the  mouth  of  the  Waterbury  River, 
on  the  east  side,  was  the  home  of  Doctor  Daniel  Bliss,  the  first 
physician  and  first  representative  of  the  town  (1792),  and 
afterwards  became  the  shop  site  of  Seth  Chandler,  the  first 
blacksmith,  who  was  killed  there  by  a  falling  tree. 

The  widow  of  the  unfortunate  James  Marsh  was  married  to 
Mr.  Phillip  Bartlett.  They  occupied  a  house  on  the  property 
known  as  the  Henry  farm,  taking  its  name  from  Sylvester 
Henry,  an  early  settler,  the  grandfather  of  Mrs.  Albert  Spen- 
cer, and,  after  his  death,  owned  by  Sylvester  Henry,  his  son, 
the  father  of  Franklin  S.  Henry,  who  was  the  donor  of  the 
Soldiers'  Monument.  Elias  Marsh,  a  son  of  James  Marsh,  had 
married  and  established  his  home  where  Miss  Electa  Corse's 
residence  was  afterwards  built,  now  occupied  by  Mrs.  Thad- 
deus  B.  Crossett.  In  the  year  1796,  Deacon  Asaph  Allen  and 
Mr.  David  Austin,  coming  from  Massachusetts  and  Connecti- 
cut, took  up  residence,  the  one  near  the  Center  on  what  is  now 
Mark  H.  Moody's  farm;  the  other  on  the  place  now  occupied 
by  B.  G.  Webster,  on  Blush  Hill. 

Deacon  Asaph  Allen's  life  was  reflective  of  the  stern,  vigorous, 
sturdy  stock  and  the  grim  conditions  from  which  he  sprung. 
Born  in  the  famous  old  fort  at  Deerfield,  Massachusetts, 
October  25,  1751, — a  circumstance  in  itself  that  might  speak 
volumes — he  went  with  his  father's  family  to  Bernardstown, 
Massachusetts.     Here  he  became  a  deacon  of  the  Orthodox 

PERIOD    1763-1800  25 

Congregational  Church.  It  was  not  long  before  his  service 
was  required  in  the  militia.  He  also  served  as  a  soldier  in  the 
Revolutionary  War,  for  which  service  he  received  a  pension 
from  the  government.  His  marriage  to  Persis  Sheldon  oc- 
curred in  1773  or  1774  in  Bernardstown.  Coming  to  Water- 
bury  in  1796,  he  settled  on  the  place  described  one-half  mile 
east  of  Waterbury  Center  Village.  After  an  upright,  honor- 
able life  he  died  March  19,  1840.  His  wife  survived  him  nearly 
twelve  years  and  died  at  the  advanced  age  of  ninety-four  years 
and  ten  months.  Nine  children  were  born  of  the  marriage: 
Roxana,  born  August  16,  1777;  Zebulon  in  1779;  Sophia, 
December  10,  1781;  Eliakim,  February  24,  1785;  Asaph  in 
1788;  Horace,  August  15,  1792;  Charles  S.,  February  24,  1795; 
Persis,  born  in  Waterbury,  July  2,  1797,  and  Seba,  born  in 
Waterbury,  August  16,  1801 .  Of  these  Roxana  (Allen),  George 
and  Eliakim  who  married  Deborah  Godfrey  May  i,  1808, 
made  their  homes  in  Waterbury.  Eliakim  continued  the 
conduct  of  the  farm  near  the  Center  until  the  year  1846  when 
he  came  to  live  in  the  Village.  Mr.  Allen  was  town  represen- 
tative in  the  Legislature  and  was  a  member  of  the  Methodist 
Church  for  over  fifty  years.  Mrs.  Deborah  Allen  died  Octo- 
ber 19,  1857.  Eliakim  Allen  was  married  for  the  second  time 
to  Achsah  Kingsbury  of  Stowe,  who  was  born  in  1803.  By 
his  first  marriage  there  were  seven  daughters.  Of  these  Har- 
riet Allen,  Julia,  Pamelia,  Aurelia  and  Alma  were  married  in 
Waterbury,  the  first  to  Elymas  Newcomb;  Julia  to  True  B. 
Colby,  a  farmer;  Pamelia  to  Lucius  Marshall;  Aurelia  twice, 
to  George  Calkins  and  Charles  Hicks,  and  Alma  to  Storrs 

Horace  Allen,  one  of  the  sons  of  Deacon  Asaph  Allen,  was 
a  farmer  near  Waterbury,  and  married  Polly  Field.  He  died 
in  Waterbury  Center,  leaving  one  son,  Charles  S,,  who  died  in 
the  United  States'  service  in  the  Mexican  War.  Charles  S. 
Allen,  another  son  of  Asaph  Allen,  married  Nancy  Hale. 
Three  daughters  were  Cornelia  (Mrs.  Cornelius  Eddy  of  the 
Center),  Romelia  (Mrs.  O.  W.  Stearns),  and  Persis  (Mrs.  C.  F. 
Clough),  all  of  the  town  of  Waterbury. 

Prominent  among  the  citizens  of  Waterbury  at  this  time 


was  General  John  Peck,  an  uncle  of  Governor  Asahel  Peck. 
General  Peck  came  directly  from  Calais,  though  a  native  of 
Massachusetts.  He  soon  fell  into  the  stride  of  affairs  and  was 
chosen  town  representative  in  1811  and  1818.  He  also  served 
as  chief  judge  of  the  County  Court  and  as  high  sheriff.  He  was  a 
particularly  active  candidate  for  Congress  on  the  general  ticket 
nominated  by  the  legislative  caucus,  but  was  defeated  through 
the  efforts  of  Mr.  Van  Ness  who  afterwards  became  Governor. 
General  Peck  held  office  under  the  Federal  Government  as 
assessor  of  Federal  taxes  and  later  was  chosen  as  a  member  of 
the  state  council  in  1826,  and  died  soon  after  the  adjournment 
of  the  session  in  December  of^,  that  year.  General  Peck  was 
held  in  wide  esteem  for  his  store  of  common  sense,  quick  in- 
telligence, affability,  dignity  and  public  spirit.  His  part  as 
brigadier-general  in  command  of  the  Vermont  Militia  at  the 
Battle  of  Plattsburgh,  September  11,  1814,  is  noticed  else- 
where. The  parcel  of  land  on  which  Ezra  and  Asaph  Butler 
first  made  their  pitch,  which  they  afterwards  relinquished, 
passed  in  due  course  to  Richard  Holden,  then  to  Judge  Dan 
Carpenter,  and  then  to  General  John  Peck;  under  General 
Peck's  occupancy  and  ownership,  the  place  by  additions  and 
improvements  came  to  be  the  show  place  of  the  town.  The 
property  was  sold  by  Peck's  administrator  to  D.  G.  Sheple, 
thence  it  passed  to  Sheple's  son-in-law,  Doctor  Horace  Fales. 
This  old  colonial  residence  was  on  the  south  side  of  Main 
Street,  the  second  from  the  present  site  of  the  Roman  Catholic 
Church,  easterly.  It  was  burned  while  occupied  by  Doctor 
and  Mrs.  Horace  Fales.  Doctor  Fales  afterwards  built  the 
brick  house,  known  as  the  Hospital  Annex,  on  the  site. 

Massachusetts  continued  to  furnish  new  settlers  for  Water- 
bury.  In  March,  1790,  Jason  Cadyof  Sheldon,  Massachusetts, 
built  a  home  near  the  arch  bridge  on  South  Main  Street,  lead- 
ing to  Duxbury.  About  the  year  1788,  one  John  Craig  began 
a  clearing  on  the  meadow  above  the  Winooski  Falls  and  put 
up  a  small  dwelling  house.  Craig  removed  to  Ohio  after  a  few 
years  and  the  property  passed  to  Joseph  Palmer,  then  of  rather 
more  than  local  fame  as  a  bridge  builder.  Mr.  Palmer  added 
to  the  tract  by  purchase  and  on  his  death  it  was  divided  into 

PERIOD    1 763-1 800  27 

parcels  which  included  the  farms  afterwards  known  by  the 
names  of  Davis,  Remington  and  Randall — the  Randall  farm 
now  being  conducted  by  Doctor  W.  L.  Wasson.  Another  early 
settler,  who  afterwards  became  prominent  in  the  town  history 
as  a  public  official  and  town  representative,  was  George  Ken- 
nan,  the  great-grandfather  of  the  widely  known  American 
traveler,  lecturer  and  writer  on  Russia  and  Siberia,  of  that 
name.  Mr.  Kennan's  home  was  on  the  site  of  the  old  Elisha 
Moody  place,  now  occupied  by  Richard  N.  Demeritt.  Isaac 
Wilson  occupied  a  piece  of  ground  near  the  present  site  of  the 
Waterbury  Inn. 

Attracted  by  the  outlook.  Stiles  Sherman  and  his  brother- 
in-law,  Jonathan  Wright,  came  to  the  town  in  1788  and  were, 
respectively,  the  fourth  and  fifth  settlers  in  the  order  of  arrival. 
Imbued  with  the  true  pioneer  spirit  Sherman  and  W^right 
lived,  worked  and  died  at  advanced  years  on  the  sites  where 
they  first  settled.  Both  were  public  spirited,  enterprising, 
substantial  citizens.  Mr.  Sherman  dispensed  hospitality  as 
Boniface  in  Waterbury 's  first  tavern  and  endeared  himself  to 
the  community  for  his  unselfish,  generous  and  thoughtful 
care  of  those  ill  and  in  need.  Mr.  Wright's  home,  at  what  is 
now  known  as  Colby ville,  was  on  the  property  recently  sold 
by  Warner  L.  Moody  to  C.  C.  Abbott,  and  was  probably  the 
first  settled  away  from  the  river  valley,  although  Mr.  Parker's 
pamphlet  admits  the  possibility  of  an  earlier  pitch  on  the  hill 
"near  the  residence  of  George  Stearns,"  while  Mr.  Sherman's 
selection  was  the  site  of  the  present  town  farm,  to  which  he 
brought  his  family  in  1789.  Mr.  Wright's  cabin  was  situated 
on  the  stream  above  the  Oliver  C.  Rood  place;  this  was  the 
birthplace  of  Tilman  Wright,  the  first  male  child  born  in 
Waterbury.  The  Wright  property  was  sold  to  James  Green 
by  the  administrator  of  Tilman  Wright  and  remains  to  this 
day  in  the  Green  family.  Oliver  C.  Rood  came  to  Waterbury 
in  the  full  flush  of  strong  manhood  and  set  his  brawn  and 
brain  at  work  in  road  making,  bridge  building,  clearing  and 
house  raising;  he  built  the  grist  mill  which  was  afterwards 
rebuilt  by  W.  W.  Wells. 

The  first  settler  on  Loomis  Hill  was  Silas  Loomis  who,  born 


in  Torrington,  Connecticut,  April  12,  1771,  came  to  Water- 
bury  about  the  year  1796;  the  following  year  he  selected  a 
place  for  a  home  on  the  hill  named  for  him  two  miles  from  the 
Center.  Here  he  cleared  a  home  site  in  the  forest,  built  a 
substantial  log  cabin  and  returned  to  his  former  Connecticut 
home  for  his  wife,  two  children  and  personal  effects.  He  is 
said  to  have  announced  his  determination  to  live,  die  and  be 
buried  in  his  new  home.  Mr.  Loomis,  though  never  a  large 
or  robust  man,  was  a  hard  \*7orker  and  soon  added  to  his  hold- 
ings until  his  original  home  place  comprised  four  hundred 
acres.  An  interesting  description  of  the  man  is  given  in  Child's 
Washington  County  Gazetteer: 

He  was  small  in  stature,  never  weighed  one  hundred  and  twenty-five 
pounds,  very  light  complexion,  large,  lustrous,  dark  hazel  eyes  and  bright 
red  hair,  which  he  never  had  cut  but  wore  it  in  a  queue  to  the  close  of  his 
life.  He  dressed  in  homespun  garments  in  winter,  made  by  the  deft  hands 
of  his  competent  wife,  and  linen  in  summer.  His  stockings  were  long, 
reaching  above  the  knee,  and  over  all  he  wore  a  long  frock.  He  was  scru- 
pulously neat,  and  his  farm,  barns,  sheds  and  tools  were  kept  in  perfect 
order.  He  was  opposed  to  buying  and  maintained  that  farmers  should 
raise  their  own  provisions  and  clothing.  .  .  .  He  despised  fraud, 
deception  and  dishonesty.  .  .  .  He  had  a  mind  of  his  own  and  never 
endorsed  an  opinion  because  some  one  else  had.  At  the  call  of  his  county 
in  the  War  of  i8i2he  hastened  to  its  defense.  .  .  .  He  died  March 
2,  1853,  aged  eighty-two  years. 

Kneeland  Flat  was  first  occupied  by  Richard  Kneeland 
(known  as  "Little  Dick").  Born  in  Westford,  Massachusetts, 
April  I,  1778,  he  married  Katherine  Knights  of  Claremont, 
New  Hampshire,  and  came  to  Waterbury  in  1803.  His  occu- 
pation was  that  of  a  house  joiner  and  builder  and  farmer.  He 
carried  on  farming  operations  on  the  property  formerly  owned 
by  John  Parker  in  1813.  He  died  in  February,  1868.  Mr. 
Kneeland  served  as  justice  of  the  peace,  presiding  as  trial 
justice  in  many  cases,  and  by  virtue  of  his  office  he  became 
known  as  the  "marrying  justice."  He  was  wonderfully  well 
informed  on  matters  pertaining  to  ancient  and  Biblical  history 
and  naturally  was  something  of  a  controversialist.  He  was 
wont  to  emphasize  his  somewhat  dogmatic  statements  by 
adding  the  word  "faithful"  in  much  the  same  way  as  the  locu- 

PERIOD    1 763-1 800  29 

tion  "honestly"  is  used.  His  boast  was  that  he  alone  in  the 
community  knew  how  to  draft  plans  and  specifications  for 
winding  stairv\'ays.  The  sons  of  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Kneeland  were : 
Willard  H.,  who  died  at  the  age  of  ninety-one;  William,  who 
married  Dorothy  Jackman,  and  settled  on  the  old  farm  until 
it  was  sold  in  1853;  Henr>%  a  Waitsfield  farmer,  and  Doctor 
Lucius  Kneeland,  who  went  to  Florida  and  died  at  the  age 
of  thirty  years.  The  daughters  were:  Ortensia,  who  died  at 
the  age  of  fifty-one  years;  Martha  (Kneeland)  Parker,  who 
died  at  the  age  of  forty  years;  Mary  A.  (Kneeland)  Whitney, 
who  died  at  the  age  of  seventy-three  years;  Catherine,  who 
died  at  the  age  of  twenty-one  years,  and  Adaline  (Kneeland) 
Wade  of  Colbyville. 

Mention  has  already  been  made  of  the  old  Governor  Butler 
place.  This  tract  of  between  two  hundred  and  three  hundred 
acres  included  one  hundred  and  thirty  acres  which  was  for- 
merly the  farm  of  the  State  Reform  School.  The  first  framed 
house,  a  photograph  of  which  is  in  this  book,  stands  on  the 
seven-acre  homestead  plot.  The  larger  part  of  the  tract  be- 
longs to  the  Doctor  Henr>'  Janes  estate.  Mr.  Russell  Butler, 
son  of  Governor  Butler,  formerly  owned  a  parcel  of  four  acres 
at  the  mouth  of  Thatcher's  Branch,  the  site  of  the  sur\-eyors' 
camp  built  in  1782.  Mr.  Russell  Butler,  was  the  youngest 
member  of  the  family.  He  was  born  February'  17,  1807,  in 
Waterbury,  and  made  his  native  place  his  home.  After  a  col- 
lege preparatory  course  at  the  Montpelier  Academy  he  entered 
the  University  of  Vermont  in  1825.  Ill  health  precluded  his 
finishing  the  course  and  he  left  the  university  at  the  end  of 
Sophomore  year.  Mr.  Russell  Butler  imbibed  a  great  love 
for  books  and  was  remarkably  familiar  with  literature  and 
bibliography.  Unlike  his  father,  he  avoided  political  life. 
Indeed,  he  is  said  to  have  peremptorily  declined  to  permit  his 
name  to  come  before  the  public  for  political  preferment,  either 
by  way  of  an  elective  or  appointive  office.  Though  personally 
averse  to  holding  office  he  was,  nevertheless,  an  ardent  student 
of  government,  a  protagonist  for  the  cause  of  the  public  welfare, 
and  a  champion  of  educational  and  religious  training.  Mr. 
Butler's  influence  in  the  community  was  such  as  might  be 


looked  for  from  a  man  of  unquestioned  purity  of  life,  morals 
and  motives.  He  died,  February  7,  1883.  His  wife,  Elizabeth 
M.,  was  born  in  1815  and  died  in  1844. 

Stephen  Guptil  (whose  name  appears  in  the  town  records 
spelled  Guptail)  owned  the  farm  that  afterwards  came  into  the 
possession  of  Jared  George,  whose  barn  did  duty  at  times  for 
many  years  as  a  meeting  house  for  religious  services,  dating 
back  to  1798.  Another  well-tilled  farm  was  known  as  the 
Eddy  place.  It  was  owned  by  David  Adams,  William  Eddy 
and  Harvey  Eddy,  in  succession,  and  was  situated  with  its 
meadow  land  on  the  branch  below  the  property  first  located 
by  Deacon  Asaph  Allen  in  1796.  The  Allen  place,  in  turn, 
passed  into  the  possession  of  Eliakim  Allen  and  was  by  him 
transferred  to  parties  out  of  the  family.  Most  of  the  upland 
farms  had  their  beginnings  at  a  later  date  than  those  men- 
tioned. These  included  the  old  Silas  Loomis  place,  the  Clough 
place  on  Indian  Hill,  the  Raymond  Huse  place  on  Alder 
Brook  below  the  falls,  and  others. 

In  1791  Joshua  Hill  started  his  farm  in  the  south  part  and, 
as  it  was  on  the  main  traveled  thoroughfare  or  hill  road  running 
north,  his  farm  house  served  as  a  wayside  tavern.  Another 
tavern  situated  near  the  southern  boundary  of  the  town  on  this 
road  was  opened  and  kept  for  some  years  by  George  Kennan. 
The  upland  farms  were  particularly  well  adapted  to  stock 
raising  and  dairying,  and  nearly  all  had  thriving  maple 
orchards,  from  the  sap  of  which  the  far-famed  Washington 
County  maple  sugar  and  syrup  were  produced.  On  land  in 
Waterbury  Center,  near  the  chapel,  James  Bryant  settled  in 
1793;  Stephen  Jones  followed  him  four  years  later  on  a  lot  of 
land  adjacent  on  the  north ;  George  Scagel  took  up  his  residence 
on  a  Center  plot  in  1794,  and  spent  his  life  there.  Mr.  Jones 
and  Mr.  Scagel  were  prominent  members  of  the  Methodist 

As  to  those  residents  of  Waterbury  who  had  seen  service  in 
the  War  of  the  Revolution,  next  to  nothing  is  obtainable  con- 
cerning the  dates  of  enlistment,  terms  of  service,  actions  par- 
ticipated in,  and  the  like.  There  are  buried  in  the  Waterbury 
Cemetery    the    following    Revolutionary    soldiers:    Captain 


PERIOD    1763-1800  31 

Thomas  Jones,  Aaron  Wilder,  Ezra  Butler,  Zachariah  Bassett, 
Moses  Nelson,  David  Towne,  John  Hudson,  D.  Sloan,  Benja- 
min Conant,  Paul  Dillingham,  Asaph  Allen,  Isaac  Marshall, 
Thomas  Eddy,  Alphas  Sheldon,  Joseph  Hubbard,  Stephen 
Jones,  Asa  Poland,  George  Kennan. 

The  close  of  the  eighteenth  century  found  Waterbury  fairly 
started  on  its  course.  There  had  been  town  representation  in 
the  General  Assembly  since  1792;  the  townspeople  were 
energetic,  thrifty  and  industrious;  the  farms  were  being  tilled; 
shops,  stores,  taverns  and  mills  had  been  erected ;  town  govern- 
ment had  been  organized,  and  the  first  or  formative  period  in 
the  State,  Chittenden  County  and  town  of  Waterbury,  had 
fairly  passed.  W^ashington  County  had  not  yet  been  organ- 
ized. Montpelier  had  begun  town  government  on  March  29, 
1 791,  a  year  later  than  Waterbury,  and  so  we  are  brought  to 
the  epochal  nineteenth  century. 


I 800-1 830 

The  year  1800  was  not  particularly  noteworthy  in  the 
town's  annals.  To  be  sure  the  people  of  Waterbury  were 
keenly  interested  in  matters  political.  George  Washington 
and  John  Adams  had  earned  the  approval  of  the  Vermont 
Legislature;  Governor  Isaac  Tichenor  appropriately  praised 
their  respective  administrations  in  his  speech  to  the  General 
Assembly.  It  is  a  fair  assumption  that  a  majority  of  the 
electorate  of  Waterbury  favored  the  reelection  of  John  Adams 
to  the  presidency,  although  he  was  the  choice  of  the  federalists. 
Thomas  Jefferson  was  the  then  republican-democratic  candi- 
date and  was  stoutly  supported  in  the  General  Assembly  when 
it  was  sought  through  a  formal  measure  by  republican  mem- 
bers, to  secure  a  choice  of  presidential  electors  by  districts  rather 
than  by  appointment  by  the  Council  and  Legislature.  This 
bill  was  defeated  but  the  vote  of  ninety-five  to  seventy-three 
showed  a  decided  republican  increase  within  the  year.  Mr. 
Jefferson's  success  and  his  candid  avowal  that  a  difference  of 
political  opinions  was  not  a  difference  of  principles  led  many 
good  Vermonters,  and  presumably  citizens  of  Waterbury,  to 
be  misled  as  to  his  course  regarding  political  patronage,  but 
they  probably  profited  by  the  lesson. 

Chittenden  County  had  been  incorporated  in  1782  and 
within  its  borders  were  included  Stowe,  Waterbury,  Duxbury, 
Fayston,  Waitsfield,  Moretown,  Middlesex  and  Worcester, 
which  were  afterwards  taken  into  Washington  County  upon 
its  organization  in  December,  181 1,  with  Ezra  Butler  as 
county  judge  and  John  Peck  as  sheriff. 

A  story  is  rife  at  this  writing  concerning  the  choice  of  a 
State  Capital  which  is  not  without  interest.  Among  the 
towns  bidding  for  the  honor  of  becoming  the  seat  of  govern- 
ment was  Waterbury;  the  story  runs  that  an  entirely  unex- 
pected local  opposition  arose  among  some  of  the  more  promi- 



nent  residents  and  settlers  and  efifectually  put  a  quietus  upon 
the  movement.  It  is  fair  to  say  that  the  compiler  has  not 
succeeded  in  verifying  the  story  and  it  is  given  here  for  what 
it  is  worth.  The  Act  fixing  the  capital  at  Montpelier  was 
passed  by  a  session  of  the  Legislature  held  at  Danville  in 
October,  1805.  At  the  two  succeeding  sessions  in  Middle- 
bury  and  Woodstock  vigorous  eflforts  were  made  to  bring 
about  a  change  in  location,  but  the  counter  efforts  of  Secre- 
tary of  State  David  Wing  and  Montpelier's  town  representa- 
tive, Honorable  Cyrus  Ware,  prevailed  and  the  Act  remained  as 
here  given  from  the  original  certified  copy  now  among  the 
effects  of  the  late  Doctor  Henry  Janes,  a  grandson  of  Ezra 
Butler,  named  as  one  of  the  committee  in  the  Act : 

An  Act  establishing  the  permanent  seat  of  Government  at  Montpelier. 

Section  i.  It  is  hereby  enacted  by  the  General  Assembly  of  the  State 
of  Vermont,  that  Elijah  Paine,  Ezra  Butler,  and  James  Whitelaw,  be  and 
they  are  hereby  appointed  a  Committee  to  fix  upon  a  place  in  the  town 
of  Montpelier  for  the  erection  of  buildings  for  the  accommodation  of  the 
Legislature  of  this  State,  and  to  prepare  a  plan  for  such  buildings 

Sec.  2.  And  it  is  hereby  further  enacted,  That  if  the  town  of  Montpelier, 
or  other  individual  persons,  shall,  before  the  first  day  of  September,  which 
will  be  in  the  year  of  our  Lord,  one  thousand  eight  hundred  and  eight, 
erect  such  buildings  on  the  place  designated  by  the  aforesaid  Committee, 
to  their  acceptance,  and  shall  compensate  said  Committee  for  their  serv- 
ices and,  also  convey  to  the  State  of  Vermont,  the  property  of  said  build- 
ings and  the  land  whereon  they  shall  stand,  and  lodge  the  Deed  of  Convey- 
ance duly  executed,  in  the  Secretary  of  State's  Office,  then  and  in  that 
case,  said  Buildings  shall  become  the  permanent  seat  of  the  Legislature, 
for  holding  all  their  sessions. 

Sec.  3.  Provided  nevertheless,  and  it  is  hereby  further  enacted,  That 
if  any  further  Legislature,  shall  cease  to  hold  Their  sessions  in  said  Town 
of  Montpelier,  Those  persons,  who  shall  erect  said  Buildings,  and  convey 
the  property  of  the  same,  and  of  the  land  as  aforesaid,  shall  be  entitled 
to  receive  from  the  Treasury  of  this  State,  the  full  value  of  the  same 
as  it  shall  be,  then,  fairly  appraised. — 
State  of  Vermont. 

Secretary  of  State's  Office. 
Montpelier,  19  November,  1805. 

I  hereby  certify  that  the  above  and  foregoing,  is  a  true  copy  of  an  Act 
of  the  Legislature  of  this  State  passed  on  the  eighth  day  of  November 

Attest:  Day.  Wing  Jr.  Secry. 

PERIOD    1800-1830  35 

At  about  this  time  it  became  necessary  to  commission  the 
presidential  electors  who  had  been  chosen  at  the  general  elec- 
tion in  the  autumn  of  1804.  Governor  Isaac  Tichenor,  there- 
fore, executed  a  formal  commission,  a  true  copy  of  which  is 
given : 


\        SEAL       J 

By  His  Excellency 

Isaac  Tichenor,  Esquire 

Governor  in  and  over  said  State. 

To  All  Persons  to  whom  these  Presents  shall  come:    Greeting. 

Know  Ye, 

That  the  Honorable  Josiah  Wright,  Samuel  Shaw,  Ezra  Butler,  Nathaniel 
Niles,  William  Hunter  and  John  Noyes  of  Guilford  Esquires,  have  been 
duly  elected,  by  the  joint  Ballot  of  both  Houses  of  the  Legislature  of  the 
State  of  Vermont,  Electors  of  President  and  Vice-President  of  the  United 
States  agreeably  to  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  and  the  Laws  of 
the  State,  for  the  purpose  of  Electing  a  President  and  Vice-President  of 
the  United  States  for  and  during  the  Term  of  Four  years  commencing  on 
the  Fourth  day  of  March  which  will  be  in  the  Year  of  our  Lord,  one  Thou- 
sand eight  Hundred  and  five. 

In  Testimony  whereof,  I  have  caused  the  Seal  of  this  State  to  be  here- 
unto affixed. 

Given  under  my  Hand  at  Rutland  this  Third  day  of  November  in  the 
year  of  our  Lord,  one  Thousand  eight  Hundred  and  four  and  of  the  Inde- 
pendence of  the  United  States,  the  Twenty-ninth.     (Signed) 
By  His  Excellency's  Command  Isaac  Tichenor. 

William  Page,  Sec'y- 

All  this  while  religious  instruction,  as  promulgated  from 
the  pulpits  of  churches,  had  languished  not  only  in  Water- 
bury  but  in  the  surrounding  towns.  Religious  services  were 
held  when  and  where  circumstances  permitted.  A  copy  of  a 
subscription  agreement  entered  into  by  some  citizens  of  Rich- 
mond is  given,  which  sheds  more  lustre  on  the  intention  of  the 
signers  than  it  does  upon  the  ability  to  draft  contracts  then 
available.  It  is  questioned  whether  the  "somes  hereafter 
annexed"  would  tempt  a  money -making  twentieth  century 
evangelist : 

Richmond  Decern'  4*''  A.D.  1804 

Whereas  Richmond,  at  present  is  destitute  of  Gospel  preaching  and  it 
is  the  indispensable  duty  of  all  Parents  and  heads  of  familys  to  encourage 


the  preaching  of  the  Gospel,  for  the  good  of  the  rising  Generation,  in  order 
to  reform  their  morals  as  well  as  to  give  edification  to  those  of  Mature 
Years, — 

We,  the  subscribers  therefore  do  covenant  and  agree  with  Elder  Samuel 
Webster,  of  Bolton  to  preach  one  half  on  every  other  Sabath  for  the  term 
of  three  Months  from  the  time  of  commencing  in  the  School  House,  near 
Cap't  Hodges'  farm  on  the  East  side  of  Onion  River  in  S"*  Richmond;  and 
if  the  somes  hereafter  annexed  to  our  names  may  be  sufficient  encourage- 
ment to  encourage  the  said  Elder  Webster,  we  promise  (on  condition  that 
the  s'd  Elder  Webster,  do  fulfil  the  afores'i  agreement,  to  pay  him  severally 
the  sumes  which  we  shall  sever'ly  annex  to  our  respective  names  at  or  before 
the  expiration  of  s'd  term  in  Grain  delivered  at  our  respective  places  of 
abode,     witness  our  hands. 

Names  of  Subscribers. 
Ezra  Moore  X       $0.75  James  Butler  $0.50 

Abraham  Ford  X    0.75  Asaph  Butler    0.75 

Thos.  Hall  0.75  Benoni  Thompson    0.50 

John  Stacy  O.50  Joshua  Beardsley    i.oo 

Reference  has  been  made  to  a  few  instances  of  invalid  land 
titles.  Tax  sales  were  not  frequent  and  when  land  passed  in 
this  way  it  was  generally  redeemed, — sometimes  at  consid- 
erable risk  and  hardships  as  in  the  case  of  Colonel  Sumner,  a 
citizen  of  New  Hampshire,  owning  land  in  Waterbury.  The 
time  to  redeem  was  on  the  point  of  expiration  when  Sumner 
sent  his  son,  David  H.,  a  youth,  with  money  to  redeem 
the  land,  by  horseback,  from  his  home  in  New  Hampshire, 
seventy-five  miles  away.  The  way  led  through  practically  a 
trackless  forest  for  much  of  the  distance.  The  youth  arrived 
safely  in  Montpelier  at  the  home  of  Colonel  Davis  at  sundown. 
After  a  brief  stop  there  to  rest  and  feed  his  faithful  mare,  he 
started  on  the  last  bit  of  his  journey  to  Waterbury;  mean- 
while, it  grew  dark  and  the  going  became  rough  and  difficult; 
at  a  place  near  the  foot  of  Rock  Bridge,  the  mare  stopped, 
refusing  to  move  forward.  Through  the  dusk  David  was 
able  to  see  a  huge  bear,  disputing  the  right  of  way,  standing 
erect  on  his  haunches.  The  sight  was  not  one  to  lighten  the 
difficulties  of  the  situation,  but  young  Sumner  screwed  up  his 
courage  and  bided  his  time;  having  satisfied  his  comic  curi- 
osity, Bruin  departed  leisurely  through  the  undergrowth  at 
the  road  side,  allowing  the  boy  and  mare  to  pass  to  the  river, 

PERIOD    1800-1830  37 

which  they  forded.  Arriving  at  the  house  of  the  tax  collector, 
Mr.  Holden,  the  plucky  boy  found  that  he  had  just  one  hour 
in  which  to  redeem  the  land  by  payment  of  the  taxes. 

The  problem  of  building  and  maintaining  passable  high- 
ways in  the  town  was  then  as  now  most  burdensome.  The 
early  roads  were  little  better  than  mere  trails.  One  ran  along 
the  river  through  the  Hog  Backs  to  Middlesex,  but  was  dis- 
continued for  a  better  thoroughfare  on  the  other  side  of  the 
river.  The  old  hill  road  to  Stowe,  and  thence  to  the  Lamoille 
River,  was  used  as  an  artery  of  travel  until  a  more  level  grade 
was  found  through  the  Center.  The  Waterbury  River  road 
to  Stowe  lay  along  the  old  hunters'  trail  and  is  still  a  pictur- 
esque traveled  way. 

The  Legislature  granted  a  charter,  in  1805,  to  a  turnpike 
company  for  a  road  between  Montpelier  and  Burlington. 
Little  difficulty  was  encountered  in  disposing  of  sufficient  stock 
to  build  the  road  which  ran  through  the  Village  from  the  upper 
end  down  to  Bolton.  This  turnpike  was  not  a  profitable 
enterprise  after  the  ravages  of  a  flood  in  the  summer  of  1830, 
which  swept  away  its  bridges  and  grading  in  various  places. 
Two  brothers,  Thomas  and  Hezekiah  Reed  of  Montpelier, 
took  over  the  property,  paying  $10  a  share  for  stock  which 
had  previously  sold  for  $175.  The  Reed  brothers  rebuilt  the 
bridges  and  regraded  the  road  which  became  the  main  thor- 
oughfare for  freighters  from  Boston  and  other  eastern  points. 
At  that  time  freight  wagons  were  drawn  by  oxen  as  well  as 
horses,  and  a  single  trip  would  require  between  two  and  three 
weeks  from  Boston  by  way  of  Montpelier  to  Waterbury.  After 
water  routes  were  made  possible  by  cutting  the  canal  between 
the  Hudson  and  Lake  Champlain,  teaming  and  traffic  between 
Burlington  and  Montpelier  were  greatly  increased  and  the 
turnpike  became  profitable.  The  charter  of  the  Vermont 
Central  provided  for  a  purchase  of  the  turnpike  franchise. 
Under  the  terms  of  a  settlement  with  the  road  company,  the 
railroad  applied  the  tolls  to  its  own  use  after  taking  over  the 
pike.  Soon  after  the  railway  line  began  operations  the  turn- 
pike was  abandoned  to  the  towns  through  which  it  passed, 
and  they  have  received  the  benefit  of  the  road  ever  since. 


One  of  the  early  pioneers  in  mercantile  life  in  the  town  was 
Amasa  Pride  who  came  here  from  Brookfield,  Vermont,  in 
1802;  he  entered  mercantile  business  and  was  the  first  suc- 
cessful merchant  in  the  new  village;  he  also  opened  a  tavern 
on  the  site  of  the  Eugene  Moody  place  which  was  one  of  the 
few  houses  of  entertainment  in  the  place.  Subsequently  he 
acquired  a  tract  of  land  extending  from  the  north  side  of  the 
river  across  what  is  now  Main  Street  to  the  rise  across  the 
railway  tracks,  known  as  "Pride's  Pinnacle,"  west  to  the  Ran- 
dall property  and  east  to  the  Atkins  corner.  His  residence 
was  on  the  site  of  the  present  Waterbury  Inn;  from  there  he 
removed  to  the  brick  house  now  facing  the  common  where 
his  daughter,  Mrs.  D.  C.  Caldwell,  now  lives.  In  common 
with  other  citizens,  Mr.  Pride  was  enthusiastic  over  the  build- 
ing of  the  Vermont  Central  Railway  through  the  Village  and 
was  a  subscriber  to  the  stock  offered  by  the  road  as  a  condi- 
tion of  its  extension  from  Middlesex. 

The  "common  "  between  Main  Street  and  the  railway  tracks 
was  formerly  known  as  the  Doctor  Drew  place.  This  was  pur- 
chased by  Mr.  Pride  to  be  transferred  by  him  to  the  railroad 
company.  The  negotiations  for  the  station  site  and  the  other 
surrounding  property  were  conducted  through  Governor 
Charles  Paine  and  the  conveyance  has  been  erroneously  re- 
ported to  have  been  made  on  condition  that  the  "common" 
should  not  be  built  upon  so  that  a  free  and  unobstructed  view 
of  the  station  might  be  had  from  the  Pride  residence.  Mr, 
Pride  was  married  twice;  his  second  wife  was  Miss  Polly  Hill, 
to  whom  he  was  married  September  i,  1836.  Two  daughters 
were  born  to  them,  Mary,  who  died  unmarried,  and  Martha 
L.  (Mrs.  D.  C.  Caldwell),  who  still  occupies  the  old  Pride 
residence.  The  following  obituary,  printed  in  1862,  reflects 
the  high  esteem  in  which  Mr.  Pride  was  held  by  his  towns- 

Died  in  Waterbury,  August  16,  1862,  Amasa  Pride,  Esq.,  aged  85  years, 
10  months  and  3  days.  Mr.  Pride  was  born  in  Lisbon,  Conn.  In  his  four- 
teenth year  he  came  to  Brookfield,  Vt.,  to  which  place  his  father  had  moved 
two  years  before.  In  1802,  in  his  26th  year,  he  opened  a  store  in  Water- 
bury, and  became  the  first  permanent  and  successful  merchant  in  the  place. 
He  commenced  business  with  very  little  capital,  but,  by  his  sound  judg- 

PERIOD    1 800-1 830  39 

ment,  sterling  integrity,  and  great  energy  and  enterprise,  he  accumulated 
a  large  property  and  became  one  of  the  most  substantial  and  valuable  men 
in  the  community.  His  hand  was  open  to  every  call  of  charity  and  the 
public  good.  He  had  been  a  consistent  member  of  the  Congregational 
Church  twenty-six  years. 

The  property,  formerly  known  as  the  Loomis  Hill  farm, 
occupied  by  Silas  Loomis  in  1797,  lay  south  of  a  farm  settled 
and  cleared  by  Timothy  Claflin  from  Croydon,  New  Hampshire, 
in  1802  or  1803,  which  is  now  owned  by  Henry  F.  Hill,  the 
Loomis  place  being  occupied  by  Edward  Woodward.  In 
1805  or  1806  Abel  De  Wolf,  coming  from  Conway,  Massa- 
chusetts, took  the  farm  now  owned  or  occupied  by  Charles 
Stevens  and  son.  Simeon  Woolson  was  another  farmer  who 
began  in  1798  on  the  place  now  owned  by  Henry  Thurston. 
The  Frank  Morey  place  was  the  farm  of  William  Kneeland  in 
1796.  What  is  now  known  as  the  Bradley  Shaw  estate  was 
the  farm  of  Israel  Thatcher  in  1808.  This  was  afterwards 
known  as  the  Robert  Broderick  place.  Solomon  Newcomb 
took  the  place  now  owned  by  Nathaniel  Sawyer  in  1809  and 
lived  there  on  an  unimproved  lot  until  his  death  in  1845. 
Otis  Whitney  began  on  the  Fred  Marks  property  in  1807, 
and  Robert  Parcher  on  the  property  of  C.  C.  Robinson,  Jr. 

If  it  be  thought  that  undue  space  is  being  given  to  Ezra 
Butler  in  these  pages,  the  reader  is  reminded  that  he  was  so 
indissolubly  connected  and  bound  up  with  the  first  half  cen- 
tury of  Waterbury's  life  that  he  literally  made  the  town's 
history,  assisted,  of  course,  by  his  neighbors  and  fellow  pio- 
neers. It  is  difficult  to  conceive  how  a  staid  Elder  of  the  Bap- 
tist Church,  ordained  in  1801,  could  have  run  the  gamut  of 
judicial,  legislative  and  executive  experiences  and  yet  remain 
always  a  person  of  Christian  meekness,  dignity  and  propriety. 
Indeed,  it  must  not  be  supposed  that  his  meekness  was  of  the 
sort  that  deprived  him  of  controversial  force  when  he  thought 
his  rights  were  being  infringed,  nor  did  it  paralyze  his  political 
acumen  in  any  noticeable  degree.  For  example,  when  a 
question  arose  as  to  who  was  "the  first  settled  minister" 
within  the  meaning  of  the  charter  provision  as  to  the  ministerial 
right  of  land,  the  question  of  priority  of  ordination  arose  be- 


tween  Reverend  Ezra  Butler  and  Reverend  Jonathan  Hovey. 
Mr.  Butler  had  been  ordained  in  i8oi;  the  church  called 
Reverend  Hovey  to  settle  over  them  in  1802;  Mr.  Hovey 
questioned  the  regularity  of  Mr.  Butler's  ordination,  which 
Mr.  Butler  vigorously  upheld;  he  laid  claim  to  the  right  of 
land,  not  because  he  wanted  it  for  himself  but  because  he 
wanted  to  see  it  applied  for  school  purposes.  At  a  town 
meeting  in  1802  it  was  voted:  "that  we  do  consider  the  right 
of  land  granted  to  the  first  settled  minister  to  be  Elder  Butler's 
in  consequence  of  his  ordination  in  this  town.  Voted  to 
choose  a  committee  to  wait  on  the  council  that  is  to  ordain 
Rev.  Jona.  Hovey.  Voted  that  the  committee  consist  of 
these  persons:  Ezra  Butler,  Richard  Holden,  David  Atkins, 
George  Kennan  and  Daniel  Bliss.  Voted  that  the  committee 
state  to  the  council  the  proceedings  of  this  meeting  and  the 
dilificulty  that  may  arise  in  town,  and  with  a  request  that  the 
ordination  might  not  take  place  unless  that  Mr.  Hovey  will 
agree  to  quit  claim  the  right  of  land  granted  the  first  settled 
minister  to  the  town  of  Waterbury  for  the  use  of  the  common 
school."  In  1806  the  selectmen  were  directed  to  take  "the 
most  wise  and  prudent  manner  to  get  and  keep  the  possession" 
of  the  ministerial  lot.  And  that  the  selectmen  "lease  out  the 
right,  etc.,  also  to  choose  a  committee  to  Council  with  the 
Selectmen,"  upon  which  were  Ezra  Butler,  Isaac  Woolson, 
Thomas  Gubtail,  Isaac  Parker  and  David  Austin.  Mr. 
Hovey  was  dismissed,  December  31,  1807,  for  lack  of  adequate 
support  and  removed  to  Piermont,  New  Hampshire,  whence 
he  continued  to  wage  battle  for  his  claim.  In  181 1  a  settle- 
ment was  proposed  whereby  Dan  Carpenter  and  Humphrey 
Gubtail  were  authorized  to  pay  Mr.  Hovey  for  betterments 
and  improvements  not  to  exceed  $250,  and  to  take  a  deed  from 
him.  Mr.  Hovey's  tenacity  drove  him  finally  to  bringing  suit 
in  the  United  States  Court,  nominally  against  Lemuel  Lyon, 
to  recover  possession  of  the  ministerial  lot,  and,  as  late  as  1814, 
the  town  voted  to  appoint  John  Peck  as  agent  to  defend  the 
suit,  which  ultimately  resulted  in  the  title  being  vested  in  the 
town  for  school  purposes.  Throughout  this  controversy  the 
fine  Italian  hand  of  Mr.  Butler  is  visible;  he  was  resourceful 

PERIOD    1800-1830  41 

and  astute  in  counsel  and  vigilant  and  untiring  in  watching  the 
moves  of  his  opponents.  Wherever  the  political  storm  center 
happened  to  be  located,  one  had  not  far  to  seek  for  his  aggres- 
sive presence  and  personality. 

Mr.  Butler  divided  the  honor  of  being  town  representative 
with  Mr.  George  Kennan  for  the  first  fifteen  years  of  the  town's 
representation  in  the  General  Assembly,  Mr.  Butler  serving 
from  1794  to  1798,  Kennan  in  1798,  Butler  again  from  1799 
to  1805,  Kennan  again  in  1805  to  1806;  Butler  was  reelected 
in  1807  and  1808,  and  the  latter  term  must  have  been  divided 
by  him  between  the  House  of  Representatives  and  the  Council, 
for  the  records  show  that  he  was  elected  to  both  bodies  in  the 
same  year.  Mr.  Parker  suggests,  as  an  explanation,  the  fact 
that  the  Council  was  elected  by  a  general  ticket,  votes  for 
which  were  enumerated  by  a  committee  of  the  General  Assem- 
bly and  that  Mr.  Butler  probably  remained  in  the  House  until 
after  the  result  of  the  vote  became  known  when  he  took  his 
seat  in  the  Council. 

Not  the  least  important  of  Ezra  Butler's  official  functions, 
and  always  along  the  lines  of  sound  public  policy,  were  the 
ceremonies  of  marriage  he  performed  in  his  several  capacities 
of  justice  of  the  peace,  chief  judge  of  the  County  Court,  regu- 
larly ordained  minister  of  the  Gospel  and  member  of  the  State 
Council.  There  is  reason  to  believe  that  his  official  action  in 
this  regard,  evidenced  by  the  town  records  of  some  thirty-five 
marriage  ceremonies,  was  of  vastly  greater  service  to  the  state 
than  if  he  had  signed  so  many  decrees  of  divorce.  It  is  not 
unlikely  that  he  adopted  the  graceful  course  of  presenting  the 
marriage  fees  to  the  brides,  afterwards  followed  by  other 
Waterbury  justices. 

Mr.  Butler's  fame  and  influence  increased  steadily  and  so 
when  a  chairman  was  required  to  preside  over  the  war  meeting 
at  Montpelier,  which  had  been  called  by  the  Democratic 
friends  and  supporters  of  President  Madison's  war  policies  to 
take  appropriate  action  thereon,  almost,  as  of  course  Ezra 
Butler,  a  good  Democrat  (or  then  a  Republican)  and  member 
of  the  ascendant  party  in  the  state  and  county,  was  chosen 
as  chairman.     The  war  measure  referred  to  in  the  Robinson 


letter  to  Butler,  given  below,  had  passed  in  January  and  its 
ratification  was  sought  at  this  meeting  the  following  month. 
If  accounts  of  that  occasion  now  available  may  be  trusted,  Pat- 
rick Henry's  fiery  utterances  of  treasonable  sentiments  in  the 
Virginia  House  of  Burgesses  were  merely  mild  remonstrances 
as  compared  with  the  vitriolic,  vituperative  charges  and  coun- 
ter-charges of  treason  in  that  Montpelier  meeting.  With  that 
never-failing  sense  of  observing  due  decorum  at  the  beginning 
of  the  meeting,  one  of  the  committee  was  despatched  to  request 
the  then  settled  minister  of  Montpelier  to  open  the  meeting 
with  prayer.  The  committeeman  soon  reported  that  the 
ministerial  gentleman  had  declined  on  the  score  of  conscientious 
scruples.  In  this  situation  Reverend  Ziba  Woodworth  re- 
sponded to  a  call  for  an  opening  prayer,  which  was  a  master- 
piece of  contumelious  satire  and  downright  abuse  of  the  Feder- 
alists as  "enemies  of  our  blessed  country"  and  as  being  guilty 
of  "treasonable  opposition  to  the  wise  measures  of  our  God- 
appointed  rulers."  Meanwhile,  Mr.  Butler  had  resigned  the 
chairmanship  of  the  meeting  and,  although  succeeded  by 
Esquire  Bulkeley,  a  strong  Federalist,  as  chairman,  he  saw  the 
war  party  carry  everything  its  own  way,  even  to  the  affixing 
of  the  chairman's  signature  to  the  very  resolutions  Bulkeley 
meant  to  defeat. 

The  war  of  1812  loomed  threateningly  as  the  first  rock  of 
importance  upon  which  the  hitherto  comparatively  harmoni- 
ous General  Assembly  was  destined  to  split.  The  Federalists 
deemed  the  war  premature  and  impolitic,  while  the  Republi- 
cans favored  it  as  a  wise  and  far-sighted  policy  declaring  it 
their  duty  as  citizens  to  support  the  declaration  of  war ;  other- 
wise they  would  identify  themselves  with  the  enemy  "with 
no  other  distinction  than  that  of  locality."  We  are  able  to 
give  the  text  of  a  letter  dated  January  10,  1812,  from  one  of 
Vermont's  United  States  Senators,  Jonathan  Robinson,  to 
Ezra  Butler,  which,  while  breathing  sentiments  of  the  loftiest 
patriotism,  betrays  a  certain  anxiety  as  to  how  the  people 
would  receive  the  joint  action  of  President  Madison  and  the 
Congress,  as  will  be  seen: 



S  >  c  c 











PUBLIC  library! 


PERIOD    1800-1830  43 

Washington,  Jany  10  th  1812 
My  respected  old  friend. 

Sitting  in  the  Senate  this  morning  and  having  answered  all  my  corris- 
pondents  my  mind  turned  on  the  .  .  .  conversations  we  held  in  the 
Capital  at  Montpelier.  The  President  &  both  Houses  of  Congress  have 
united  in  their  Opinion  at  last  that  the  accumilated  Injuries  and  aggravated 
Insults  of  the  English  government  ought  no  longer  to  be  borne  by  a  Gener- 
ous but  brave  people  whose  conduct  has  for  years  exhibited  a  forbearance 
unequalled  in  the  annals  of  Civilized  Nations.  The  blood  of  our  brave 
countrymen  lately  murdered  on  the  Wabash  by  Indians  excited  to  murder 
and  desolation  by  that  unprincipled  Nation  call  for  Vengeance  and  I 
think  I  can  lay  my  hand  on  my  heart  and  appeal  to  the  God  of  armies  with 
an  honest  conscience  and  ask  his  protecting  aid  in  our  measures.  We  have 
this  day  passed  the  long  contended  and  delayed  Bill  to  raise  25,000  men 
and  nothing  but  the  President's  signature  is  wanting  to  its  becoming  a  Law. 
We,  of  course,  call  on  you  all  to  recommend  to  us  good,  firm,  patriotic  and 
brave  men  as  officers  for  captains  and  subalterns  and  we  do  most  ardent 
hope  every  effort  will  be  made  by  our  friends  to  aid  inlistments  that  we 
may  have  a  short  war  and  a  popular  one;  before  next  summer  I  hope  you 
will  see  an  army  marching  to  the  North;  if  Canada  is  ours  war  with  the 
Indians  under  the  Jeffersonian  policy  is  forever  at  an  end.  Your  w-ishes  in 
a  postmaster  is  gratified.     Recollect  me  to  friends.     Your  cordial  friends 

Jonathan  Robinson 
Hon.  Ezra  Butler  Esq'. 

as  we  have  passed  the  Rubicon  we  wish  to  know  how  the  public  Pulse 


Apparently  as  a  result  of  this  request  for  a  recommendation 
of  officers  and  subalterns  Henry  Fisk  Janes  of  Waterbury, 
later  to  become  the  son-in-law  of  Ezra  Butler,  and  father  of 
the  late  Doctor  Henry  Janes,  received  a  commission  as  ensign 
in  Captain  Gideon  Wheelock's  company  from  Governor 

A  letter  bearing  date,  February  14,  1814,  from  President 
Daniel  C.  Sanders  of  the  University  of  Vermont  to  Mr.  Butler 
contains  some  interesting  information  about  the  progress  of 
the  war  from  which  the  following  is  an  extract : 

Two  hundred  sleighs  are  hiving  in  this  vicinity  (Burlington)  to  go  to 
the  French  Mills  to  wait  further  orders,  the  object  not  yet  known  to  us. 
The  British  are  said  to  be  engaged  in  building  new  vessels  on  Lake  Cham- 
plain  and  if  our  government  should  not  keep  pace  with  equal  steps,  with 
them,  it  is  feared,  that  the  next  campaigne  will  prove  most  disastrous 


to  our  country  in  the  vicinity  of  this  Lake.  I  trust  the  Government  will 
not  long  remain  unmindful  of  an  interest  so  highly  important  to  the  issue 
of  the  contest  in  which  our  country  is  engaged. 

Waterbury  was  ably  represented  at  the  Battle  of  Platts- 
burg  by  General  John  Peck,  who,  as  brigadier-general  of 
Vermont  Militia,  participated  with  his  command  in  that 
engagement.  Forty  officers  and  privates  in  command  of 
Captain  George  Atkins  of  Waterbury,  belonging  to  the 
Fourth  Regiment  of  Vermont  Militia  under  Colonel  Peck, 
about  September  7,  1814,  volunteered  to  go  to  Plattsburg. 
These  participated  in  the  battle  of  September  1 1 ,  and  remained 
in  Plattsburg  a  day  or  two  after  the  battle,  their  service 
extending  over  the  period  of  September  7  to  September  17. 
The  list  taken  from  the  rolls  in  the  Adjutant-General's  Office 
includes:  Captain  George  Atkins,  Lieutenant  John  G.  Knights, 
Ensign  Davis  Marshall,  Sergeant  Guy  J.  H.  Holding,  Ser- 
geant David  A.  Towne,  Corporal  Luther  Cleaves,  Corporal 
Ezra  O.  Button,  Corporal  Abijah  Towne,  Privates  Moses 
Coffin,  Giles  H.  Holding,  Asa  Stearns,  Ebenezer  M.  Man, 
Asa  Austin,  Richard  W.  Holding,  Moses  Nelson,  Nathaniel 
Gublait  (meaning  Guptail  or  Guptil),  John  De  Wolf,  Benja- 
min Parry,  Hosea  Towne,  Humphrey  Gublait  (Guptil),  Oliver 
C.  Rood,  Truman  Murry,  Orin  Austin,  Israel  Straw,  Salem 
Towne,  Edmond  Towne,  Johnson  Bates,  Nathaniel  Perkins, 
Waldo  H.  Field,  William  Huckins,  Joel  Kilburn,  Sylvanus 
Parker,  David  Austin,  Justus  Kenman,  Bartholomew  Knee- 
land,  David  Adams,  Daniel  Demon,  Daniel  H.  Austin,  Jotham 

The  records  in  the  office  of  the  adjutant-general  at  Mont- 
pelier  contain  a  statement  made  at  Waterbury  September 
27,  1850,  by  Captain  Chester  Marshall,  in  which  he  says 
that  when  the  Fourth  Regiment  was  ordered  out  by  Colonel 
John  Peck,  he  himself  was  not  ordered  out  but  on  Saturday, 
the  day  before  the  Battle  of  Plattsburg,  the  members  of  his 
company  residing  at  Waitsfield  rallied  as  volunteers.  On 
Sunday  he  took  command  and  marched  his  men  to  Burlington 
where  he  was  ordered  to  attempt  to  get  to  Plattsburg,  via 
Cumberland  Head.     Obeying  this  order,  he  with  his  command 

PERIOD   1800-1830  45 

reached  the  American  forces  at  Plattsburg,  Tuesday,  Sep- 
tember 13.  Captain  Marshall  made  another  sworn  state- 
ment at  Waterbury,  October  12,  1850,  verifying  a  statement 
of  one  Orson  Skinner  of  Waitsfield  that  he,  Skinner,  had 
served  in  a  company  of  cavalry,  Fourth  Regiment,  Second 
Brigade,  Third  Division  of  Vermont  Militia,  commanded  by 

Among  those  named  in  the  list  of  forty  volunteers  is  Moses 
Coffin,  Sr.,  who  lived  on  Blush  Hill  with  his  wife,  Lydia  Dustin 
Coffin,  his  two  sons,  Moses,  Jr.,  and  Daniel,  and  a  daughter, 
Electa.  The  two  sons  died  in  the  second  year  of  the  War 
of  1812,  one  (Moses,  Jr.)  at  Fort  George,  Upper  Canada,  and 
the  other  (Daniel)  at  Plattsburg,  New  York,  November  15, 
1813.  The  daughter  of  Moses  Cofifin,  Sr.,  Electa,  was  the 
mother  of  Mr.  George  W.  Randall,  the  greater  part  of  whose 
long  life  has  been  spent  in  Waterbury.  Electa  (Cofifin) 
Randall,  on  her  part,  was  the  granddaughter  of  Hannah 
Dustin,  whose  heroic  exploits  in  that  stressful  period  of  Massa- 
chusetts history,  closing  the  Seventeenth  century,  gave  her 
immortality.  Nearly  every  schoolboy  is  familiar  with  the 
story  of  how  the  Indians  swooped  down  upon  the  Dustin 
home  at  Haverhill,  March  15,  1697;  how  the  father  managed 
to  get  seven  children  out  of  harm's  way,  fighting  off  the  Indians 
single-handed;  how  the  mother,  Hannah  Dustin,  lying  in 
bed  with  an  infant  daughter,  one  week  old,  and  a  woman 
attendant  were  taken  captives  by  the  Indians  who  forced 
the  two  women,  with  the  infant,  to  take  the  rough  trail  lead- 
ing to  a  spot  near  the  present  site  of  Concord,  New  Hampshire. 
On  the  way,  the  Indians,  not  wishing  to  be  burdened  with 
the  infant,  dashed  out  her  brains  against  a  tree.  The  heroic 
mother,  assisted  by  her  woman  companion  and  a  fourteen- 
year-old  captive  boy,  tomahawked  ten  of  the  twelve  Indians 
comprising  the  party,  while  they  slept,  leaving  a  squaw  and 
papoose  to  escape,  and  made  her  way  with  her  companions 
back  to  Haverhill  and  Boston,  where  she  was  suitably  rewarded 
for  her  bravery.  Her  name  is  still  a  household  word  in  Con- 
cord, New  Hampshire,  where  a  monument  was  erected  to 
her  memory. 


Among  those  whose  army  record,  if  fully  available,  would 
make  good  reading  was  Levi  Gleason,  soldier  in  the  Revolu- 
tionary War,  the  War  of  1812,  and  the  Mexican  War.  Gleason 
was  a  son  of  James  Gleason  of  Westmoreland,  New  Hamp- 
shire, and  grand-uncle  of  Mrs.  G.  W.  Randall.  He  is  described 
as  "short  and  stout  with  dark  straight  hair. "  He  was  known 
familiarly  as  "Tip"  Gleason  from  his  being  in  the  Battle  of 
Tippecanoe,  November  7,  181 1,  and  lived  in  Waterbury 
for  some  years. 

Captain  Chester  Marshall  was  the  son  of  Amasa  Marshall, 
who  lived  where  the  condensed  milk  factory  now  stands  on 
South  Main  Street,  also  owning  the  meadows  below  that 
place  and  the  high  land  back  of  it  on  the  same  side  of  the 
river.  Captain  Marshall,  as  a  young  man,  was  noted  for 
his  deeds  of  daring.  At  the  time  of  the  great  freshet  in  the 
early  30's,  the  Middlesex  gorge  became  dammed  with  debris 
of  all  sorts.  It  was  found  that  the  key  obstruction  was  a 
huge  millstone  which,  lying  submerged  in  the  narrow  channel, 
effectually  blocked  it.  Marshall  dived  into  the  swirling 
stream  and  passed  a  chain  through  the  hole  of  the  millstone, 
enabling  those  on  shore  to  remove  it.  Chester  Marshall  lived 
in  Waterbury  for  the  greater  part  of  his  life,  removing  to 
Stowe  toward  the  latter  part  where  he  died  at  the  age  of 
eighty-four.  He  was  the  father  of  Mrs.  William  Deal  of 
South  Main  Street. 

Nathaniel  and  Humphrey  Guptil,  named  in  the  list  of  forty 
volunteers  from  Waterbury  at  the  battle  of  Plattsburg,  were 
sons  of  Thomas  Guptil,  Jr.,  and  grandsons  of  Thomas  Guptil 
who  came  to  Waterbury  one  hundred  and  thirty  years  ago, 
settled  on  Guptil  Hill,  there  lived  and  died,  and  was  buried  in 
the  Guptil  family  lot  on  the  hill.  All  the  Guptils  were  farmers, 
and  Humphrey  acquired  some  local  reputation  as  surveyor. 
Another  was  Stephen  J.  Guptil,  born  February  11,  18 16,  and 
died  April  10,  1891.  His  first  wife  was  Mary  (Wallace) 
Guptil,  born  April  21,  1817,  and  died  April  8,  1847;  his  second 
wife  was  Hannah  (Reed)  Guptil,  born  November  10,  181 1, 
and  died  January  26,  1894.  Of  this  marriage  was  born  Walter 
E.  Guptil,  May  10,  1851,  who  died  March  3,  1895,  also  Eleanor 

PERIOD    1800-1830  47 

born  July  11,  1852,  and  Martha  born  April  10,  1856,  who  died 
August  7,  1857.  The  wife  of  Walter  Guptil  was  Florence  E. 
Stevens,  born  April  14,  1856,  now  living  in  Waterbury. 

Guy  Holden,  a  son  of  Richard  Holden,  was  a  teacher  in  the 
district  school  of  Waterbury  in  1 810-18 12.  Attributed  to  him 
is  an  incident  about  the  Battle  of  Plattsburg  related  by  one  of 
those  furnishing  matter  supplementary  to  Mr.  Parker's  ad- 
dress in  Hemenway's  History  of  Washington  County.  On  the 
day  before  the  battle  was  fought,  Holden,  with  a  number  of 
young  boys,  climbed  a  hill  near  the  town  to  listen  for  the  sounds 
of  cannonading  at  Plattsburg.  The  narrator  says:  "On  the 
day  of  the  battle,  Sunday,  September  11,  1814,  there  was  no 
need  of  listening  to  hear  the  broadside  discharges  of  artillery 
in  the  lake  action,  to  which  a  hundred  of  Waterbury  boys  were 
witnesses,"  meaning,  doubtless,  that  one  hundred  boys  could 
have  testified  to  the  fact  that  the  cannonading  could  be  heard 
in  Waterbury. 

Some  confusion  has  arisen  as  to  the  name  of  three  of  the 
volunteers  in  Captain  Atkins'  company  of  forty  who  went  to 
Plattsburg  about  September  7  and  took  part  in  the  battle 
September  11.  They  are  given  in  the  list  as  Sergeant  Guy 
J.  H.  Holding,  Giles  H.  Holding  and  Richard  W.  Holding. 
These  are,  undoubtedly,  sons  of  Richard  Holden  (so  spelled), 
whose  name  appears  so  often  in  the  town  records  as  selectman, 
moderator,  justice  of  the  peace  and  as  a  member  of  the  Con- 
stitutional Convention.  The  Guy  Holden  mentioned  as 
having  heard  the  cannonading  from  Plattsburg,  September  11, 
must  be  the  Sergeant  Guy  Holding  listed  with  the  forty  vol- 
unteers, in  which  case  he  could  hardly  have  listened  to  the 
artillery  fire  in  Waterbury  and  yet  have  taken  part  in  the 
battle  of  Plattsburg. 

Colonel  (General)  John  Peck,  commanding  the  Vermont 
troops,  and  Anna  Peck  were  the  parents  of  Emily,  born  June 
17,  1801 ;  Lucius  B.  (member  of  Congress),  born  November  17, 
1802,  and  Julius  C,  born  November  10,  1806.  General  Peck 
died  at  Burlington,  Massachusetts,  December  22,  1826. 

It  was  too  much  to  expect  that  the  Madison  administration 
should  be  exempted  from  being  saddled  with  the  responsibility 


of  the  War  of  1812.  Indeed,  it  was  sought  to  fix  its  ultimate 
cause  upon  certain  alleged  omissions  to  keep  the  country- 
informed  as  to  the  terms  of  certain  decrees  promulgated  by 
the  French  government.  The  intimation  by  the  Federalist 
leaders  in  and  out  of  Congress  was  that  these  decrees  had 
either  been  purposely  delayed  or  temporarily  suppressed  by 
the  administration  and  that  an  earlier  knowledge  in  respect  of 
them  might  have  put  a  different  face  upon  the  necessity  for 
war.  Supporting  this  contention  was  no  less  a  person  than 
Daniel  Webster  of  New  Hampshire  who  took  his  seat  in  the 
House  of  Representatives  in  May,  1813.  It  will  probably 
come  with  some  surprise  to  the  readers  of  this  book  that  the 
very  first  measures  introduced  in  Congress  by  Daniel  Web- 
ster, were  a  series  of  resolutions  calling  upon  President  Madi- 
son for  a  statement  of  the  time  and  manner  in  which  Napo- 
leon's pretended  revocation  of  his  decrees  against  American 
shipping  had  been  announced  to  the  United  States  and  that 
these  measures  were  vigorously  opposed  by  Ezra  Butler  of 
Waterbury  in  his  initial  performance  in  Congress.  As  a  mat- 
ter of  historical  interest  it  may  be  well  to  record  here  the  fact 
that  these  resolutions  were  introduced  by  Mr.  Webster,  June 
10,  1 813.  Thus  it  appears  that  the  two  men  took  their  seats  in 
Congress  in  the  same  term  and  their  first  legislative  efforts  there 
were  directed  to  the  same  subject  matter.  The  order  of  the  day 
was  called  up  on  the  second  resolution,  June  21,  and  at  once 
engaged  the  attention  of  Ezra  Butler  in  opposition.  Mr. 
Butler's  congressional  career  was  not  long,  but  it  is  doubtful 
if,  during  his  incumbency,  a  more  forceful  speech  than  his  on 
this  occasion  were  made.     He  said  in  part : 

Sir,  I  see  no  necessity  for  the  information  required,  and  to  call  on  the 
President  for  documents  that  can  be  of  no  use  would  be  improper.  We 
may  ask  for  information  without  giving  the  President  the  reasons,  but  we 
certainly  ought  to  have  good  reasons  ourselves  for  so  doing.  It  has  not 
once  been  intimated,  that  any  act  of  the  Legislature  can  be  founded  on  the 
answer  expected;  much  less  that  we  should  now  declare  war  against  France; 
I,  therefore,  can  discover  no  profitable  use  that  can  be  made  of  any  answer 
in  the  power  of  the  President  to  give. 

It  has  been  said  that  this  inquiry  ought  to  have  been  made  by  the  friends 
of  the  administration;  but  as  they  have  neglected  their  duty,  these  resolu- 
tions were  introduced  to  give  the  President  a  fair  opportunity,  by  his 

PERIOD    1 800-1 830  49 

answer,  to  remove  the  suspicions  under  which  many  of  the  people  are 

Sir,  if  that  unfortunate  class  of  the  community  had  believed  the  most 
solemn  assertions  of  the  President,  or  even  of  their  own  senses  in  relation 
to  his  conduct  for  forty  years  past,  they  would  not  now  be  laboring  under 
these  painful  suspicions.  As  no  part  of  his  conduct  has  laid  the  foundation 
for  or  given  any  support  to  these  suspicions,  nothing  that  he  can  do,  nothing 
that  he  can  place  on  paper  will  remove  them.  Should  the  President  give 
the  most  satisfactory  answer,  it  would  only  leave  his  character  on  the  same 
high  ground  on  which  it  now  stands,  and  therefore  would  contribute  nothing 
to  his  reputation.  .  .  .  As  to  the  motives  of  the  honorable  gentleman 
from  New  Hampshire  [Mr.  Webster],  who  introduced  all  these  resolutions, 
I  shall  say  nothing;  I  shall  treat  with  equal  charity  all  the  arguments 
offered  in  their  favor.  It  is  sufficient  for  me  to  be  fully  satisfied  that  they 
can  produce  no  other  consequences  than  those  that  are  deeply  to  be  la- 
mented. According  to  all  the  arguments  advanced  by  gentlemen  on  the 
other  side  of  the  House,  it  would  appear  that  either  the  Government  of 
France,  or  that  of  the  United  States,  is  responsible  for  all  the  blood  and 
treasure  that  may  be  wasted  in  our  war  with  Great  Britain.  They  might 
as  well  say,  in  plain  English,  that  the  President  and  majority  in  Congress 
have  been  the  sole  cause  of  the  war.  It  is  only  a  circuitous  course  taken  to 
enforce  the  charge  with  more  effect.  Through  you  all  the  people  of  the 
United  States  may  be  told  this,  and  much  sophistry  urged  to  support  it. 
I  shall  not  say  that  the  motives  were  bad;  but  that  the  effect  must  be  so,  is 
certain.     .     .     . 

Sir,  after  having  heard  so  many  charges  brought  against  our  own  Govern- 
ment, it  may  not  be  improper  to  inquire  whether  individuals  in  our  country 
may  not  be,  in  one  degree,  chargeable  with  the  consequences  of  this  war. 
And  in  order  to  this,  I  will  call  your  attention  to  two  or  three  notorious 
facts.  Near  the  commencement  of  that  Congress,  who  afterwards  declared 
war  to  exist,  a  number  of  resolutions  were  introduced,  authorizing  prepara- 
tions for  war.  Those  resolutions  were  adopted  almost  unanimously  by 
this  House.  The  opinion  of  the  Senate  and  of  the  President  were  also 
known.  The  faith  of  this  Government  was  now  pledged  to  resist  the  en- 
croachments of  Great  Britain  unless  she  should  abandon  the  ground  she 
has  taken,  before  we  were  prepared  to  resist  her.  This  ought  to  have  put 
all  contention  to  rest;  the  benefits  that  would  result  to  our  country  from 
union,  must  be  obvious  to  all. 

But  here,  sir,  you  find  yourself  in  open  view  of  conduct  long  to  be  la- 
mented— conduct  that  must  enkindle  emotions  of  shame,  grief,  and  anger. 
You  were  told  to  your  face,  that  there  was  no  sincerity  in  your  words  and 
acts;  that  all  was  meant  only  to  deceive,  delude  and  scare.  That  the 
British  had  nothing  to  fear,  and  our  own  country  nothing  to  hope  from  those 
in  power.  That  you  had  not  the  least  intention  to  declare  war.  That 
you  had  become  too  tame  to  resent  any  injury,  however  great.  That  you 
could  not  be  kicked  into  a  war.     .     .     . 


Sir,  you  will  now  permit  me  to  ask  you  one  or  two  questions.  Do  you 
not  believe  that  the  conduct  just  mentioned  was  an  encouragement  to 
Great  Britain  to  persist  in  her  aggressions  on  your  rights?  Do  you  believe 
that  Great  Britain  would  have  continued  trampling  on  your  rights  if  our 
country  had  been  united  to  a  man  in  the  support  of  our  own  Govern- 
ment? Would  she  have  risked  a  war  with  this  country  under  such  cir- 
cumstances?    .     .     . 

I  have  stated  some  of  my  reasons  for  voting  against  the  resolutions  before 
you,  and  some  of  the  objections  I  have  against  the  arguments  advanced  in 
their  favor.  I  shall  now  submit  to  your  decision,  whatever  it  may  be, 
when  I  have  placed  my  name  where  it  will  forever  be  pleasing  to  have  it 
standing.  Neither  am  I  troubled  at  the  thoughts  of  being  in  a  minority; 
for,  sir,  I  would  give  my  vote  in  the  negative,  did  I  know  it  would  stand 
entirely  alone. 

In  spite  of  Mr.  Butler's  strong  speech,  Mr.  Webster's 
measures  passed. 

It  may  not  be  amiss  to  observe  here  that  the  end  of  the  War 
of  1 8 12  saw  the  end  of  the  Federalist  party  as  such.  Fac- 
tional strife  was  succeeded  everywhere  throughout  New 
England  by  the  "era  of  good  feeling"  and  the  dominant  idea 
was  that  the  ideal  citizen  should  measure  up  to  a  standard 
later  fixed  by  the  ex- Federalist  Daniel  Webster:  "He  is  to 
have  no  objects  in  his  eye  but  American  objects  and  no  heart 
in  his  bosom  but  an  American  heart."  These  noble  senti- 
ments so  at  variance  with  the  attitude  of  Congressman  Webster 
in  1 8 13  were  called  forth  by  the  action  of  Secretary  of  State 
Van  Buren,  of  President  Jackson's  cabinet,  in  seeking  to 
compose  differences  with  the  British  government  arising  dur- 
ing John  Quincy  Adams'  administration. 

Another  of  the  leading  families  of  this  period  was  the  Wells 
family,  the  members  of  which  will  always  be  associated  with 
the  early  beginnings,  growth  and  maturity  of  the  town. 
Roswell  Wells,  Sr.,  the  head  of  the  Waterbury  family,  was 
born  in  Greenfield,  Massachusetts,  September  6,  1769,  and 
came  to  Waterbury  in  1805,  where  he  died  July  26,  1826.  He 
married  Pamelia  White,  a  descendant  of  the  first  white  person 
born  in  New  England.  Two  sons  were  born  of  this  marriage, 
William  Wellington  and  Roswell  Wells,  Jr.  William  Welling- 
ton Wells  was  born  in  Waterbury  October  28,  1805.  Studious 
in  his  youth,  he  was  graduated  from  the  University  of  Vermont 

PERIOD    1800-1830  51 

in  1824  and  began  the  study  of  law  in  the  Burhngton  office  of 
Charles  Adams,  Esq.  After  his  admission  to  the  bar  of 
Chittenden  County,  he  found  that  his  presence  was  required 
in  Waterbury  in  connection  with  the  administration  of  his 
father's  estate;  in  this  way  he  became  immersed  in  business 
pursuits  which  left  small  time  for  the  practice  of  his  profession. 
He  had  business  affiliations  both  in  Burlington  and  Water- 
bury,  holding  a  large  interest  in  a  leading  dry  goods  firm  of  the 
former  city  and  a  membership  in  the  firm  of  Hutchins,  Wells 
&  Company,  at  Waterbury.  Here  he  also  became  interested 
in  the  business  of  a  tannery,  a  grist  and  flouring  mill,  north  of 
the  village  and  near  the  tannery  and  a  dry  goods  store  at 
Waterbury  Center.  Business  life,  however,  did  not  engross 
his  attention  to  the  extent  of  blinding  him  to  public  duties. 
He  served  as  town  treasurer  and  selectman  several  years; 
was  town  representative  in  the  Assembly  in  1840,  1863,  and 
1864,  besides  being  a  member  of  the  Council  of  Censors  in 
1855.  When  the  War  of  the  Rebellion  broke  out  Mr.  Wells 
was  fifty-six  years  of  age,  but  found  a  way  of  rendering  devoted 
service  as  chairman  of  the  board  of  selectmen  for  the  four 
years  of  the  war,  seeing  to  it  that  every  call  for  soldiers  was 
promptly  filled  and  so  administering  the  town's  finances  that 
Waterbury  emerged  from  the  war  period  free  from  debt. 
Not  content,  however,  with  this  necessary  civil  service  he 
presented  himself  for  enlistment,  joined  a  company  in  Ran- 
dolph in  the  fall  of  1862  and  drilled  for  two  weeks,  only  to  be 
rejected  as  being  over  age  and  of  impaired  vision.  Mr.  Wells' 
ardor  in  the  cause  of  temperance  gave  it  an  impetus  in  this 
community  that  is  felt  to  this  day;  and  so  with  every  move- 
ment in  which  he  became  interested,  giving  lavishly  of  his  time 
and  means  to  accomplish  any  worthy  public  object.  Mr. 
Wells  was  a  man  of  rare  intellectual  attainments  and  learning. 
His  intelligent  interest  in  the  town  schools  never  flagged,  and 
by  precept  and  example  he  sought  to  impress  the  young  with 
the  necessity  for  habits  of  industry  and  self  control.  He  had 
no  patience  with  cant  or  hypocrisy  but  lived  a  life  of  sterling, 
unpretentious  honesty  in  the  sight  of  all  men.  His  marriage 
with  Miss  Eliza  Carpenter,  second  daughter  of  Judge  Dan 


Carpenter,  January  13,  1831,  was  a  remarkably  happy  union. 
Of  this  marriage  seven  sons  and  one  daughter  were  reared; 
two  children  died  in  infancy.  Roswell  White  Wells  was  born 
November  14,  1833,  died  February  4,  1883;  Edward  Wells, 
born  October  30,  1835,  died  February  19,  1907;  William  Wells, 
born  December  14,  1837,  died  April  29,  1892;  Curtis  Wells, 
born  February  i,  1840,  died  March  16,  1898;  Charles  Wells, 
born  June  22,  1845;  Sarah  Carpenter  Wells,  June  22,  1845; 
Henry  Wells,  born  February  15,  1848,  died  January  7,  191 1; 
Frederic  Howard,  born  September  27,  1851.  The  father, 
William  Wellington  Wells,  and  the  mother,  Sarah  Carpenter 
Wells,  of  this  remarkable  family,  died  respectively  April  9, 
1869,  and  August  5,  1873,  in  Waterbury.  Four  of  the  sons 
served  in  the  War  of  the  Rebellion  in  the  Union  army:  Ed- 
ward, William,  Curtis  and  Charles,  William  attaining  to  the 
rank  of  brevet  major-general  of  volunteers.  General  Wells' 
career  will  be  dwelt  on  more  at  length  in  its  proper  place. 

Roswell  Wells,  the  eldest  of  the  family,  went  to  Waupun, 
Wisconsin,  where  he  entered  upon  a  business  life.  Curtis 
became  the  cashier  of  the  Waterbury  National  Bank,  while 
Edward,  Henry  and  Frederic  were  associated  in  the  old  whole- 
sale drug  firm  of  Wells,  Richardson  &  Company  of  Burlington. 
Charles  for  a  time  was  employed  in  the  Customs  Department 
of  the  Government  and  lived  in  St.  Albans.  Mrs.  Sarah  Car- 
penter (Wells)  Brock  lived  in  Montpelier  where  she  died  on 
the  1st  day  of  July,  1914.  Charles  Wells  now  resides  in  Bur- 

One  of  those  who  came  to  Waterbury  from  Connecticut, 
via  New  Hampshire,  was  John  P.  Calkins  of  New  London. 
Mr.  Calkins  left  his  home  town  for  Canaan,  New  Hampshire, 
but  decided  to  throw  in  his  lot  with  the  new  settlement  at 
Waterbury,  Vermont.  He  settled  here  on  the  river  in  1796, 
and  raised  a  large  family  of  eight  sons  and  three  daughters. 
Most  of  the  descendants  removed  to  Ohio.  Harris,  the  second 
son,  settled  in  Waterbury  where  he  died,  leaving  two  sons  and 
a  daughter;  Clarissa  died  in  Ohio,  aged  eighty-nine.  Mr. 
Calkins,  Sr.,  died  in  1877,  aged  ninety-four,  while  his  wife 
(of  the  New  Hampshire  Gilmans)  died  a  few  years  before. 

PERIOD   1800-1830  53 

aged  eighty-six.  Mr.  Charles  Calkins,  whose  reminiscences 
are  given  later  in  this  book,  writing  in  April,  1879,  of  the 
family's  longevity  says:  "So  there  are  living,  George  aged 
ninety-two,  Jesse  eighty-four  and  Jedediah  eighty-two,  and 
his  wife;  and  but  a  few  years  ago,  Clarissa  died  aged  eighty- 
nine,  Charles,  ninety-four  and  my  mother,  eighty -six."  John 
P.  Calkins  is  mentioned  as  one  of  those  who  supplied  the  pulpit 
in  the  meeting  house  before  the  coming  of  Mr.  Warren. 

Allusion  has  been  made  to  George  Kennan,  whose  long  term 
of  public  service  in  town  and  state  government  made  him  a 
considerable  factor  in  Waterbury's  early  history.  He  served 
as  moderator  and  selectman  in  1794,  1797  and  1804;  he  was 
justice  of  the  peace  and  town  representative.  Mr.  Kennan 
was  the  father  of  three  sons:  George,  who  was  constable  in 
1802  and  selectman  in  1809;  Thomas,  a  clergyman,  who 
married  Sally  Lathrop  February  19,  1795;  and  Jairus,  de- 
scribed by  a  University  of  Vermont  classmate  in  these  words : 
"His  intellectual  powers  were  of  a  high  order  and  he  cultivated 
them  with  untiring  devotion.  He  was  distinguished  for 
warmth  of  feeling,  and  kindness  of  manner,  and,  had  he  lived, 
would  have  taken  high  rank  as  a  philanthropist.  He  was  a 
bright  example  of  what  energy  and  ambition  may  accomplish." 

It  has  been  said  with  truth,  too  often  mixed  with  cheap 
cynicism,  that  among  the  evils  following  in  the  wake  of  civili- 
zation is  the  lawyer.  He  is  usually  hailed  as  a  harbinger  of 
trouble  by  those  who  are  the  first  to  crave  his  assistance  in 
sparsely  settled  communities.  They  succumb  reluctantly  to 
his  ministrations  but  they  ultimately  are  forced  to  recognize 
him  as  an  institution.  This,  no  doubt,  was  the  early  experi- 
ence of  Dan  Carpenter  who  came  as  a  lawyer  to  Waterbury  in 
1804  from  Norwich.  Mr.  Carpenter  had  a  virgin  field  in  the 
Mad  River  Valley,  Duxbury,  Stowe,  Mansfield  and  Water- 
bury;  his  nearest  rival  was  in  Williston. 

In  due  course  Mr.  Carpenter  soon  began  to  fill  places  of 
trust  and  confidence.  He  was  known  and  described  as  a 
sound  lawyer,  of  excellent  practical  judgment  and  a  safe  and 
conservative  adviser.  He  was  married,  January  27,  1805,  at 
Norwich  to  Miss  Betsy  Partridge  and  with  her  commenced 


housekeeping  in  a  modest  one-story  dwelling.  In  1815  he 
built  the  two-story  building  which  has  been  occupied  for  so 
many  years  by  his  grandson,  Franklin  Carpenter.  Eight 
children  were  born  to  Judge  and  Mrs.  Dan  Carpenter,  four  of 
whom  died  in  infancy;  those  reaching  maturity  were  William, 
born  October  25,  1805,  and  three  daughters,  Sarah  P.  (the 
first  wife  of  Paul  Dillingham,  Jr.,  by  whom  there  were  two 
daughters),  born  May  18,  1807;  Eliza,  December  11,  1810,  and 
Julia,  December  3,  1812.  After  the  death  of  Sarah  (Carpen- 
ter) Dillingham,  Paul  Dillingham,  Jr.,  married  Julia  Carpenter 
who  died  September  15,  1898. 

In  these  days  when  an  Act  of  the  Legislature  is  found 
necessary  to  simplify  legal  procedure  by  making  it  still  more 
incomprehensible  we  read  with  astonishment  that  the  limits  of 
a  justice's  jurisdiction  in  the  first  part  of  the  nineteenth  cen- 
tury was  $13!  Naturally  the  county  courts  were  made  the 
tribunal  where  most  cases  were  tried  and  Mr.  Carpenter's 
professional  life  was  a  busy  one.  The  second  lawyer.  Honorable 
Henry  F.  Janes,  had  not  then  come  into  the  field  nor  did  he 
until  181 7.  The  high  estimation  in  which  Mr.  Carpenter  was 
held  is  evinced  by  his  public  service  as  town  clerk  from  1808 
till  1828  in  successive  terms,  excepting  one;  he  was  first  select- 
man most  of  this  time  and  town  representative  from  181 7  till 
1827,  except  for  the  1818  term.  He  became  an  assistant  judge 
of  Washington  County  Court  in  1827  and  held  that  post  for 
eight  successive  years.  As  a  presidential  elector  in  1824,  he 
carried  the  state  ballots  to  Washington.  In  1823  Mr.  Car- 
penter took  as  law  partner  Paul  Dillingham,  Jr.,  who 
succeeded  to  the  practice  on  Mr.  Carpenter's  taking  the 

Notwithstanding  his  manifold  interests,  Mr.  Carpenter 
embarked  in  mercantile  pursuits  with  Charles  R.  Cleaves  in 
1820.  Acquiring  Mr.  Cleaves'  interest,  he  took  as  partner  his 
son,  William  Carpenter,  in  1824.  Ten  years  later  the  firm 
erected  the  brick  store  now  occupied  by  Brisbin  &  Brisbin. 
W.  E.  Carpenter,  a  grandson,  succeeded  to  the  business. 
Judge  Carpenter  died  December  2,  1852,  and  his  wife,  Betsy 
Partridge  Carpenter,  surviving  him  many  years,  passed  away 

Doorway  of  Carpenter   Residence 

Erected  in  1816 
Now  occupied  by  Mr.  Franklin  Carpenter 


PERIOD   1800-1830  55 

in  1875  at  the  age  of  ninety-two.  His  son,  William,  died 
March  17,  1881.  Any  estimate  of  the  worth  of  Judge  Car- 
penter as  a  citizen  would  fall  far  short  of  adequacy  if  it  omitted 
to  mention  his  kindly,  courteous  and  respectful  demeanor;  his 
conscientious  habits  of  life  and  his  quick  and  practical  sym- 
pathy for  those  in  distress.  He  is  described  as  a  man  of  fine 
personality,  nearly  six  feet  high,  slim,  lithe  and  graceful. 

Of  the  third  generation  of  Carpenters,  sons  and  daughters 
of  William  and  Mary  E.  (Partridge)  Carpenter,  there  were: 
Sarah  Louisa,  born  October  28,  1832,  who  married  Erastus 
Spicer,  December  24,  1864,  and  died  February  17,  1887;  George 
Henry,  born  September  25,  1835,  who  married  Helen  Wallace 
of  Aurora,  New  York,  January  23,  1866;  Mary  Partridge,  born 
October  7,  1838,  who  married  M.  O.  Evans  of  Waterbury, 
May  I,  i860,  and  died  November  15,  1872;  Julia  Eliza,  born 
June  10,  1842,  who  married  George  W.  Wheeler  of  Burlington, 
Kansas,  November  12,  1867;  Franklin,  born  June  19,  1845,  who 
married  Ellen  Eliza  Shurtleflf  September  22,  1868,  and  now 
occupies  the  old  Carpenter  residence  on  Main  Street  erected 
in  1816,  and  William  E.,  who  married  Sarah  Moody  June  4, 
1872,  and  now  resides  across  Main  Street  from  the  old  Car- 
penter residence,  the  home  of  his  brother  Franklin. 

Interesting  reminiscences  of  the  decade  between  1823  and 
1833  are  still  extant,  which  were  reduced  to  writing  by  Mr. 
Charles  G.  Calkins,  whose  boyhood  was  spent  in  Waterbury 
and  whose  later  life  was  passed  in  Ohio.  At  this  time  the 
"street"  or  what  is  now  Main  Street  was  the  main  artery  of 
traffic  and  travel.  A  small  settlement  had  sprung  up  on  the 
Mill  or  Thatcher  Brook;  a  turnpike  led  across  the  "interval" 
over  the  farms  of  General  Peck,  Amasa  Pride  and  the  Wells 
estate.  This  turnpike  crossed  the  river  near  Deacon  Mun- 
son's  and  continued  up  a  slight  hill  to  the  level  place  where 
was  located  the  old-time  "tavern."  Mr.  Calkins  also  speaks 
of  the  small  common  which  later  became  the  site  of  the  meet- 
ing house  built  in  1824.  East  of  this  stood  the  stores  of  Car- 
penter &  Cleaves  and  other  firms,  as  that  of  Pride  &  Hutchins 
near  the  brow  of  the  hill  facing  on  the  Stowe  road.  The  post 
office  was  maintained  in  the  law  office  of  H.  F.  Janes,  Esq.,  from 


which  issued  quarterly  bills  for  postage  which  were  described  as 
"models  of  neatness  and  economy  of  ink  and  paper."  Stamps 
and  envelopes  were  yet  to  make  their  appearance ;  postage  was 
rarely  prepaid  and  "used  to  range  from  six  and  one-fourth 
cents  to  twenty-five  cents  on  single  pieces  of  paper." 

Other  homes  on  the  street  were  those  of  Esquire  Carpenter, 
Doctor  Pierce  and  neighboring  families.  The  "interval"  was 
occupied  by  a  tannery  and  a  few  other  shops  and  later  the 
brick  dwellings  of  L.  Hutchins  on  the  Stowe  road  and  of  Es- 
quire Janes  on  the  south  side  of  the  road,  on  the  lower  plateau 
west,  near  the  brook.  The  tavern  on  this  plateau  was  erected 
later  by  a  Mr.  Allen  and  was  a  building  of  three  stories  and 
was  a  famous  landmark  with  its  dead  black  barns,  sheds  and 
outbuildings.  Wholesome  cheer  was  furnished  man  and  beast 
by  the  owner  and  landlord,  Mr.  Parmalee.  Important  build- 
ing additions  made  toward  the  end  of  this  decade  were  the 
brick  dwellings  of  Mr.  Pride  and  Mr.  Charles  Cleaves,  which 
latter  stood  next  east  of  the  meeting  house.  (This  was  sold  to 
Paul  Dillingham,  Jr.,  about  1 830-1 835  and  is  now  occupied 
by  Mrs.  W.  F.  Minard.)  This  place  of  worship  was  built  in 
1824  and  is  described  by  Mr.  Calkins  from  memory  as 

A  substantial  and  capacious  two-story  building  with  a  steeple  comprising 
a  square  section,  then  an  open  belfry,  surmounted  by  a  cupola  with  blinds 
covered  by  a  tinned  dome  above  which  was  a  spire  with  a  vane  from  which 
extended  a  lightning  tractor  to  the  ground.  The  interior  was  nearly  square, 
with  two  ranges  of  body  pews  and  one  next  each  wall.  The  pews  were 
finished  with  pine  unpainted  and  were  a  medium  between  the  high  built 
box  pews  of  older  times  and  the  modern  slips.  Each  had  a  panel  door  with 
a  wood  button  and  they  were  not  numbered.  They  were  all  private  prop- 
erty held  as  real  estate.  There  was  a  gallery  all  round;  the  choir  occupying 
the  semi-circular  section  towards  the  front  of  the  building  and  the  commo- 
dious pulpit  was  in  front  of  and  below  the  choir  and  had  a  crimson  curtain 
inside  of  small  turned  half-columns  inclosing  all  the  semi-circular  front, 
with  crimson  tassels  hung  around  the  cornice  and  a  somewhat  gorgeous 
cushion  with  tassels  surmounting  the  book  stand.  The  front  of  the  pulpit 
was  supported  by  a  single  pillar  and  the  communion  table  stood  in  the 
open  space  underneath. 

It  seems  that  attendance  on  the  services  at  the  new  meeting 
house  included  a  few  families  of  the  Congregational  persuasion 
as  well  as  a  number  of  non-communicants.     Reverend  Daniel 

PERIOD   1800-1830  57 

Warren  was  the  first  minister  to  occupy  the  pulpit  as  the  regu- 
lar incumbent.  Mr.  Calkins  describes  with  photographic 
accuracy  the  impressions  produced  upon  the  retina  of  his 
youthful  memory  by  these  awesome  services ;  how  Judge  Butler 
would  enter  alone  usually  and  walk  solemnly  to  his  pew ;  how 
Esquire  Carpenter  with  his  mother  and  daughters  and  Paul 
Dillingham,  Jr.,  his  law  partner  and  son-in-law,  were  wont  to 
be  in  attendance;  how  Mr.  Pride  and  his  wife  sat  in  front  of 
these  in  the  same  tier  and  how  distinctly  were  remembered 
the  locations  of  the  pews  of  Doctor  Drew,  Deacon  Dutton,  Pitt 
Butler,  Asa  Austin,  Enoch  Bean,  Deacon  Allen,  Deacon  Mun- 
son,  John  Stearns,  Luther  Cleaves,  Sayles  Hawley,  the  Wells 
families,  and  others.  Speaking  of  the  performances  of  the 
choir,  Mr,  Calkins  whimsically  and  feelingly  remarks  that 
they  were  "never  listened  to  critically  then  but  now  it  seems 
no  choral  effort  could  or  need  transcend  its  effect  on  the  soul 
of  a  half-awakened  boy." 

Mr.  Calkins  speaks  entertainingly  of  visits  to  his  home  near 
the  mills  in  Waterbury,  of  Governor  Butler  and  how,  as  a 
boy,  he  sought  to  propitiate  the  governor  into  relating  his 
experiences  by  running  out  to  feed  his  fine,  fat  bay  chaise 
horse  till  Elder  Butler  forbade  him,  saying,  "a  horse  don't 
want  to  eat  all  the  time  more  than  a  man." 

The  meeting  house  described  by  Mr.  Calkins  was  the  edi- 
fice erected  thirty-four  years  after  the  town's  organization. 
Meetings  had  been  held  in  schoolhouses,  residences  and  barns 
before  this.  Every  project  for  a  union  meeting  house  had 
proved  abortive.  It  was  not  until  Judge  Carpenter,  Amasa 
Pride  and  Roswell  Wells  took  the  matter  in  hand  that  the 
building  of  the  Congregational  Meeting  House  became  an 
assured  fact. 

With  the  year  1820  the  population  of  Waterbury  had  at- 
tained to  1,269  souls.  The  "era  of  good  feeling"  had  arrived 
at  its  apogee  under  the  administrations  of  Presidents  Monroe 
and  John  Quincy  Adams  and  the  State  Governors  from  Martin 
Chittenden  to  Samuel  C.  Crafts.  Political  capital  was  sought 
to  be  made  over  the  circumstance  that  Governor  Martin 
Chittenden  declined  to  order  out  the  militia  for  the  defence  of 


Plattsburg,  instead  of  calling  upon  them  as  volunteers.  Chit- 
tenden's answer  to  this  must  have  effectually  stopped  the 
mouths  of  the  malcontents  when  he  pointed  out  that  "as  no 
portion  of  the  Vermont  militia  had  been  detached  by  the 
President  for  the  service  of  the  United  States,  a  call  upon  pa- 
triotic citizens  for  their  voluntary  services  was,  in  this  case, 
considered  to  be  the  only  mode  by  which  efficient  and  timely 
aid  could  be  afforded." 

Martin  Chittenden  was  no  weakling  as  his  record  attests. 
While  acknowledging  with  gratitude  the  providential  inter- 
position which  frustrated  the  hostile  attempts  of  the  enemy  and 
averted  from  our  borders  the  horrors  of  war,  he  stoutly  ad- 
hered to  his  original  opinion  as  to  the  propriety  of  the  war, 
declaring  that  he  "conscientiously  disapproved  of  it  as  un- 
necessary, unwise  and  hopeless  in  all  its  offensive  operations." 
The  several  terms  of  Governor  Galusha,  succeeding  Martin 
Chittenden,  were  comparatively  uneventful.  When  Richard 
Skinner  became  governor  in  1820,  Waterbury's  sterHng  citizen 
and  able  town  representative.  Judge  Dan  Carpenter,  improved 
his  opportunity  of  voting  for  a  resolution  of  remonstrance 
against  the  admission  of  Missouri  into  the  Union  with  a  con- 
stitution "legalizing  slavery  and  the  cruel  and  unnatural  traffic 
in  human  blood,  and  instructing  Vermont's  senators  and  repre- 
sentatives in  Congress  to  exert  their  influence  and  use  all  legal 
measures  to  prevent  it."  The  succeeding  administrations  of 
Governors  Skinner  and  Van  Ness  were  noteworthy  for  legis- 
lative attempts  at  securing  to  Vermont  the  passage  of  an  act 
of  Congress  appropriating  to  the  use  of  the  state,  for  the  pur- 
poses of  education,  such  portions  of  the  public  lands  as  should 
be  equitable  and  just;  also  in  1824  on  the  recommendation  of 
Governor  Van  Ness  the  Legislature  passed  an  Act  giving  the 
choice  of  presidential  and  vice-presidential  electors  to  the 
people  by  a  general  ticket,  which  measures  were  supported  by 
Waterbury's  representative.  Judge  Carpenter. 

It  was  during  Governor  Van  Ness'  administration  that  the 
Marquis  de  La  Fayette  made  his  memorable  visit  to  Vermont 
upon  invitation  extended  by  the  governor  at  the  instance  of 
the  Legislature.     The  distinguished  guest  entered  the  state 

PERIOD    1 800-1 830  59 

at  Windsor  June  28,  1825,  and  came  to  Montpelier  where  an 
enthusiastic  reception  was  given  him.  On  his  way  to  Burling- 
ton, through  Waterbury,  he  passed  the  Butler  home  and  tar- 
ried to  greet  Miss  Fannie  Butler  (afterwards  Mrs.  Henry  F. 
Janes),  to  whom  the  state's  distinguished  guest  was  presented 
by  Governor  Van  Ness. 

When,  upon  the  expiration  of  Governor  Van  Ness'  last  term 
as  chief  executive,  Ezra  Butler  was  elected  governor  in  1826, 
the  lottery  traffic  had  become  rampant,  Mr.  Butler  sought  to 
curb  the  evil  and  made  strong  recommendations  in  his  speech 
to  the  Assembly.  A  law  was  passed  prohibiting  the  sale  of 
lottery  tickets  without  a  license  under  penalty  of  a  heavy  fine. 
His  next  term  for  the  year  1827  marked  the  first  attempt  at  a 
systematized  department  of  education  in  the  state.  Governor 
Butler  recommended  the  appointment  in  each  town  or  county 
of  commissioners  whose  function  it  should  be  to  examine  teach- 
ers and  to  exercise  general  supervision  over  the  schools.  Ac- 
cordingly, a  new  plan  tending  to  improvement  of  the  schools 
and  insuring  uniformity  in  methods  of  instruction  was  adopted 
by  the  Legislature.  This  provided  for  the  appointment  of  a 
superintending  committee  annually  in  each  town;  that  no 
teacher  should  be  employed  in  the  public  schools  who  had  not 
been  examined  by  the  committee  and  who  had  not  received 
from  them  a  certificate  of  his  qualifications  for  teaching 
(H  Thompson's  Vermont,  page  100).  Five  commissioners, 
having  general  supervision  of  educational  matters  in  the  state, 
were  also  provided  for.  They  were  required  to  procure  and 
circulate  information  on  the  subject,  recommend  suitable  books 
to  be  used  in  the  schools,  inquire  into  the  necessity  for 
changes  in  the  school  laws  and  file  an  annual  report  addressed 
to  the  Legislature. 

Perhaps  no  written  or  printed  words  of  Ezra  Butler  reflect 
the  uncompromisingly  devout  spirit  of  the  man  as  do  those  of 
his  Thanksgiving  proclamation  dated  October  25,  1827,  which 
runs  in  part  as  follows: 

If  the  inspired  Psalmist  deemed  it  important  to  pay  his  vows  of  thanks- 
giving and  praise  unto  the  Lord,  in  the  Courts  of  the  Lord's  House, 
AND  IN  THE  PRESENCE  OF  ALL  THE  PEOPLE,  for  the  individual  blessings 


which  he  had  received,  how  much  more  becoming  it  is  for  a  whole  com- 
munity, when  they  enjoy  common  blessings,  to  unite  at  one  time  and  with 
one  consent,  in  publick  and  social  acts  of  thanksgiving  and  praise,  to  the 
common  author  of  all  their  mercies?  Such  common  blessings  are  enjoyed 
by  us  as  a  commonwealth  and  therefore,  such  social  acts  of  praise,  such  a 
concert  of  thanksgiving  highly  becomes  us  as  a  community. 

In  conformity,  therefore  with  the  usage  of  our  forefathers,  and  with  the 
fullest  conviction  of  the  fitness  of  that  usage,  I  do  hereby  at  the  request  of 
the  General  Assembly,  and  by  advice  of  the  Council,  appoint  Thursday, 
the  sixth  day  of  December  next  to  be  observed,  throughout  this  state,  as 
a  day  of  Publick  Thanksgiving  and  Praise.  .  .  .  With  the  spirit 
of  thanksgiving,  stands  connected  also,  a  sense  of  dependence,  and  a  con- 
viction that  all  our  future  blessings  must  come  from  the  same  merciful 
hand  that  has  hitherto  supplied  us.  Our  praises,  therefore,  should  be 
mingled  with  prayer,  that  the  God  of  love  would,  for  the  sake  of  his  Son 
Jesus  Christ  our  Lord  still  continue  his  favors;  that  he  would  continue 
to  bless  our  state,  its  officers  and  its  citizens;  that  he  would  bless  the  United 
States,  the  President,  and  all  the  officers  of  the  general  and  several  state 
governments;  that  he  would  bless  and  prosper  the  cause  of  political  liberty, 
in  this  and  the  other  hemisphere;  and  especially  that  he  would  bless  the 
gospel  of  his  Son,  and  extend  and  strengthen  its  influence  through  the 
whole  earth,  until  the  Kingdoms  of  this  world,  shall  become  the  Kingdom 
of  our  Lord  and  Saviour  Jesus  Christ. 

Given  under  my  hand,  in  Council  Chamber  at  Montpelier  this  twenty- 
fifth  day  of  October,  in  the  Year  of  our  Lord  one  thousand  eight  hundred 
and  twenty-seven,  etc.,  etc. 

By  his  excellency  the  Governor 

[seal]  Ezra  Butler. 

Daniel  Kellogg,  Secretary. 

Attempts  were  made  as  early  as  1829  to  crystallize  the  anti- 
Masonic  sentiment  in  the  state  into  party  issues  and  to  nomi- 
nate a  complete  list  of  state  officers  at  an  Anti-Masonic  State 
Convention,  held  August  15,  1829.  This  movement  took  its 
origin  in  the  alleged  abduction  of  William  Morgan  in  1826  for 
certain  disclosures  he  was  supposed  to  have  made  regarding 
Masonry.  A  letter  to  Ezra  Butler,  a  delegate  to  the  State 
Convention,  from  Royal  Makepeace  Ransom  of  South  Wood- 
stock, dated  July  23,  1829,  is  interesting  as  showing  that 
though  the  writer  himself  was  personally  opposed  to  Masonic 
candidates  for  office  yet  he  deplored  pressing  the  nomination 
of  an  anti-Masonic  ticket.  "It  appears  to  me,"  says  the  cor- 
respondent, "that  such  a  course  would  be  very  impolitic  to 

PERIOD    1800-1830  61 

say  the  least  of  it.  I f  we  are  to  make  a  ticket  .  .  .  what 
do  we  attempt  to  do  but  to  act  on  the  same  principles  that  we 
believe  govern  Masons?  That  is,  to  bias  the  votes  which 
should  be  free,  and  set  up  our  standard  for  others  to  be  gov- 
erned by  in  the  discharge  of  a  duty  concerning  which  they  have 
sworn  to  follow  the  dictates  of  their  own  consciences,  alone, 
guided  to  be  sure  by  their  oaths  to  support  the  Constitution. 
Besides,  shall  we  not  in  that  case  plead  guilty  to  a  very  serious' 
charge  of  opposing  Masonry  as  a  hobby  to  ride  into  ofifice  upon 
and  ought  we  not  to  give  a  clear,  unequivocal  and  full  denial  of 
such  a  charge  and  to  act  accordingly?  It  appears  to  me  that 
these  questions  should  be  answered  in  the  afifirmative  and,  if 
so,  some  measures  I  think  should  be  taken  to  bring  the  minds 
of  the  convention  to  the  subject  and  .  .  .  above  all 
things  avoid  acting  out  the  same  principles  we  condemn  in 

Feeling  on  the  subject  ran  high  and  many  unavoidable 
clashes  occurred;  indeed,  the  subject  was  uppermost  in  the 
minds  of  the  clergy,  as  well  as  the  laity,  as  is  shown  by  the 
following  extract  from  a  letter  from  a  correspondence  committee 
to  Ezra  Butler  asking  his  presence  at  a  meeting  in  June,  1830, 
in  Randolph :  "The  object  of  this  meeting  is  to  bring  Specula- 
tive Free  Masonry,  before  an  ecclesiastical  tribunal,  for  public 
examination.  The  object  is,  or  ought  to  be  interestingly 
dear  to  every  Christian  and  one  in  which  the  churches,  under 
present  circumstances  are  deeply  interested.  Some  of  the 
most  wealthy  and  reputable  gentlemen  in  Randolph  are  afford- 
ing us  all  aid  in  their  power  in  making  arrangements  to  ac- 
commodate the  meeting,  etc.,  etc." 

Governor  Butler's  public  life  practically  closed  with  his 
second  term  as  governor.  During  a  busy  political  and  public 
career  he  continued  pastor  of  the  Baptist  Church  without 
salary  or  remuneration  until  within  a  few  years  of  his  death. 
No  authentic  likeness  of  him  has  been  preserved,  but  he  is 
described  as  having  a  slightly  stooping  form,  dark  and  sallow 
complexion,  keen  black  eye,  calm,  authoritative  tone  and 
intellectual  cast  of  countenance.  When  he  died,  July  12, 
1838,  at  the  age  of  seventy-five  years,  he  left  an  invaluable 


bequest  to  Waterbury  in  the  example  of  a  life  well  spent  in  the 
faithful  service  of  the  community. 

Governor  Samuel  C.  Crafts,  who  had  been  chosen  in  1828 
and  1829,  was  again  chosen  in  1830, — ^though  his  choice  was 
possible  only  after  thirty- two  ballots  in  the  Legislature,  and 
this  date  brings  us  to  the  beginning  of  the  last  half  of  Water- 
bury's  second  historical  period. 



Politically,  the  injection  of  the  anti- Masonic  issue  was 
directly  the  cause  of  three  successive  failures  by  the  people  to 
elect  a  governor.  In  1830,  as  we  have  seen,  the  National  Re- 
publican and  Masonic  candidate  was  Mr.  Crafts;  the  anti- 
Masonic  candidate  was  Mr.  William  A.  Palmer,  and  the  ad- 
ministration candidate  was  Mr.  Meech.  In  the  Legislature, 
where  the  choice  rested,  Mr.  Crafts  was  the  successful  candi- 
date. The  same  routine  was  undergone  in  183 1  and  Mr.  Palmer 
was  chosen  by  the  Legislature.  Again  in  1832  the  Legis- 
lature was  obliged  to  intervene  and  chose  Mr.  Palmer  as 
governor  on  the  forty-third  ballot.  In  1833  Mr.  Palmer  was 
again  elected,  this  time  by  the  people,  but  in  1834  there  was 
another  failure  of  election  by  popular  vote  and  Mr.  Palmer 
was  reelected  by  the  General  Assembly.  Apparently  the 
elective  function  of  the  people  had  fallen  into  partial  disuse, 
for  the  year  1835  still  found  the  three  parties  an  obstacle  to  a 
popular  election,  excepting  that  of  Lieutenant-Governor  Jeni- 
son  and  the  state  treasurer.  Fruitless  attempts  were  made 
for  the  greater  part  of  three  weeks  by  joint  committees  of  the 
Assembly  to  agree  upon  a  governor,  but  they  were  finally 
obliged  to  call  on  the  lieutenant-governor  to  fill  the  office  of 
chief  executive.  The  year  1836  was  important  from  the  fact 
that  it  marked  the  abolition  of  the  Council  which,  with  the 
governor,  had  come  perilously  near  to  usurping  coordinate 
legislative  powers  with  the  House  of  Representatives.  The 
Constitution  was  so  amended  as  to  provide  for  a  Senate  in  the 
place  of  the  Council,  having  powers  similar  to  those  of  the 
senates  of  the  several  states. 

Silas  H.  Jenison  was  elected  this  time,  by  the  people,  as 
governor  and  again  in  1837  and  1838.  Meanwhile  the  nucleus 
of  the  Whig  party  had  been  formed  with  the  choice  of  presi- 
dential electors  in  1832,  under  the  anti-Masonic  designation. 



The  combination  of  the  national  RepubHcans  and  the  anti- 
Masons  formed  the  Whig  party,  which  soon  came  into  control. 
There  had  been  an  acute  financial  panic,  an  abortive  rebellion 
in  Lower  Canada  which  some  of  our  too  eager  Vermonters 
were  reckless  enough  to  support,  and  the  first  concerted  efforts 
of  those  who  afterwards  formed  the  anti-slavery  party.  These 
were  some  of  the  matters  engaging  the  attention  of  the  people 
of  Waterbury  during  the  successive  administrations  of  Gover- 
nor Jenison,  down  to  and  including  the  year  1840. 

Properly  of  this  period,  though  born  in  Brimfield,  Massa- 
chusetts, October  18,  1792,  was  the  Honorable  Henry  F.  Janes, 
the  third  son  of  Solomon  and  Beulah  Fisk  Janes.  When  a 
mere  lad  he  came  with  his  father's  family  to  Calais  where  his 
boyhood  was  passed,  and  from  which  town  his  brother.  Pardon, 
was  representative  in  the  Assembly.  Henry  F.  Janes  studied 
law  in  Montpelier,  and  it  was  during  his  residence  there  that 
he  received  his  commission  as  ensign  with  the  Vermont  troops 
in  the  War  of  18 12,  going  with  his  company  to  the  Battle  of 
Plattsburg.  He  came  to  Waterbury  in  181 7,  where  he  made 
his  home  and  lived  for  sixty-two  years.  "Esquire"  Janes,  as 
he  was  known,  practiced  law  here,  having  as  a  rival  practi- 
tioner Judge  Dan  Carpenter.  He  was  married  in  1826  to 
Miss  Fanny  Butler,  the  daughter  of  Ezra  Butler,  who  was 
born  in  1800  and  died  in  1881. 

Mr.  Janes  received  the  appointment  of  postmaster  soon 
after  coming  to  Waterbury  and  held  the  office  till  about  1829. 
He  was  one  of  the  State  Council  five  years,  commencing  in 
1830;  a  member  of  Congress  three  years,  commencing  in  1834; 
state  treasurer,  three  years,  commencing  in  1838;  a  member 
of  the  Council  of  Censors  in  1848,  and  town  representative 
in  1854,  1861  and  1862.     His  postmaster's  appointment  reads: 

Return  J  Meigs,  Jun.  Post  Master  General 


United  States  of  America 
To  All  Who  Shall  See  These  Presents,  Greeting: 

Know  ye,  That  confiding  in  the  Integrity,  Ability,  and  Punctuality  of 
Henry  F.  Janes  Esq.  I  do  appoint  him  a  Post-master,  and  authorize  him 
to  execute  the  duties  of  that  Office  at  Waterbury,  Washington  County  and 

PERIOD    1830-1850  65 

State  of  Vermont  according  to  the  laws  of  the  United  States,  and  such 
Regulations  conformable  thereto,  as  he  shall  receive  from  me:  To  Hold 
the  said  office  of  Post-master,  with  all  the  Powers,  Priveleges  and  Emol- 
uments to  the  same  belonging,  during  the  pleasure  of  the  Post-master 
General  of  the  United  States,  for  the  time  being. 

In  Testimony  whereof,  I  have  hereunto  set  my  hand  and  caused  the  seal 
of  my  office  to  be  affixed,  at  Washington  City,  the  twenty  ninth  day  of 
March  in  the  year  of  our  Lord  one  thousand  eight  hundred  and  Twenty  and 
of  the  independence  of  the  United  States  the  Forty  fourth. 

R.  J.  Meigs  Jr. 
Registered  19th  day  of  April  1820 

Thos.  Arbuckle 

Mr.  Janes  is  described  as  a  man  who  "without  avarice 
acquired  a  competent  fortune ;  and  without  lust  for  power  or 
a  resort  to  sinister  means,  but  solely  through  the  solidity  of 
his  judgment  and  the  unquestioned  probity  of  his  character, 
early  attained  a  commanding  influence  in  his  town,  his  county 
and  his  state."  Mrs.  Janes  is  said  to  have  been  a  lady  "of 
the  gentlest  refinement  without  the  least  affectation,  or  love  of 
display,  inheriting  the  religious  traits  of  her  father  and  was 
greatly  beloved  and  esteemed  by  all  who  knew  her." 

An  appreciation  of  Mr.  Janes,  by  Edwin  F.  Palmer,  Esq., 
sums  up  his  character  in  the  following  striking  manner:  "No 
man  ever  saw  more  clearly  than  he,  that  in  the  very  nature  of 
God's  moral  government  nothing  is,  or  can  be  even  expedient, 
that  is  not  intrinsically  just;  and  no  man  ever  pursued  more 
willingly  or  tenaciously  what  his  conscience,  illumined  by  a 
powerful  judgment,  taught  him  was  just." 

The  Janes  home  was  on  the  site  of  the  residence  so  long 
occupied  by  Doctor  Henry  Janes  and  devised  by  him  to  the 
Library  Association. 

Henry  F.  Janes  was  elected  to  represent  the  Fourth  Congres- 
sional District  in  Congress  for  the  term  of  two  years,  from. 
March  3,  1835,  and  also  to  fill  the  vacancy  occasioned  by  the 
death  of  Benjamin  F.  Deming.  His  certificates  of  election 
were  both  dated  November  25,  1834,  one  of  which  reads: 

State  of  Vermont. 
Be  it  remembered  that  at  a   freeman's  meeting  legally  warned  and 
holden  in  the  fourth  Congressional  District  in  said  State  on  the  second 


Tuesday  of  November  A.  D.  1834,  Hon.  Henry  F.  Janes  was  duly  elected 
a  Representative  to  represent  this  state  in  the  Congress  of  the  United 
States  for  the  term  of  two  years  from  and  after  the  3rd  day  of  March 

In  testimony  whereof  I  have,  as  Governor  of  the  State  aforesaid, 
[seal]     caused  the  Seal  of  the  State  to  be  hereunto  affixed  and  subscribed 
my  name  at  Danville,  this  25th  day  of  November  Anno  Domini, 
one  thousand  eight  hundred  and  thirty  four. 

H.  A.  Palmer 
By  His  Excellency's  command 
Geo.  B.  Manser. 


Honorable  Henry  F.  Janes  took  his  seat  in  the  National 
House  of  Representatives  December  2,  1834.  He  voted  in 
favor  of  the  resolution  calling  upon  President  Andrew  Jackson 
for  all  communications  between  this  country  and  Great  Britain 
since  the  rejection  of  the  advisory  opinion  of  the  King  of  the 
Netherlands  relating  to  the  disputed  northeastern  boundary 
between  New  Brunswick  and  Maine.  He  favored  tabling  a 
resolution  inimical  to  the  abolition  of  slavery  in  the  District 
of  Columbia  and  was  active  in  the  matter  of  securing  pensions 
for  soldiers  in  the  War  of  the  Revolution.  He  presented  a 
resolution,  March  21,  1836,  that  the  secretary  of  war  be 
directed  to  lay  before  the  House  a  report  of  the  United  States 
engineer  relative  to  the  survey  of  a  canal  from  Wells  River  to 
Burlington,  Vermont.  He  voted  for  a  suspension  of  the  rules 
to  take  up  the  bill  repealing  the  fourteenth  section  of  the  Act 
incorporating  the  subscribers  to  the  Bank  of  the  United  States. 
Mr.  Janes  made  appropriate  remarks  upon  the  passing  away 
of  Honorable  Benjamin  F.  Deming  of  Vermont,  who  died  July 
II,  1834.  Among  his  colleagues  were  such  men  as  Hiland 
Hall,  Horace  Everett  and  Heman  Allen  of  Vermont,  Franklin 
Pierce  of  New  Hampshire,  and  Rufus  Choate,  John  Q.  Adams 
and  Edward  Everett  of  Massachusetts. 

After  Mr.  Pride's  term  as  town  representative  in  1836,  above 
referred  to,  a  poem  attributed  to  William  C.  Bradley  of  West- 
minster, was  given  wide  publication.  The  poem  bemoaned  the 
departure  of  the  various  members  of  the  Legislature  from 
Montpelier  after  the  adjournment  of  the  session  of  1836  and 
is  entitled  "A  Lamentation."     It  contains  eight  stanzas  and 

PERIOD    1830-1850  67 

cleverly  plays  upon  the  names  of  the  members.     Four  stanzas 
are  given: 

Montpelier  mourns — her  streets  are  still, 

Save  when  the  street-yarn  ladies  spin, 
And  scarce  a  stranger's  seen  at  Mann's 

Or  Campbell's,  or  at  Cottrill's  inn. 

The  guardians  of  the  people's  rights 

Have  done  their  work,  gone  home  to  prove  it; 

And  let  the  State  House  stand,  because 
Barnum  and  Bailey  could  not  move  it. 

if  in  ie  *  it 

Their  Forest  and  their  Woods  are  filled, 

The  Major  who  their  forces  led, 
Has  broken  up  his  glittering  Camp, 

And  friendly  Scott  and  French  are  fled. 

Yes,  all  is  lost — and  those  who've  gone 

Have  long  e'er  now  perchance  forgot  'em — 

They've  lost  their  Solace,  lost  their  Child, 
And  lost  their  Pride,  and  Hyde,  and  Bottum. 

Mr.  Russell  Butler,  in  his  supplemental  papers  to  the  Water- 
bury  sketches  in  Hemenway's  History  of  Washington  County, 
gives  some  interesting  facts  about  the  place  filled  by  Leander 
Hutchins  in  the  town.  He  was  born  in  Montpelier  June  27, 
1798,  and  there  grew  to  manhood.  At  an  early  age  he  entered 
commercial  life  in  the  West  and  South.  In  1822  he  came  to 
Waterbury;  shortly  thereafter  he  associated  with  him,  in  a 
mercantile  copartnership,  Amasa  Pride  and  Roswell  Wells, 
under  the  firm  name  and  style  of  L.  Hutchins  &  Company. 
The  store  was  in  a  small  wooden  building  on  the  site  of  the  old 
"corner  store"  building  on  the  southeast  corner  of  Main  and 
Stowe  Streets.  This  latter  was  erected  by  Mr.  Hutchins  in 
1833,  also  a  dwelling  adjoining  Knight's  block  on  the  east. 
In  1826  the  firm  name  was  changed  to  Hutchins  &  Pride; 
subsequently  to  Hutchins,  Wells  &  Company;  then  L.  &  Geo. 
W.  Hutchins  in  1835.  In  1845  Mr.  Leander  Hutchins  erected 
and  equipped  a  starch  factory  near  the  Center;  this  was 
destroyed  by  fire  and  not  rebuilt. 

Mr.  Hutchins  became  interested  with  Esquire  Janes  in  the 


purchase  of  a  tract  of  Vermont  wild  lands  owned  by  the  Board- 
man  Brothers  of  New  York  and,  in  addition  to  his  other  enter- 
prises, undertook  the  personal  management  of  his  farm  on  the 
hill  road  to  Stowe,  about  one  and  one-half  miles  from  Water- 
bury  Village.  He  married  Miss  Martha  Pride  January  30, 
1826,  who  died  in  December,  1834,  leaving  two  daughters, 
Mrs.  C.  W.  Arms  and  Mrs.  Doctor  Woodward.  Mr.  Hutchins 
remarried,  in  1837,  Miss  Martha  Atkins  becoming  his  second 
wife.  Mr.  Hutchins  died  February  17,  1879,  aged  eighty  years. 
He  was  the  type  of  conservative,  substantial  business  man 
whose  sound  judgment,  careful  counsel,  and  strong  coopera- 
tion were  always  sought  in  matters  affecting  public  interest. 
His  sturdy  support  to  any  cause  to  which  he  loaned  his  name 
was  a  reliable  prop.  A  member  of  the  Congregational  Church, 
Mr.  Hutchins  contributed  largely  to  its  support.  He  is 
described  as  being  reserved  in  manner,  opposed  to  ostentation, 
and  modest  and  retiring  in  tastes  and  habits.  He  preserved 
a  consistent  aloofness  from  political  office,  notwithstanding 
the  preferment  that  was  his  at  his  slightest  sign.  As  a  busi- 
ness man  of  ready  familiarity  with  fiscal  affairs,  he  served  the 
town  as  treasurer  for  twelve  years  and,  when  the  bank  of 
Waterbury  was  organized,  became  its  president  and  ceased 
to  hold  that  office  only  when  he  requested  to  be  relieved  from 
its  responsibility.  A  sketch  of  Mr.  Hutchins  may  be  fittingly 
rounded  out  by  giving  at  this  point  some  reminiscences  of 
Mr.  O.  A.  Seabury  relating  to  the  old  corner  store. 

The  "old  corner  store,"  a  venerated  landmark  to  generations 
of  Waterburyites,  was  built  in  1833  by  Leander  Hutchins  and 
occupied  by  him  as  a  general  merchandise  store  until  it  passed 
under  lease  to  C.  N.  Arms  who,  with  J.  G.  Stimson  under  the 
firm  name  of  Stimson  &  Arms,  had  conducted  a  general  mer- 
chandise business  at  another  stand  on  the  opposite  side  of  the 
street  known  as  the  Stimson  block,  now  a  fruit  store.  After 
this  firm  dissolved,  Curtis  N.  Arms  went  into  business  in  the 
Leander  Hutchins  store.  Mr.  Arms  was  a  very  popular  man 
and  had  the  rare  gift  of  drawing  trade.  He  rarely  refused 
credit  and  never  was  obliged  to  resort  to  law  for  his  collections. 
In  time  the  old  store  became  a  general  rendezvous  or  exchange 

PERIOD    1830-1850  69 

resorted  to  by  the  fun-loving  element  as  well  as  the  disputa- 
tious and  serious  minded  of  the  community.  The  group  of 
daily  habitues  included  lawyers,  physicians,  merchants  and 
men  of  various  occupations,  of  varied  habits  of  thought  and 
trends  of  mind. 

The  fact  that  marks  the  old  store  as  worthy  of  serious  regard 
in  the  community  is  the  part  it  played  as  an  early  training 
school  for  a  remarkably  large  number  of  successful  men. 
Among  those  who  early  came  under  the  notice  of  Mr.  Seabury 
was  John  F.  Henry  who  afterwards  was  prominent  and  success- 
ful in  the  patent  medicine  business  in  this  village,  Burlington 
and  New  York,  where  he  bought  out  Demas  Barnes,  then  at 
the  head  of  the  largest  patent  medicine  house  in  the  world. 
He  formed  the  firm  of  Henry,  Curran  &  Company,  with  B.  H. 
Dewey  as  cashier  and  bookkeeper. 

John  R.  Foster  was  another  whose  early  training  was 
received  in  the  old  store.  Mr.  Foster  became  the  head  of  the 
Foster  Combination  Clothing  Stores  scattered  through  New 
England  and  lived  and  died  in  Clinton,  Massachusetts,  where 
he  was  known  as  the  wealthiest  man  of  the  place,  having  laid 
the  foundation  for  the  Foster  Besse  Company  which  does  a 
large  and  profitable  business  throughout  New  England.  F. 
Chickering  Stone  is  another  graduate  of  the  old  store  business 
school.  Mr.  Stone,  familiarly  known  as  Chick,  went  to 
Saginaw,  Michigan,  and  acquired  a  fortune  in  the  business  of 
lumbermen's  supplies  associated  with  ex-Secretary  of  War 
Alger.  The  name  of  Horatio  Hutchins  naturally  suggests 
itself  as  one  of  the  successful  men  whose  early  experiences  were 
gained  in  the  old  store.  Mr.  Hutchins  became  a  member  of 
the  great  shoe  manufacturing  concern,  known  as  the  Rice 
Hutchins  Company,  and  left  an  estate  valued  at  $1,000,000. 
Mr.  Hutchins  was  a  brother  of  Myron  Hutchins,  now  of 
Waterbury  Center. 

Henry  Smith,  another  successful  merchant  and  associate  of 
J.  R.  Foster  above-named,  met  a  sudden  death  on  the  street 
in  North  Adams,  Massachusetts. 

Charles  Dillingham,  afterwards  colonel,  was  a  clerk  in  the 
old  store  when  the  Civil  War  broke  out.     Subsequently  he 


removed  to  Houston,  Texas,  where  today  he  is  president  of  one 
of  the  prominent  banks  of  that  city.  Edwin  Parker,  now  the 
proprietor  of  a  large  department  store  in  MinneapoHs;  George 
Adams,  who  became  the  head  of  Adams  &  Company,  dealers 
in  patent  medicines  in  Prescott,  Canada;  David  Warden, 
formerly  connected  with  a  department  store  as  buyer  in 
Minneapolis  and  now  retired,  and  Homer  Remington  of  the 
Foster  Besse  Company  in  Willimantic,  Connecticut,  were  all, 
in  their  turn,  disciples  of  business  in  the  old  store. 

Among  the  early  frequenters  of  the  place  were  Elisha  Moody 
and  Esquire  Joseph  Smith.  Honorable  Paul  Dillingham's  law 
office  was  in  the  rear  of  the  store  building  and  accessible  by  a 
walk  between  this  building  and  the  drug  store  adjacent. 

This  walk  was  rarely  used,  however,  as  visitors  much  pre- 
ferred walking  through  the  store  for  the  interest  its  frequenters 
might  possess  for  them ;  in  this  way  the  roster  of  the  elect  was 
augmented.  Another  of  this  group  was  Fred  E.  Smith,  now 
living  in  Minneapolis,  Minnesota,  and  known  as  one  of  the 
most  successful  salesmen  and  department  heads  with  the 
Wyman  Partridge  Company,  a  large  and  prosperous  business 
concern  in  that  city.  Mr.  Smith  is  a  brother  of  Frank  N. 
Smith  and  Mrs.  Minard. 

There  were  also  Jesse  Perry,  Philo  Arms,  Alpha  Atherton, 
Newton  Atherton,  A.  D.  Hawley,  Major  Carpenter,  Luther 
Henry,  Heman  Sherman,  Cornelius  Sherman,  the  village 
blacksmith,  George  H.  Lease  and  others,  members  of  the 
coterie  that  was  wont  to  assemble  in  the  old  store  for  the 
exchange  of  views  on  matters  mundane  and  celestial.  Every 
American  village  worthy  the  name  has  its  "old  store"  to 
which  innumerable  memories  grave  and  gay  attach.  There 
questions  of  local,  state  and  federal  interest  were  wont  to  be 
threshed  out,  public  opinion  crystallized,  charitable  movements 
initiated,  and  the  rights  and  the  wrongs  of  the  community 
canvassed.  Who  can  fix  a  boundary  to  the  influences  that 
have  emanated  from  the  "old  corner  stores"  of  the  villages  of 
the  nation?  While  nearly  every  corner  store  boasts  a  similar 
record,  differing  only  in  degree  of  influence  from  its  fellows, 

PERIOD    1830-1850  71 

it  is  doubtful  whether  any  other  village  in  the  country  can 
boast  one  with  such  a  roster  of  graduates. 

The  anti-slavery  movement  did  not  lack  for  propagandists 
in  Waterbury,  even  before  the  Harrison  and  Tyler  campaign. 
Its  chief  opponents  naturally  were  aligned  with  the  regular 
political  organizations,  until  such  time  as  the  movement  itself 
became  strong  enough  to  draw  to  it  political  strength  from  all 
parties.  The  preachments  of  William  Lloyd  Garrison  found 
ready  converts  in  Waterbury.  The  State  Anti-Slavery 
Society  found  itself  in  need  of  funds  and,  in  response  to  a  call 
made  in  1839,  one  delegate,  according  to  Mr.  Russell  Butler's 
papers,  pledged  $100  from  Waterbury  and  Duxbury,  the  same 
to  be  raised  within  a  year.  This  comparatively  small  sum,  as 
such  a  subscription  would  now  be  regarded,  was  the  largest 
from  any  one  town  in  the  state  and  was  one-twentieth  part 
of  the  whole  amount  required  from  the  state.  It  is  related 
by  Mr.  Butler  that  two  individuals  in  Waterbury  each  sub- 
scribed $100,  and  other  subscriptions  increased  the  total  to 
nearly  $500.  In  the  light  of  other  praiseworthy  instances  of 
support  to  good  causes  afforded  by  those  individuals,  it  is  not 
surprising  to  read  that  they  were  Amasa  Pride  and  Erastus 
Parker,  who  later  became  the  chairman  of  the  Anti-Slavery 

In  the  campaign  of  Harrison  and  Tyler,  Waterbury,  in 
common  with  other  towns  in  Vermont,  was  the  scene  of  great 
political  activity.  There  were  the  "log  cabin"  rallies,  the 
campaign  songs,  the  speech-making  and  other  concomitants 
of  the  liveliest  presidential  campaign  experienced  up  to  that 
time.  Martin  Van  Buren  and  Richard  M,  Johnson  were 
candidates  for  reelection.  Then,  as  now,  hard  times  and 
monetary  derangement  were  the  ostensible  issues.  The 
triumphant  election  of  "Old  Tippecanoe  and  Tyler,  too" 
followed.  In  1841,  the  Anti-Slavery  party  ticket  caused 
another  failure  of  a  popular  election  of  governor,  and  the 
Legislature  chose  Charles  Paine  by  a  majority  of  forty-two 
votes.  The  candidates  were  Nathan  Smilie  on  the  Democratic 
ticket,  Judge  Titus  Hutchinson  on  the  Anti-Slavery  ticket  and 
Charles  Paine  on  the  Whig  ticket.     The  Legislature  of  1841 


was  responsible  for  the  ofifset  feature  of  the  listing  laws  of  the 

Not  for  long  was  the  newly  elected  President  Harrison 
destined  to  occupy  the  presidential  chair.  His  untimely  death 
and  the  succession  of  John  Tyler  were  in  solemn  contrast  with 
the  exuberant  demonstrations  of  the  preceding  year.  Through 
the  courtesy  of  Mrs.  Myrtle  (Caldwell)  Redmond  of  Enos- 
burgh  Falls,  granddaughter  of  Amasa  Pride,  extracts  from  the 
Watchman  and  State  Journal  of  Montpelier  are  given: 


Washington  City,  April  4,  1841. 

The  circumstances  in  which  we  are  placed,  by  the  death  of  the  President, 
render  it  indispensable  for  us,  in  the  recess  of  Congress,  and  in  the  absence 
of  the  Vice-President,  to  make  arrangements  for  the  Funeral  Solemnities. 
Having  consulted  with  the  family  and  personal  friends  of  the  deceased, 
we  have  concluded  that  the  funeral  be  solemnized  on  Wednesday,  the  7th 
inst.  at  12  o'clock.  The  religious  services  to  be  performed  according  to  the 
usage  of  the  Episcopal  Church,  in  which  church  the  deceased  most  usually 
worshipped.  The  body  to  be  taken  from  the  President's  House  to  the 
Congress  burying  ground,  accompanied  by  a  military  and  civic  procession, 
and  deposited  in  the  Receiving  Tomb. 

The  military  arrangements  to  be  under  the  direction  of  Major-General 
Macomb,  the  General  Commanding  in  Chief  of  the  Army  of  the  United 
States;  and  Major-General  Walter  Jones,  of  the  militia  of  the  District  of 

Commodore  Morris,  the  senior  Captain  in  the  Navy  now  in  the  City,  to 
have  the  direction  of  the  naval  arrangements. 

The  Marshal  of  the  District  to  have  the  direction  of  the  civic  procession, 
assisted  by  the  Mayors  of  Washington,  Georgetown,  and  Alexandria,  the 
Clerk  of  the  Supreme  Court  of  the  United  States,  and  such  other  citizens 
as  they  may  see  fit  to  call  to  their  aid. 

John  Quincy  Adams,  ex-President  of  the  United  States,  members  of 
Congress  now  in  this  city  or  neighborhood,  all  the  members  of  the  Diplo- 
matic body  resident  in  Washington,  and  all  officers  of  the  Government,  and 
Citizens  generally,  are  invited  to  attend. 

And  it  is  respectfully  recommended  to  the  officers  that  they  wear  the 
usual  badge  of  mourning. 

Daniel  Webster,  Secretary  of  State. 
Thos.  Ewing,  Secretary  of  Treasury. 
John  Bell,  Secretary  of  War. 
J.  J.  Crittenden,  Attorney  General. 
Francis  Granger,  Postmaster  General. 

PERIOD   1830-1850  73 


John  Tyler,  the  constitutional  successor  of  the  late  President,  arrived  in 
Washington  on  Tuesday  the  6th  inst.and  took  lodgings  at  one  of  the  hotels. 
He  expressed  in  a  becoming  manner  his  sympathy  with  the  bereaved  family 
of  Gen.  Harrison,  and  desired  them  to  occupy  the  President's  house  so  long 
as  they  might  choose  to  remain  at  the  seat  of  government.  It  is  also  stated, 
that  at  a  meeting  of  the  Cabinet,  he  signified  his  wish  that  they  should 
retain  their  respective  offices.  He  subsequently  received  the  oath  of  office, 
as  President,  and  assumes  that  title  in  his  official  acts.  The  National 
Intelligencer  of  the  i8th  contains  his  introductory  address  to  the  People  of 
the  United  States,  which  is  given  in  our  columns.  It  will  be  found  to  con- 
tain a  general  outline  of  the  principles  which  are  to  guide  the  Executive 
during  the  residue  of  the  Presidential  term.  The  new  President  does  not 
allude,  in  direct  terms,  to  the  question  of  slavery,  but  the  import  of  the 
last  two  paragraphs,  coming  from  one  who  is  himself  an  extensive  slave- 
holder and  whose  views  are  so  well  understood,  is  sufficiently  apparent. — 
The  official  influence  of  the  Executive  Department,  as  heretofore,  will  with- 
out doubt  be  thrown  into  the  scale  in  favor  of  the  Slave  Power. 

If  anything,  the  succession  of  President  Tyler  stimulated 
the  Anti-Slavery  party  to  renewed  activity,  for  we  find  that 
Waterbury  was  chosen  as  a  desirable  place  and  July  i  and  2 
as  a  suitable  time  for  an  Anti-Slavery  Convention.  The  fol- 
lowing advertisement  appeared  and  was  widely  circulated 
throughout  central  Vermont: 


The  friends  of  Abolition,  in  Waterbury  and  vicinity,  apprise  their  friends 
through  the  State,  that  entertainment  will  be  provided  for  those  who  come 
from  abroad  to  attend  the  Anti-Slavery  Convention,  notified  to  be  holden 
at  said  Waterbury  the  ist  and  2nd  days  of  July,  1841.  Should  any  come 
into  town  on  Wednesday  evening  to  attend  said  convention,  those  coming 
from  the  North  will  call  on  Rev.  Mr.  Hall  at  Waterbury  Center,  who  will 
direct  them  to  places  of  entertainment;  and  those  coming  from  other  direc- 
tions will  find  some  friend  at  the  public  house  in  Waterbury  Street,  who 
will  give  them  like  directions. 

By  order  of  the  Executive  Committee  of  the  Waterbury  and  Duxbury 
Anti-Slavery  Society. 

Erastus  Parker 


It  has  been  truly  said  that  the  New  England  way  of  propa- 
gating social  or  political  innovations  was  not  at  once  through 
political  parties;  that  there  was  necessary  just  so  long  a  period 


during  which  the  propaganda  was  committed  to  societies. 
The  Anti-Slavery  Society  was  a  fair  example.  Still,  after  the 
Tyler  and  Polk  administrations,  Vermonters  favoring  the 
abolition  of  slavery  grew  impatient  and  cast  about  for  swifter 
and  more  certain  results.  The  Wilmot  Proviso  was  not 
working  out  in  accordance  with  expectations;  the  question  of 
whether  the  recently  acquired  southwestern  territory  should 
be  the  home  of  involuntary  servitude  arose  again.  The  new 
doctrine  of  "Squatter  Sovereignty"  recognizing  the  power  of 
a  state  to  determine  its  own  status  as  between  freedom  and 
slavery  after  admission  to  the  Union,  was  gaining  adherents 
in  spite  of  the  Missouri  Compromise  of  1820.  But  slavery 
was  abhorrent  to  Vermonters — Democrats  and  Whigs  alike; 
while  not  approving  the  arbitrary  counsels  of  the  Abolitionists, 
many  northern  Democrats  were  ready  to  resist  the  sweeping 
away  of  the  Missouri  Compromise  as  affecting  the  territory 
west  of  the  Mississippi.  Vermont  was  not  behind-hand  in 
her  protest.  A  State  Democratic  Convention  was  held  in 
Montpelier  in  April,  1848,  and  it  was  apparent  at  the  outset 
that  differences  were  likely  to  arise  over  the  relative  claims 
of  the  Wilmot  Proviso  and  "Squatter  Sovereignty."  Six 
sturdy  Democrats  held  a  conference  the  evening  before  the 
convention  was  called;  among  these,  and  the  spokesman  for 
the  six  on  the  floor  of  the  convention,  was  the  eloquent  Lucius 
Eugene  Chittenden.  This  devoted  band  sought  to  stem  the 
tide,  protesting  against  the  abandonment  by  the  party  of  its 
principles.  Finding  protest  useless,  they  withdrew  to  the 
Pavilion  Hotel  and  organized  the  Free  Soil  Party,  committed 
to  an  uncompromising  resistance  to  the  extension  of  slavery. 
This  was  the  first  Free  Soil  Party  started  as  such  and  antedated 
the  Free  Soil  Party  of  the  Buffalo  Convention  in  August  by 
six  weeks.  According  to  Mr.  Chittenden,  it  was  from  the 
loins  of  the  embryonic  Free  Soil  Party,  organized  by  six  dis- 
gruntled Democrats  at  the  Pavilion  Hotel  in  Montpelier  in 
April,  1848,  that  the  great  Republican  party  sprang.  Who 
shall  say  that  it  did  not  originate  from  the  influences  at  work 
in  Waterbury  and  Washington  County  ten  years  earlier  and 

PERIOD    1830-1850  75 

from  that  time  on  including  the  date  of  the  Anti-Slavery  Con- 
vention in  Waterbury  July  i  and  2,  1841? 

(See  Personal  Reminiscences  of  L.  E.  Chittenden,  pp.  8-10.) 
The  Dillingham  family,  in  Waterbury,  begins  with  Deacon 
Paul  Dillingham  of  the  sixth  generation  in  direct  line  of  the 
family  that  began  with  Edward  who  came  to  Lynn,  Massachu- 
setts, in  1630.  Deacon  Paul  came  to  Waterbury  from  Shutes- 
bury,  Massachusetts,  in  1804  and  settled  at  the  Center.  He 
had  served  in  the  militia  in  the  Continental  army  between  1777 
and  1780.  He  was  married  to  Hannah  Smith  in  1784.  Of 
this  union  were  born  twelve  children  of  whom  Governor  Paul 
(3)  Dillingham  was  the  third  son;  Deacon  Paul  (2)  died  in 
Waterbury,  July  14,  1848. 

Governor  Paul  (3)  Dillingham  was  born  in  Shutesbury, 
Massachusetts,  August  10,  1799,  coming  to  Waterbury  when 
he  was  about  five  years  of  age.  After  attending  the  public 
schools  and  the  Washington  County  Grammar  School  in 
Montpelier,  he  began  the  study  of  law  in  the  office  of  Honor- 
able Dan  Carpenter  of  Waterbury.  He  was  admitted  to  the 
bar  in  1823  and  became  a  law  partner  of  his  preceptor  one  year 
later,  remaining  as  member  of  the  firm  until  the  senior  member 
was  elevated  to  the  bench.  He  continued  in  practice  for 
fifty-two  years,  retiring  in  1875.  Mr.  Dillingham  had  essen- 
tially a  legal  mind;  his  powers  of  analysis  were  singularly 
acute  and  his  ability  as  an  advocate  brought  him  to  the  head 
of  his  profession  in  the  state.  The  town  records  of  Waterbury 
bear  witness  to  the  almost  incalculable  work  done  by  him  in 
various  official  capacities  during  many  years  of  arduous  pro- 
fessional endeavor.  He  was  town  clerk  from  1829  to  1844, 
town  representative  in  the  Legislature  in  1833-34,  37-38-39, 
and  was  state's  attorney  for  Washington  County  from  1835- 
1837.  His  services  in  the  Constitutional  Convention  of  1836 
were  so  signally  valuable  that  he  was  selected  as  member  of 
the  Constitutional  Conventions  of  1857  and  1870.  He  was 
state  senator  from  Washington  County  in  1841-1842  and  1861. 
In  1840  he  was  the  Democratic  candidate  for  governor  but  was 
defeated  by  Silas  Jenison.  His  congressional  career,  though 
not  wholly  congenial,  was  one  of  intelligent  and  patriotic  labor. 


In  1842  Congress  passed  a  law  entitled  "an  act  for  the  ap- 
portionment of  representatives  among  the  several  States  ac- 
cording to  the  sixth  census."  A  controversy  arose  in  Congress 
over  the  construction  of  the  act  which,  in  a  later  section, 
seemed  to  be  ambiguous.  The  debate  on  the  floor  of  the 
House  was  naturally  exhaustive  and  technical.  Paul  Dilling- 
ham made  an  unusually  masterly  and  able  presentation  of  the 
arguments  favoring  the  constitutionality  of  the  act.  Indeed, 
the  speech  in  its  entirety  was  a  lucid  exposition  of  the  inten- 
tion of  the  framers  of  the  Constitution  and,  despite  its  tech- 
nical character,  makes  excellent  reading  not  only  for  students 
of  constitutional  law  but  also  for  those  interested  in  the  devel- 
opment of  our  system  of  representation  and  apportionment. 

Probably  the  most  important  position  taken  by  Mr.  Dil- 
lingham in  Congress  was  upon  the  admission  of  Texas.  Mr. 
Dillingham  was  of  the  famous  coterie  of  Vermont  Democrats 
in  the  early  40's  that  included  such  men  as  United  States 
Judge  David  B.  Smalley,  Chief  Justice  Isaac  Redfield,  Tim- 
othy P.  Redfield,  Charles  G.  Eastman  and  the  poet,  John  G. 

Mr.  Dillingham's  duty  as  a  representative  required  that  he 
should  present  the  petitions  forwarded  by  his  constituents 
against  the  admission  of  Texas.  Abhorring  slavery  as  utterly 
as  any  of  the  protestors  in  his  congressional  district,  he  still 
could  see  no  way  consistently  with  the  Constitution  whereby 
Texas  could  be  admitted  as  an  anti-slavery  state.  The  joint 
resolution,  presented  December  16,  1845,  calling  for  the  ad- 
mission of  Texas,  was  the  subject  uppermost  in  the  minds  of 
men  of  all  parties.  The  vote  upon  the  main  resolution  was 
taken  after  the  usual  obstructive  tactics  had  been  resorted  to 
by  various  members  of  the  House,  Mr.  Dillingham  voting  in 
the  affirmative.  This  position  on  such  a  question  at  that 
time  was  far  from  being  a  popular  one  in  Vermont,  but  it  was 
firmly  rooted  in  conscience  and  logic. 

Believing,  as  he  did,  in  the  doctrine  of  manifest  destiny,  he 
foresaw  territorial  expansion  as  a  logical  sequence.  These 
considerations  moved  his  support  of  the  admission  to  state- 
hood of  Texas  and  of  President  Polk's  policy,  which  brought 

PERIOD  1 830-1 850  ^^ 

on  the  Mexican  War.  Mr.  Dillingham's  close  analysis  of  the 
Federal  Constitution  confirmed  him  in  his  opinion  as  to  the 
retention  in  the  Union  in  harmonious  relations  with  the  South- 
ern States.  But,  like  Stephen  A.  Douglas,  when  Fort  Sumter 
was  fired  upon,  he  uncompromisingly  espoused  the  Union 
party's  cause  and  advocated  the  preservation  of  the  Union  by 
other  than  merely  temporising  measures.  In  the  state  Senate 
in  1 861  he  was  foremost  in  planning  and  upholding  ways  and 
means  for  the  support  of  the  government  and  the  organiza- 
tion, arming  and  equipment  of  Vermont  regiments  were  due 
largely  to  his  energy  and  sound  judgment. 

At  the  outbreak  of  the  Civil  War  the  Vermont  Legislature 
was  called  in  special  session  to  meet  on  the  25th  ot  April.  The 
House  consisted  of  211  Republicans  and  25  Democrats,  the 
leader  of  whom  w^as  Stephen  Thomas  of  West  Fairlee.  The 
following  account  of  their  action  is  given  by  Mr.  Benedict  in 
"Vermont  in  the  Civil  War": 

The  Democrats  in  the  Legislature,  and  in  attendance  upon  the  session, 
held  a  private  meeting  the  evening  before  to  decide  upon  their  course.  Sev- 
eral were  in  favor  of  resisting  all  war  measures  from  the  start.  Hon.  Paul 
Dillingham  of  Waterbury  told  them  that  would  never  do.  "  If  the  Repub- 
licans propose  to  raise  five  regiments,"  said  he,  to  Mr.  Thomas,  who  was 
the  leader  of  the  Democrats  on  the  floor,  "do  you  call  for  raising  lenl  If 
they  want  half  of  a  million  dollars  for  troops,  do  you  move  to  make  it  a 
million?  " 

Mr.  Thomas  showed  the  quality  of  his  Democracy  and 
patriotism  by  promptly  acquiescing  and  the  greater  appro- 
priation of  $1,000,000,  authorized  by  the  Vermont  Legislature, 
originated  with  "Union"  Democrats. 

Shortly  after  the  special  session  of  the  Legislature  came  the 
so-called  Republican  Convention.  The  politics  of  those  par- 
ticipating were  varied  as,  indeed,  might  have  been  expected 
from  the  broad  terms  of  the  call.  Many  Union  Democrats 
attended.  A  resolution  offered  by  Honorable  George  F.  Ed- 
munds was  adopted,  whose  preamble  settled  the  political 
complexion  of  the  convention  by  using  the  phrase,  "We  the 
jreemen  of  the  state  of  Vermont,"  instead  of  "We  the  Repub- 
licans (or  Democrats)  of  the  state  of  Vermont."  The  resolu- 
tion  pledged   to  the    administration    the  whole   power    and 


resources  of  the  state  "to  aid  in  putting  down  the  rebellion 
by  force  of  arms,  and  in  bringing  its  wicked  leaders  to  justice." 

Among  the  Democrats  present  at  this  convention,  and  tak- 
ing part  in  the  same,  was  Paul  Dillingham.  Referring  to  this 
the  Rutland  Herald  editorially  said,  "  the  remarks  of  Honorable 
Paul  Dillingham  of  Waterbury,  and  Mr.  Carpenter,  and 
Nicholson  and  others  in  this  convention,  will  be  remembered; 
and  the  day  is  not  far  distant  when,  in  Vermont,  a  proper 
reward  of  praise  will  be  given  to  the  true  patriot  from  what- 
ever party  he  may  spring."  The  Montpelier  Freeman  said, 
"Democrats  who  came  into  the  convention  purely  from  patri- 
otic motives  went  away  satisfied,  while  those  who  came  for 
office  went  away  in  wrath." 

Honorable  Thomas  Powers  of  Woodstock,  a  Republican  of 
the  most  radical  type,  was  so  dissatisfied  with  the  adoption  of 
the  Edmunds  resolution,  and  the  permission  to  Democrats  to 
take  part  in  the  convention,  that  he  withdrew  from  it  with 
about  thirty  followers  and  held  a  meeting  on  the  State  House 

This  was  followed  by  a  convention  of  the  Democratic  party 
held  at  Montpelier  on  the  24th  of  July,  1861.  As  in  the  case 
of  the  Republican  State  Convention,  considerable  discussion 
was  had  as  to  what  the  convention  represented.  Some  under- 
stood that  the  call  was  for  a  "Union"  convention,  while  others 
contended  that  it  was  a  Democratic  Convention  in  the  strict- 
est sense.  The  significant  result  of  the  convention  was  found 
in  the  following:  ''Resolved,  that  as  loyal  citizens  we  will 
support  all  constitutional  acts  of  the  present  National  Gov- 
ernment to  maintain  the  Constitution  and  laws  in  all  the 
states."  Paul  Dillingham  of  Waterbury  was  nominated  for 
governor,  and  Stephen  Thomas  of  West  Fairlee  for  lieutenant- 
governor.  Neither  of  these  gentlemen  were  present,  and 
Mr.  E.  M.  Brown,  in  behalf  of  Mr.  Thomas,  withdrew  his 

Notices  afterwards  appeared  in  the  public  press  that  Messrs. 
Dillingham  and  Thomas  declined  to  accept  the  nomination 
tendered  them  by  the  convention,  and  the  Democratic  State 
Committee,  who  were  empowered  to  fill  in  any  vacancies  that 

PERIOD    1830-1850  79 

might  occur,  nominated  B.  H.  Smalley  of  Swanton  for  gov- 
ernor, and  Erastus  Plympton,  lieutenant-governor. 

Early  in  August  the  Washington  County  Republican  Con- 
vention placed  in  nomination  Honorable  Charles  W.  Willard 
and  Paul  Dillingham  for  county  senators,  and  on  the  same 
day  the  Union  Convention,  held  for  the  avowed  purpose  of 
"uniting  all  friends  of  good  government  in  an  unbroken  line 
of  defense"  recommended  that  "in  selecting  candidates  for 
public  office  all  party  lines  be  disregarded  and  reference  be 
had  to  only  the  welfare  and  safety  of  our  distracted  country." 
The  Union  Convention  also  nominated  the  same  two  men, 
Messrs.  Willard  and  Dillingham,  for  county  senators  and  they 
were  subsequently  elected.  From  that  time  on  Paul  Dilling- 
ham acted  with  the  Republican  party  until  his  death. 

It  was  with  reference  to  his  own  unsuccessful  Democratic 
candidacy  for  governor  in  i860  that  the  poet,  John  G.  Saxe, 
indited  to  Paul  Dillingham,  Democratic  candidate  of  the  con- 
vention of  July  24,  1861,  the  following  witty  lines: 

Albany,  N.  Y.,  July  26,  1861. 
To  Hon.  Paul  Dillingham: 

Dear  Paul:    I'm  extremely  delighted  at  learning 
The  recent  Convention  has  proved  so  discerning, 
And  given  your  servant — an  honor  indeed — 
At  least  a  successor  who  ought  to  "succeed": 
A  patriot,  orator,  gentleman;  strong 
In  upholding  the  right,  and  resisting  the  wrong; 
And  here  let  me  add,  while  I'm  thinking  upon't, 
The  best  looking  man  in  the  State  of  Vermont! 
If  they  don't  put  you  into  the  Governor's  chair, 
The  people  will  make,  I  am  free  to  declare, 
A  blunder  this  year  which  will  quite  have  surpassed 
The  similar  one  they  committed  the  last! 
Yours  cordially, 

Jno.  G.  Saxe. 

P.  S.      I  have  sent  a  copy  of  the  above  to  the  Burlington  Sentinel. 

Before  publication,  however,  the  poet  inserted  as  ninth  and 
tenth  lines  of  the  stanza,  respectively,  the  following: 

O  eloquent  Paul !  venerabile  nomen! 
Thy  name  in  itself  is  an  excellent  omen; 


In  1 862-1 865  Mr.  Dillingham  was  elected  three  times  suc- 
cessively lieutenant-governor,  and  to  the  governorship  in 
1865  by  a  majority  of  16,714,  and  again  in  1866  by  a  majority 
of  22,822. 

Governor  Dillingham's  first  message  in  1865  recommended 
the  establishment  of  a  State  Reform  School ;  at  the  Legislative 
session  of  that  year  an  act  was  passed  providing  for  the  estab- 
lishment of  such  an  institution  and  for  the  appointment  of 
three  commissioners  to  purchase  a  farm  not  exceeding  two 
hundred  acres,  suitable  for  the  purpose.  Accordingly  Rev- 
erend A.  G.  Pease,  Reverend  L.  A.  Dunn  and  Charles  Reed, 
Esq.,  were  appointed  from  the  Legislature.  In  their 
report  the  following  year  the  commissioners  detailed  the  con- 
ditions and  considerations,  moving  them  to  select  a  site  for 
the  Reform  School  in  Waterbury.  Among  other  things  they 

Hence  as  a  third  condition,  we  determined  that  our  location  be  near  the 
railroad,  and  not  more  than  one  mile  from  a  depot,  and  we  concluded  that 
a  thriving  business  village,  and  a  live  depot,  were  much  to  be  preferred  to  a 
place  of  little  business,  and  a  depot  where  ready  conveyance  for  visitors 
could  not  be  found.  We  thought  it  very  desirable  (and  have  found  it  so), 
that  we  should  be  within  easy  walk  of  the  station,  and  the  churches  and 
business  center  of  the  town.  Finally,  if  the  place  answering  these  condi- 
tions should  be  near  the  center  of  the  state  it  would  be  so  much  the  better 
for  that. 

Not  ten  years  later  the  Reform  School,  so  auspiciously 
established,  burned  to  the  ground,  December  12,  1874.  At 
the  time  there  were  one  hundred  and  sixty  inmates,  who 
escaped  with  their  lives.  The  fire  led  to  the  substitution  of 
Vergennes  as  the  place  for  the  reestablishment  of  the  institu- 
tion. This  was  not  accomplished  without  some  wire  pulling 
and  political  methods  of  the  sort  that  smacked  of  devious 
and  reprehensible  practices. 

Mr.  Dillingham's  vote  for  governor  in  Waterbury  on  the 
first  Tuesday  of  September,  1840,  was  199  as  against  Silas 
Jenison's  188.  Again  in  1847  he  received  167  votes  as  against 
Horace  Eaton's  106.  In  1841  his  vote  in  Waterbury  for  state 
senator  was  212,  Nathaniel  Eaton  receiving  210  and  A.  Gush- 
man  and  O.  Smith  receiving  each  150.     Upon  his  election  to 

PERIOD    1830-1850  81 

the  National  House  of  Representatives  in  September,  1843, 
Mr.  Dillingham's  home  town  gave  him  205  votes,  George  P. 
Chandler  receiving  118.  In  1845  Mr.  Dillingham  was  again 
elected  to  Congress,  receiving  in  Waterbury  201  votes,  G. 
Chandler,  153,  and  G.  Putnam,  13. 

In  Governor  Dillingham  was  united  an  imposing  presence 
with  a  grace  of  person;  a  magnetic  manner  with  a  wonderfully 
modulated  voice;  these  with  a  command  of  forceful,  apt  and 
harmonious  language,  a  resourceful  gift  of  pertinent  quotation 
all  contributed  to  his  preeminence  as  an  advocate,  legislator 
and  chief  executive.  Honorable  B.  F.  Fifield  happily  phrased 
his  impressions  of  Mr.  Dillingham  in  these  words: 

When  in  his  best  mood  he  played  upon  the  strings  of  men's  hearts  with 
the  facility  that  a  skilled  musician  plays  upon  the  strings  of  a  guitar,  and 
made  them  respond  to  emotions  of  laughter,  anger,  sympathy  or  sorrow, 
whenever  he  pleased,  and  as  best  suited  the  purpose  of  the  case. 

Speaking  of  Governor  Dillingham's  ability  as  a  lawyer, 
Honorable  Hiram  A.  Huse,  in  his  Vermont  Bar  Association 
paper  of  October  20,  1891,  said: 

His  strong  common  sense  made  him  a  good  adviser,  so  that  his  ofifice  work 
was  well  done.  .  .  .  The  power  by  which  he  won  verdicts  and  his 
fame  defied  analysis.  Perhaps  much  of  the  secret  of  his  winning  speech 
lay  in  the  sympathy  his  big  heart  held  for  all  sentient  beings.  Once  on  his 
feet  in  the  full  advocacy  of  his  client's  cause,  that  client's  rights  and  wrongs 
welled  from  the  depths  of  his  being,  and  poured  in  a  flood  upon  the  jury, 
who  thereupon  established  the  rights  and  redressed  the  wrongs.  .  .  . 
Doubtless  he  who  read  other  men  so  well  was  conscious  of  his  own  power; 
but  consciousness  of  power  does  not  blind  the  clear-eyed  man  to  the  magni- 
tude of  difficulties  to  be  overcome;  and,  while  his  method  was  his  own 
and  inimitable,  he  went  into  each  contest  with  no  reckless  assurance  of 
success  but  with  fixed  will  to  do  his  best. 

And  the  more  danger  threatened,  the  more  brightly  burned  this  resolve, 
as  once,  when  associated  with  T.  P.  Redfield  in  the  trial  of  a  cause,  and  the 
blackness  of  darkness  seemed  gathering  about  their  legal  bark,  he  leaned 
over  the  table  and  whispered,  "  Do  thou,  Timothy,  preach;  and  I,  Paul,  will 
pray. "  Then  Timothy  Redfield  knew  that  Dillingham  was  girding  himself 
to  ask  mightily  of  the  jury,  and  watched  with  renewed  zeal; — and  what 
with  watchfulness  and  prayer  they  saved  the  case — as,  indeed,  they  did 
every  case  they  ever  tried  as  associate  counsel. 

Those  now  living  who  recall  the  peculiar  abilities  of  each  of 


these  forensic  giants  appreciate  the  aptness  of  the  Biblical 
admonition  quoted  by  Governor  Dillingham. 

Governor  Dillingham  was  an  influential  layman  in  the 
Methodist  Church  and  went  as  the  first  lay  delegate  from  the 
Vermont  Conference  to  the  Quadrennial  General  Conference 
in  Brooklyn  in  1872,  in  which  body  he  took  a  high  position. 
He  lived  for  fifteen  years  after  his  retirement  and  died  in 
Waterbury,  July  26,  1891. 

Governor  Paul  Dillingham  married  (first)  October  4,  1827, 
Sarah  Partridge  Carpenter,  daughter  of  his  former  partner, 
Judge  Dan  Carpenter.  She  died  September  20,  1831,  and  he 
married  (second)  September  5,  1832,  Julia  Carpenter,  born 
at  Waterbury,  December  3,  1812,  sister  of  his  first  wife,  who 
died  September  15,  1898.  There  were  children  of  his  first 
marriage:  Eliza  Jane,  born  October  21,  1828;  Ellen  S.,  Novem- 
ber 22,  1830,  married  Joshua  F.  Lamson,  died  December  15, 
1875.  Children  of  the  second  marriage  were:  Caroline,  born 
February  21,  1834  (married  Honorable  Matthew  Hale  Car- 
penter, a  distinguished  member  of  the  Wisconsin  bar  and 
United  States  Senator,  born  in  Moretown,  Vermont,  December 
22,  1824).  Mrs.  Caroline  (Dillingham)  Carpenter  died  at  her 
home  in  Milwaukee,  Wisconsin,  April  10, 1915.  The  Milwaukee 
Evening  Wisconsin  said : 

In  1869  when  amid  a  whirlwind  of  popular  enthusiasm  he  (Hon.  M.  H. 
Carpenter)  was  sent  to  represent  this  state  in  the  Senate,  where  he  rose 
with  incredible  swiftness  to  his  place  of  precedence,  his  wife  was  by  his 
side  and  equal  to  her  task  as  a  close  friend  of  President  and  Mrs.  Grant 
and  one  of  the  foremost  personages  in  the  international  society  of  the 
capital.  Her  position  in  her  home  city  was  commanding  during  the 
period  of  more  than  half  a  century  in  which  she  was  a  resident  of  Milwaukee. 
Since  the  death  of  her  husband  in  1881,  she  had  kept  in  touch  with  what 
was  best  in  the  city's  intellectual  and  social  life.  She  had  served  more 
than  once  as  president  of  the  Society  of  Colonial  Dames,  and  at  the  time 
of  her  death  was  honorary  president  of  that  organization  and  honorary 
regent  of  the  Milwaukee  Chapter  of  Daughters  of  the  American  Revolution. 
The  house  in  which  she  lived  is  regarded  as  a  historic  shrine  by  all  who 
cherish  the  memories  of  old  Milwaukee.  Within  its  quaint  precincts  is 
the  large  and  choice  library  in  which  Senator  Carpenter  held  high  converse 
with  the  mighty  minds  of  the  ages,  and  also  a  treasury  of  manuscripts, 
including,  many  letters  from  President  and  Mrs.  Grant.  Shortly  after 
her  husband's  death  Mrs.  Carpenter  became  a  convert  to  the  Catholic 

PERIOD    1830-1850  83 

faith,  and  for  twenty-three  years  she  had  been  a  devout  member  of  the 
congregation  of  St.  John's  cathedral.  Her  passing  from  life  at  the  ripe 
age  of  81,  occurred  on  the  34th  anniversary  of  the  burial  of  her  husband, 
and  was  due  to  a  weakness  of  the  heart  from  which  she  suffered  for  more 
than  a  year.  She  is  survived  by  her  son,  Judge  Paul  D.  Carpenter,  her 
daughter.  Miss  Lillian  Carpenter  and  three  grandchildren,  Agnes  M., 
Matthew  A.  and  Paul  V.  Carpenter  of  this  city;  also  by  her  brothers, 
William  P.  Dillingham,  United  States  senator  from  Vermont;  Frank 
Dillingham,  consul  general  at  Christiana,  Norway,  and  Colonel  Charles 
Dillingham  of  Houston,  Texas. 

(Colonel)  Charles,  February  18,  1837,  an  officer  in  the  Civil 
War,  railroad  president  and  banker  in  Houston,  Texas,  mar- 
ried Fanny  M.  Cutter;  Major  Edwin,  May  13,  1839,  a  lawyer, 
and  officer  in  the  Civil  War,  mortally  wounded  at  Winchester, 
September  4,  1864;  (Senator)  William  Paul;  and  Frank,  born 
December,  1848,  who  has  been  in  the  United  States  consular 
service  for  twenty-five  years,  married  Minnie  L.  Sneath,  June 
3,  1882. 

Rarely  has  a  literary  and  marital  copartnership  proven  so 
felicitous  as  that  of  Hannah  Gale  (born  in  Waterbury,  the 
daughter  of  Peter  and  Hannah  Gale,  December  28,  1824)  and 
Samuel  Slayton  Luce.  This  gifted  pair  has  left  a  small 
volume  of  verse  fairly  redolent  of  Vermont  atmosphere  and 
homely  things  of  sacred  beauty.  Samuel  Slayton  Luce  was 
born  in  Stowe,  February  i,  1819;  of  patriotic  ancestry,  his 
grandfather  having  served  in  the  Revolutionary  War  and  his 
father  in  the  War  of  18 12.  He  was  educated  in  the  Stowe 
public  schools  and  in  Craftsbury.  Later  he  studied  archi- 
tecture under  G.  P.  Randall.  At  about  the  time  the 
Vermont  Central  was  being  built  between  Montpelier  and 
Burlington,  Mr.  Luce  and  Hannah  Gale  Luce,  whom  he  had 
married  December  7,  1847,  removed  to  Waterbury  to  facili- 
tate Mr.  Luce's  access  to  the  railway  stations,  for  the  building 
of  which  he  was  under  contract.  During  his  life  in  Water- 
bury, Mr.  Luce  had  many  important  building  contracts. 
Mr.  William  Deal  speaks  of  him  today  as  a  man  of  unusual 
mental  power  and  of  great  kindness  and  consideration  to  those 
who  worked  under  him.  In  1859  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Luce  moved 
to   Galesville,   Trempealeau   County,   Wisconsin,  where   Mr. 


Luce  established  and  edited  the  Galesville  Transcript  and 
became  interested  as  owner  and  editor  in  various  newspapers 
until  he  was  stricken  with  blindness  in  1895.  He  served  as 
county  superintendent  of  schools  and  as  secretary  of  the 
board  of  trustees  of  Galesville  University.  Their  married 
life  was  broken  by  the  death  of  Mrs.  Luce,  December  11,  1907, 
a  few  days  after  the  sixtieth  anniversary  of  their  wedding.  Mr. 
Luce  survived  his  wife  until  February  16,  1908,  when  he  was 

On  the  occasion  of  their  last  visit  East,  in  1881,  they  left 
with  old  neighbors  and  relatives  in  Waterbury  and  Stowe 
copies  of  a  privately  printed  volume  of  verse  from  their  respec- 
tive pens.  This  volume  bears  the  imprint:  "Trempealeau, 
Charles  A.  Leith,  Publisher,  1876,"  and  contains  fifty-five 
poems  by  Mr.  Luce  and  thirty  by  Mrs.  Luce.  Among  the 
more  popular  of  Mr.  Luce's  poems  was  "The  Hunter  of  Cha- 
teaugay,"  wherein  appears  Tenas  Wright,  the  first  settler  of 
Stowe,  as  the  doughty  hunter.  "The  Legend  of  Smuggler's 
Notch"  is  an  epic  of  the  wild  days  when  the  Lake  Champlain 
smugglers  sought  a  hiding  retreat.  The  proposed  state  road 
will  pass  through  the  gorge  described  in  the  poem.  "The 
Village  Doctor,"  some  stanzas  of  which  are  given  later  in  this 
book,  refers  to  Doctor  Thomas  C.  Downer  of  Stowe,  and  is  much 
in  the  vein  of  Whittier's  "Snow  Bound,"  being  vividly  descrip- 
tive of  the  fidelity  of  an  aged  country  practitioner  who  toils 
through  snow  drifts  and  impassable  roads  on  his  errands  of 

There  are  those  now  living  in  Waterbury  who  recall  fugitive 
stanzas  of  an  unpublished  song  of  Liberty  written  by  Mr. 
Luce  and  sung  by  one  D.  Lothian  at  the  Anti-Slavery  Con- 
vention at  West  Randolph  in  1845.  Among  Mrs.  Luce's 
contributions  to  the  volume  are  included  "The  Green  Moun- 
tains," a  poem  of  delicate,  graceful  sentiment  and  descriptive 
of  the  scenery  hereabouts;  "More  Boys  for  the  War,"  "Mor- 
gan's Retreat,"  and  "The  Coming  Man."  The  offerings  of 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Luce  deserve  a  proud  place  in  any  anthology  of 
Vermont  verse. 

The  Mexican  War  was  never  popular  in  New  England. 

PERIOD   1830-1850  85 

President  Polk's  policies  were  scouted  as  unnecessary  and  ill- 
advised.  Included  in  the  only  regiment,  the  Ninth,  recruited 
in  New  England  for  the  war  under  the  command  of  Colonel 
Ransom,  was  a  single  company  (D)  from  Vermont.  In  this 
company  was  Luman  M.  Grout,  father  of  Don  D.  Grout. 
With  the  exception  of  Major  Grout,  Levi  (Tippecanoe) 
Gleason,  John  D.  Robinson,  father  of  Charles  Robinson,  who 
went  from  Williamstown  in  Company  D,  but  returned  to 
Waterbury  and  Charles  S.  Allen  (son  of  Horace  Allen)  who 
died  in  the  service,  there  are  no  other  known  Waterbury 
participants  in  the  war,  although,  as  in  one  known  instance, 
other  Mexican  War  veterans  might  have  come  to  Waterbury 
after  the  war.  An  exhaustive  search  fails  to  disclose  the 
names  of  any  others  who  went  from  the  town.  In  this  con- 
nection an  interesting  letter  from  ex-Governor  Samuel  E. 
Pingree  is  given : 

White  River  Junction  and  Hartford,  Vt., 

July  2,  1915. 
Theodore  Graham  Lewis, 
Waterbury,  Vt. 

My  dear  Mr.  Lewis:  Yours  of  yesterday  received  this  morning.  I 
regret  very  much  that  I  am  unable  to  give  you  any  information  in  regard 
to  the  Waterbury  Contingent  in  the  Ninth  New  England  Regiment  raised 
by  Franklin  Pierce.  I  lived  in  Salisbury,  New  Hampshire,  at  that  time  and 
was  quite  familiar  with  a  few  volunteers  in  that  vicinity,  was  one  myself 
but  my  father  fired  me  out  because  I  was  a  minor  and  I  lost  the  fun,  but 
probably  saved  my  life. 

I  think  the  Adjutant  and  Inspector  General's  Office  at  Montpelier  will 
have  a  record  which  will  show  you  a  list  perhaps  of  every  man  that  went 
from  any  town  in  Vermont,  and  if  it  cannot  be  had  there  I  think  it  could  be 
had  from  the  records  of  Norwich  University,  as  the  Colonel  Ransom,  some- 
time President  of  Norwich  University,  was  a  colonel  in  command  of  the 
Ninth  Regiment  and  was  killed  at  the  Battle  of  Chapultepec,  so  I  think 
the  record  will  show  the  muster  roll  of  every  soldier  under  his  command  and 
probably  where  they  were  from. 

I  regret  very  much  that  I  cannot  be  of  service  to  you  because  I  can 
appreciate  your  great  desire  for  a  full  as  well  as  an  accurate  history  of  the 
noble  town  of  Waterbury.  I  know  its  record  in  the  Civil  War  was  beyond 
compare  with  any  town,  if  not  in  numbers  at  least  in  quality  of  its  volun- 

Sincerely  yours, 

Sam'l  E.  Pingree. 


Mr.  Lucius  B.  Peck,  a  native  of  Waterbury  but  resident  of 
Montpelier,  took  his  seat  in  the  Hou^e  of  Representatives 
December  6,  1847.  On  March  13,  1848,  he  introduced  a 
resolution  that  the  Committee  on  Military  Affairs  be  instructed 
to  inquire  into  the  propriety  of  passing  an  act  for  the  settle- 
ment of  claims  of  the  Fourth  regiment,  Second  Brigade  and 
third  division  of  the  Vermont  Militia  for  services  at  the  Battle 
of  Plattsburg,  and  that  they  report  by  bill  or  otherwise.  He 
also  presented  a  resolution  by  the  Legislature  of  the  state  of 
Vermont  approving  Asa  Whitney's  plan  of  a  railroad  from 
Lake  Michigan  to  the  Pacific  Ocean.  August  3,  1848,  Mr. 
Peck  commented  on  the  uncourteous  terms  in  which  one  de- 
partment of  this  government  (the  Executive)  was  frequently 
spoken  of  by  gentlemen  on  the  floor  and  then  examined  into 
the  position  of  gentlemen  of  the  South,  that  it  was  unjust  to 
them  to  prohibit  their  going  to  the  new  territories  with  their 
slaves.  He  denied  that  it  was  unjust.  He  reminded  them 
that  slavery  existed  by  municipal  laws,  and  quoted  decisions 
of  southern  judges  to  show  that  a  slave  taken  by  his  master 
voluntarily  beyond  the  jurisdiction  of  the  municipal  laws  of 
the  state  in  which  he  lives,  becomes  a  free  man. 

On  January  22,  1850,  Mr.  Peck  asked  unanimous  consent 
of  the  House  to  introduce  a  resolution  that  the  Committee  on 
Military  Affairs  be  instructed  to  inquire  into  the  propriety  of 
refunding  to  the  state  of  Vermont  the  money  expended  by 
that  state  in  her  endeavors  to  maintain  our  neutrality  in  the 
Canadian  difficulties;  and  that  the  committee  report  by  bill 
or  otherwise.  Those  who  believe  that  the  propagandists  of 
peace  are  of  recent  origin  will  be  interested  to  know  that  Mr. 
Peck  voted,  January  28,  1850,  to  refer  a  memorial  of  the 
American  Peace  Society  to  the  Committee  on  Foreign  Affairs. 
This  memorial  prayed  Congress  to  inquire  into  the  expediency 
of  entering  into  international  treaties  stipulating  for  the  settle- 
ment of  international  disputes  by  arbitration  and  also  into  the 
expediency  of  holding  a  Congress  of  Nations. 

April  25,  1850,  Mr.  Peck  spoke  at  length  in  answer  to  objec- 
tions urged  against  the  admission  of  California  as  a  state  into 
the  Union.     He  disposed  of  these  objections  seriatim  as  pre- 

PERIOD    1830-1850  87 

senting,  in  his  judgment,  no  valid  arguments  against  her 
admission,  whether  considered  with  reference  to  their  own 
intrinsic  weight,  or  to  the  prior  action  of  the  government  in 
the  admission  of  new  states  into  the  Union.  Mr.  Peck,  during 
his  term,  was  flooded  with  petitions  and  remonstrances  against 
the  admission  of  more  slave  states,  the  extension  of  slavery 
generally  and  the  repeal  of  laws  favoring  slavery  in  the  Dis- 
trict of  Columbia.  Then,  of  course,  there  were  the  usual  bills 
for  pensions  and  private  relief  and  innumerable  petitions  for 
cheaper  postage  from  Vermonters.  In  the  autumn  of  1846, 
Mr.  Peck  received  161  votes  for  Congress  in  Waterbury  and 
again  in  1848  he  received  102,  Mr.  John  L.  Buck  getting  61, 
this,  though  Mr.  Peck  was  then  a  resident  of  Montpelier, 
having  given  up  his  residence  in  Waterbury. 

The  Free  Mountaineer  was  a  newspaper  of  Waterbury  and 
Montpelier,  edited  by  J.  A.  Somerby,  which  made  its  initial 
appearance  in  1849.  It  is  regrettable  that  it  scarcely  could 
be  said  to  have  had  even  an  ephemeral  existence,  not  to  men- 
tion a  diurnal  prosperity,  devoted,  as  it  expressed  itself  to 
"News,  Education,  Agriculture,  Mechanic  Arts,  The  Interests 
of  Workingmen,  Temperance,  Health,  Anti-Slavery,  Morality, 
Cheap  Postage,  Literary  and  Miscellaneous  Reading,  etc." 

The  editor's  salutatory  of  June  14,  1849,  addressed  to  the 
citizens  of  Waterbury  is  peculiarly  captivating  to  the  twentieth 
century  journalistic  craftsman.  The  optimism  expressed  by 
the  devoted  publicist  might  well  be  indulged  by  many  latter 
day  editors  with  profit.  The  salutatory  is  deemed  worthy  of 
space : 

We  lay  before  you  today,  the  first  Newspaper  ever  printed  in  Waterbury. 
We  have  enlisted  in  the  enterprise  of  establishing  a  Printing  Office  and 
publishing  a  Journal  of  News,  etc.,  every  week,  in  Waterbury  Village,  at 
the  suggestion  and  solicitation  of  a  large  number  of  the  citizens  of  Water- 
bury and  vicinity — every  party  and  sect  uniting  together,  to  a  considerable 
extent  to  bring  about  the  desired  result — and  we  shall  consequently, 
depend  upon  their  united  influence  and  assistance  for  support.  We  shall 
make  every  reasonable  exertion  to  obtain  the  latest  intelligence  from  our 
own  country,  as  well  as  from  abroad,  and  keep  our  readers  well  informed 
in  relation  to  local  events.  When  we  have  occasion  to  express  our  own 
opinions,  we  shall  endeavor  to  be  "Unawed  by  Influence  and  unbribed  by 


gain"  independent  alike,  of  sectarian  or  party  views — seeking  to  benefit  all 
our  readers. 

We  shall  endeavor  to  promote  morality  and  temperance,  and  a  noble 
forbearance  between  man  and  man,  that  shall  be  fully  equal  to  the  pro- 
gressive spirit  of  the  age. 

Waterbury  needs  a  Fire  Engine,  an  Academy,  a  Plank  Road  to  Hyde- 
park,  and  many  other  improvements,  to  procure  which,  we  shall  gladly 
cooperate  with  our  fellow  citizens,  and  rejoice  with  them  at  the  success  of 
every  enterprise  that  will  benefit  the  community  generally. 

Our  columns  will  be  open  to  the  free  discussion  of  all  topics  of  general 
interest;  but,  communications  must  be  short,  to  the  point,  and  couched  in 
respectful  language. 

The  same  issue  contains  a  prospectus  of  the  New  York 
Tribune,  signed  by  Greeley  &  McElrath,  reflecting  in  Horace 
Greeley's  inimitable  style  the  policy  of  his  famous  journal  and 
dealing  vigorously  with  matters  of  public  moment  in  this 
language : 

A  year  of  change  and  convulsion  draws  rapidly  to  its  close — a  year 
destined  to  be  memorable  in  the  history  of  Europe  and  of  America.  In 
this  country  it  has  witnessed  the  casting  down  of  that  delusive  idol  which 
made  the  mantle  of  Democracy  a  cloak  for  the  most  audacious  crimes 
against  Liberty  and  Humanity — against  Freedom  of  thought  and  action — 
against  outspeaking  Integrity  and  fearless  Manhood.  Come  what  may  in 
the  future,  we  are  justified  in  believing  that  the  power  of  a  Name  over  the 
Nation's  impulses  and  fortunes — the  indolent  credulity  which  empowered 
whatever  was  called  "Democratic"  to  pass  triumphant  and  almost  un- 
questioned— has  passed  away  forever.  New  circumstances  will,  doubtless, 
evolve  new  perils  for  the  country;  but  the  great  peril  of  blind  adherence  to 
party — of  government  by  the  potency  of  words  and  names — has  passed 
away  forever.  Europe,  too,  has  experienced  unwonted  convulsions  and 
the  signal  fires  of  Freedom,  relighted  in  February  by  the  laborers  of  Paris, 
have  swept  over  France,  Germany,  Hungary,  Italy  and  been  kindled  only 
to  be  quenched  in  unhappy  Ireland.  They  still  blaze  with  cheering  bril- 
liancy from  the  watch-towers  of  dauntless  Berlin;  they  gleam  and  flash,  it 
may  be,  with  dying  but  surely  with  glorious  radiance,  from  the  battlements 
of  heroic  Vienna.  Throughout  the  length  and  breadth  of  Christendom, 
there  are  indications  not  to  be  mistaken,  of  the  stern  uprising  of  the  long 
abused  people  against  the  tyrants  who  have  so  long  oppressed  and  crushed 
them.  Happy  were  it  for  all  if  the  despots  and  aristocrats,  so  long  gorged 
with  the  plunder  of  unrewarded  toil,  would  but  seasonably  realize  that  the 
old  sorceries,  whereby  nations  were  lulled  to  sleep  in  wretchedness  and 
chains,  have  lost  their  power  and  that  Liberty  and  Justice  are  now  de- 
manded with  a  unanimity  and  earnestness  which  will  not  be  over  ruled, 
trifled  with,  nor  turned  aside  from  its  purpose.     But  the  Few  will  not  see 

PERIOD    1830-1850  89 

what  the  Many  have  learned  of  their  rights  and  wrongs;  wherefore  blood 
will  flow  like  water  and  misery  and  desolation  darken  the  face  of  the  civil- 
ized world.  But  this  will  not  endure.  .  .  .  So,  while  resisting  sternly 
the  claim  of  portions  of  our  people  to  arrogate  to  themselves  the  designa- 
tions "Republican"  and  "Democratic,"  plainly  implying  that  those  who 
dissent  from  their  view  of  the  current  topics  of  party  controversy  are 
hostile  to  Republican  Liberty — we  shall  none  the  less  reverence  and  uphold 
those  great  principles  of  Democracy  and  Equal  Rights  which  no  abuse, 
no  perversion  to  sordid,  ignoble  ends,  can  ever  render  other  than  vital 
elements  of  Human  Well-being.  .  .  .  Hoping  much  from  the  New 
Administration  [President  Taylor's]  which  the  people  have  decreed,  we 
shall  yield  it  a  hearty  support  so  far  as  our  judgment  shall  approve  its 
acts;  but  should  we  find  it  in  any  respect  unfaithful,  we  shall  not  hesitate 
to  expose  and  denounce  its  short-comings.  We  support  men  for  the  sake 
of  measures  not  measures  for  the  sake  of  men. 

Like  most  prophets',  Mr.  Greeley's  vaticinations  were  partly 
accurate  and  partly  wrong,  as  those  of  us  know  who  lived  to 
see  the  great  journalist  himself  recant  in  part.  For  example, 
there  is  a  greater  measure  of  liberty  today  in  "unhappy  Ire- 
land" than  in  either  "dauntless  Berhn"  or  "heroic  Vienna." 

Even  at  that  early  day,  in  1849,  the  Free  Mountaineer  was 
moved  to  protest  valiantly  against  our  chaotic  immigration 
laws,  under  which  an  influx  of  nine  hundred  foreign  immi- 
grants at  one  port  in  a  single  day  were  permitted.  The 
editor  called  upon  the  people  to  see  to  it  that  such  men  be 
sent  to  Washington  to  make  laws  as  would  protect  American 
laborers  in  their  rights.  How  well  the  people  of  Waterbury 
have  responded  to  this  appeal  is  today  a  matter  of  national 

The  completion  of  the  Vermont  Central  Railroad  into  Water- 
bury  from  Middlesex,  and  the  arrival  of  the  first  train,  October 
I,  1849,  just  one  year  later  than  the  railway's  completion  into 
Northfield,  naturally  were  hailed  with  satisfaction  by  the  citi- 
zens, especially  those  who  had  purchased  stock  in  the  enter- 
prise; to  them  there  was  at  least  ocular  evidence  of  some  of 
the  concrete  results  of  their  investment  and  the  subject  of 
dividends  was  allowed  to  remain  in  abeyance.  The  con- 
ductors and  station  agents  were  recruited  at  first  from  stage 
drivers   and    other  employes  of  the  old  turnpike  company. 

Railroading  in    those    days  was  not  the  highly  specialized 


occupation  it  came  to  be  within  the  next  quarter  of  a  century 
and  train  crews  were  rather  a  happy-go-lucky  lot. 

Prior  to  the  Prohibitory  Law,  accepted  in  1853  by  a  majority 
vote  of  88,  there  was  an  Innkeepers  and  Retailers  License  Act. 
Under  this,  the  question  of  voting  for  license  or  no  license  was 
determined  each  year  at  the  March  town  meeting.  In  1847 
there  was  a  majority  of  57  against  license.  In  1848  license 
prevailed  by  a  majority  of  35,  and  in  1849  the  vote  was  109  to 
108  in  favor  of  no  license.  Apropos  of  the  lax  conditions  pre- 
vailing in  Waterbury  prior  to  the  passage  of  the  Prohibitory 
Law  of  1853,  modeled  on  the  Maine  Act,  Mr.  Russell  Butler 
once  remarked  to  a  friend  that  there  was  not  a  single  farm  on 
the  hill  road  to  Stowe  that  had  not  changed  hands,  within  his 
memory,  on  account  of  the  effects  of  intemperance. 

The  Moody  family's  place  in  Waterbury 's  history  begins 
with  the  coming  of  Joseph  Moody,  Sr.,  and  his  wife,  Avis,  from 
Vershire  in  1834.  There  were  six  sons  and  three  daughters: 
Daniel  Moody  who  died  March  23,  1887,  was  a  farmer.  Na- 
thaniel Moody  was  a  successful  business  man,  buying  and 
selling  stock,  and  was  known  as  a  shrewd,  careful  trader;  he 
died  January  9,  1893.  William  was  a  prominent  resident,  the 
keeper  of  a  tavern,  real  estate  operator  and  trader,  industrious 
and  energetic;  he  died  in  1865,  aged  fifty-seven  years.  Elisha 
was  also  a  trader,  real  estate  owner  and  promoter.  He  was 
widely  celebrated  for  his  wit,  and  his  sayings  were  quoted 
throughout  central  Vermont;  he  lived  to  be  ninety-four  years 
of  age  and  died  in  1906.  His  chief  delight  was  deliberately  to 
excite  and  baffle  the  ever-ready  curiosity  of  his  townsmen. 
He  was  impervious  to  the  ingratiating  hints  thrown  out  in  the 
obvious  formulae  beginning:  "I  was  just  a-wonderin',"  or 
"I  didn't  know  but  what,"  etc.  Such  coarse  work  left  him 
unmoved  and  his  interrogators  unsatisfied. 

Betsy  (Moody)  Reynolds,  a  sister,  died  in  Waterbury 
December  22,  1887;  her  husband,  Samuel  Reynolds,  died  in 
1875.  Avis  (Moody)  Kenny  died  at  the  age  of  twenty-four, 
January  17,  1842.  Angelina  (Moody)  Duncan,  a  sister,  re- 
sided in  the  West. 

The  Moody  men  are  described  as  being  of  an  average  height 

PERIOD    1830-1850  91 

of  six  feet,  one  inch,  and  weight  of  two  hundred  and  twenty- 
five  pounds.  They  were  all  keen  business  men  and  careful 

Of  the  present  generation,  G.  E.  Moody,  Reverend  Calvin 
Moody  of  Oklahoma,  and  Edward  Moody  of  Waterbury, 
Mrs.  WilHam  Carpenter  of  Waterbury,  and  Miss  Nettie 
Moody  of  Poultney  Academy  are  the  children  of  George 
Moody.  George  F.  Moody  of  Burlington  is  the  son  of  Elisha. 
Of  William  Moody's  family  there  were:  Justin  W.  Moody, 
Mrs.  N.  K.  Brown  of  Burlington,  Jane  (Moody)  Town, 
Lavina  (Moody)  Robinson  of  Stowe,  and  Mrs.  Frances 
(Moody)  Atherton  of  Burlington. 

It  is  said  that  Nathaniel  Moody  was  the  one  of  the  six  sons 
of  Joseph  Moody,  Sr.,  who  was  a  Republican.  All  the  rest 
were  War  Democrats,  but,  with  the  coming  of  the  third  gene- 
ration, there  was  a  sort  of  political  throw-back  and  the  sons 
of  Democratic  fathers  became  Republicans. 

Of  the  six  brothers,  George  was  known  familiarly  as  "Gov- 
ernor," it  is  said,  because  of  his  imposing  appearance,  immense 
girth  and  ponderous  dignity.  Ex-Senator  George  Eugene 
Moody  was  born  in  Waterbury,  January  6,  1845;  he  was 
educated  in  the  public  schools  and  entered  upon  a  business 
career  in  his  native  town.  He  has  been  a  successful  dealer  in 
real  estate,  live  stock,  lumber  and  the  promoter  and  half 
owner  of  the  Waterbury  Light  &  Power  Company.  He  was 
town  representative  in  1886  and  1900,  and  state  senator  in 
1906,  Mr.  Moody  is  held  in  high  esteem  for  his  invincible 
courage,  his  optimistic  confidence  in  humankind,  his  kindly 
helpfulness  and  his  shrewd  business  sense. 

Joseph  W.  Moody  was  a  member  of  the  state  senate  in  1853. 
Soon  after  his  term  expired  in  1854,  he  removed  to  Sauk 
Rapids,  Minnesota,  and  died  there,  November  23,  1884. 

Mark  H.  Moody,  a  son  of  G.  E.  Moody,  served  the  town  as 
postmaster  twelve  years  and  now  is  an  operator  of  several 
farms  and  a  breeder  of  Guernsey  stock. 

Justin  W.  Moody  was  born  in  Strafford,  Vermont,  Novem- 
ber 24,  1844,  and  died  in  Waterbury,  February  4,  1915.  He 
came  to  Waterbury  when  he  was  a  child  of  two  years  and 


received  his  early  education  in  the  public  schools  of  the  village. 
He  married  Miss  Harriet  Brown  of  Montpelier,  November  5, 
1868,  and  of  the  marriage  were  born:  Mary  (Moody)  White- 
hill,  wife  of  Mr.  Harry  C.  Whitehill,  and  Julia  (Moody)  Perry, 
wife  of  Mr.  C.  A.  Perry.  Mrs.  Moody,  Justin  Moody's 
widow,  still  lives  in  Waterbury  at  the  old  home.  Mr.  Moody 
was  an  ardent  Republican  and  served  the  village  as  post- 
master for  twenty-four  years  successively,  having  received  his 
first  commission  from  President  Andrew  Johnson.  Mr. 
Moody  was  also  the  proprietor  of  a  book  and  stationery  store, 
but  spent  the  last  fifteen  years  of  his  life  in  the  place  of  busi- 
ness of  his  son-in-law,  Mr.  H.  C.  Whitehill,  where  he  held  an 
open  court  and  reception  for  his  many  warm  friends  and 
neighbors.  For  many  years  Mr.  Moody  was  a  director  of  the 
Waterbury  National  Bank  (now  the  Waterbury  Savings  Bank 
and  Trust  Company),  school  director,  and  a  member  of  the 
Board  of  Listers.  Mr.  Moody  was  essentially  a  home  man, 
preferring  home  associations  to  the  diversions  presented  by 
social  organizations  of  different  sorts.  He  was,  however, 
quick  to  render  aid  and  counsel  to  many  local  organizations, 
particularly  the  Methodist  Church,  in  which  the  Moody  family 
of  Waterbury  had  been  always  prominent.  An  omniverous 
reader,  Mr.  Moody  kept  abreast  of  the  publications  dealing 
with  topics  whether  of  political,  governmental,  economic  or 
industrial  interest  or  of  the  more  intimate  sociological  problems 
of  present  day  discussion. 

It  would  be  a  labor  of  love  for  any  one  of  his  acquaintances 
to  bear  testimony  to  his  singular  power  of  drawing  to  him  and 
retaining,  as  it  were,  by  bands  of  steel,  those  who  knew  him. 
This  power  was  beautifully  illustrated  in  his  association  and 
relations  with  small  children  and  young  people.  Mr.  Moody 
was  modest  and  retiring,  but,  in  his  quiet  way,  was  quick  at 
repartee,  showing  a  keen  sense  of  humor.  The  Waterbury  Rec- 
ord's obituary  notice  of  Mr.  Moody  closed  with  these  words : 
"After  all,  what  the  people  of  Waterbury  and  vicinity  will 
remember  with  the  greatest  comfort  and  satisfaction  were 
those  traits  of  their  dead  friend  which  were  evidenced  by  an 

PERIOD   1830-1850  93 

invariable  neighborliness,  kindliness  and  thoughtfulness  for 
others,  especially  in  times  of  adversity  or  trouble." 

For  weeks  after  Mr.  Moody's  death  the  sorrow  of  old  friends 
was  manifested  in  a  pathetic  way,  when  upon  inquiry  at  his 
accustomed  place,  they  learned  first  of  his  passing.  Especially 
touching  were  the  inquiries  of  little  children  for  their  old 

One  of  the  old-time  residents  of  Waterbury  Center  was 
Chauncey  Lyon.  Mr.  Lyon  was  born  October  11,  1835,  on 
the  same  farm  that  was  cleared  by  his  father  and  grandfather, 
and  which  is  now  owned  by  his  son,  Arthur  Lyon.  After  he 
began  to  feel  the  weight  of  years  he  moved  from  the  farm  to 
the  Center.  He  married  Miss  Maria  Emeretta  Hopkins  of 
Enosburgh  in  1858.  Of  this  union  eight  children  were  born, 
the  eldest  son  dying  in  infancy.  Of  the  living  children  Mrs. 
M.  A,  Thurston  (Martha  A.  Lyon)  lives  at  the  Center; 
Arthur  on  the  Lyon  farm;  Frank  "Chancy"  is  in  business  in 
Burlington;  Mrs.  Frank  A.  Fish,  the  wife  of  Superior  Judge 
Fish,  lives  in  Vergennes;  Mrs.  Warren,  in  Morrisville;  Jesse, 
in  Chicago,  and  Mrs.  Carsley,  in  Palmer,  Massachusetts. 
By  occupation  Mr.  Lyon  was  always  a  farmer.  He  paid 
especial  attention  to  horse  breeding  and  to  this  branch  of 
farming  he  ascribed  what  success  he  met.  Of  industrious 
habits,  he  could  not  tolerate  an  idler  and  was  too  frugal  to 
permit  waste  or  slackness.  Strictly  honest  and  upright,  he 
held  all  to  the  same  line.     He  died  May  3,  1914. 

Among  Waterbury 's  physicians  of  this  period  was  Doctor 
Thomas  B.  Downer  who  came  to  the  Center  in  1840,  or  there- 
about. The  circumstances  attending  his  removal  from  Stowe, 
where  he  had  practiced,  to  Waterbury  Center,  well  illustrates 
the  Doctor's  tenacity  of  opinion.  When  the  County  of  La- 
moille was  carved  out  and  the  town  of  Stowe  was  included 
within  the  new  boundaries,  Doctor  Downer  declared  that  he 
would  not  pay  taxes  to  the  substituted  county  organization; 
rather  than  to  do  this,  he  removed  to  Waterbury  Center. 

Doctor  Downer  was  nothing  short  of  a  public  institution, 
sometimes  called  a  "character"  (as  if  that  word  were  inclusive 
of  all  personal  peculiarities).     He  is  described  as  rather  cor- 


pulent,  with  a  deep  bass  voice,  brusque  and  abrupt  in  manner, 
with  a  kindly  heart  and  ready  sympathy  for  all.  Like  most 
country  physicians,  Doctor  Downer  set  little  store  by  insisting 
upon  his  professional  fees.  He  rendered  service  to  rich  and 
poor  with  fine  impartiality.  He  died  in  1851  and,  twenty 
years  later,  appeared  the  poem  of  Samuel  Slayton  Luce,  whose 
beautiful  appreciation  of  the  kindly  old  practitioner  remains 
as  a  fitting  tribute  to  the  memory  of  the  friend  of  the  country- 
side. Clarissa  Downer,  daughter  of  Doctor  Downer,  married 
Lyman  Smith.  Three  children  of  this  marriage  were  John  D., 
Clarissa  and  George  Edward  Smith. 

John  D.  Smith  married  Mary  Jane  Camp  in  Stowe  and  came 
to  Waterbury  Center  in  the  early  40's.  He  held  the  office  of 
town  clerk  from  1851  until  his  death  in  1873.  John  Downer 
Smith  was  a  type  of  that  class  of  men  known  in  small  commu- 
nities whose  sound  judgment  and  temperate  counsel  are  in- 
stinctively sought. 

At  perhaps  too  early  a  period  in  life  he  was  invested  with 
the  responsibilities  of  a  family  head,  when,  after  the  death  of 
his  father,  he  assumed  that  place  in  the  household.  From  his 
youth  his  predilection  for  books  and  reading  continued  to 
grow  stronger.  He  was  especially  devoted  to  historical  re- 
search and  was  no  mean  antagonist  in  doctrinal  discussion, 
having  emerged  from  the  confines  of  orthodoxy  into  the,  to 
him,  more  congenial  fields  of  Universalism.  His  frequent 
visits  to  Boston  brought  him  into  contact  with  the  various 
advance  movements  of  the  time  and  he  became  familiar  with 
their  progress.  He  was  alert  and  vigilant  to  keep  abreast  of 
advanced  thought.  The  very  night  before  his  death  he  read 
aloud,  to  a  number  of  his  friends,  certain  extracts  from  some 
recent  publication  dealing  with  psychic  phenomena  and  talked 
far  into  the  night  about  the  possibilities  which  the  opening  of 
such  a  new  field  of  investigation  entailed.  With  all  his  strong 
convictions  and  his  uncompromising  nature,  he  still  was  a 
warm  friend  and  comrade  of  many  who  differed  radically  from 
him.  He  served  as  town  lister,  justice  of  the  peace,  land  sur- 
veyor, conveyancer  and  general  settler  of  local  controversies. 
He  represented  the  town  in  the  Legislatures  of  1856  and  1857. 

PERIOD    1830-1850  95 

Mr.  Smith  was  a  book-lover  and  student,  possessing  one  of  the 
few  really  good  private  libraries  in  the  town.  He  was  an 
avowed  Universalist  and  was  logically  translated  from  the 
old-line  Whig  to  the  rejuvenated  Republican  party. 

Frank  N.  Smith,  the  son  of  John  D.  Smith,  succeeded  his 
father  as  town  clerk  and  continued  the  business  of  conveyanc- 
ing, settling  estates,  etc.,  until  he  went  to  Montpelier  where  he 
is  now  the  treasurer  of  the  Capital  Savings  Bank.  His  sister, 
Clarissa  (Smith)  Minard,  still  lives  in  Waterbury  Village  with 
her  daughter.  Miss  Marguerite  Minard. 

Doctor  Will  F.  Minard,  husband  of  Clarissa  (Smith)  Minard 
was  born  in  Hinesburg,  May  13,  1867,  the  son  of  R.  M.  and 
Marguerite  (Kenyon)  Minard.  His  preparatory  education 
was  had  in  the  Hinesburg  and  Bristol  schools  and  the  Green 
Mountain  Seminary  at  Waterbury  Center.  He  spent  some 
time  in  preliminary  medical  study  with  Doctor  Sparhawk  of 
Burlington  and  as  an  assistant  in  a  Hanover,  New  Hampshire, 
drug  store.  Thereafter  he  attended  the  Hahnemann  Medical 
College  in  Philadelphia,  from  which  he  was  graduated  at  the 
head  of  his  class  in  1887.  He  practiced  in  Burlington  with 
his  old  preceptor,  Doctor  Sparhawk,  for  a  short  time  coming 
from  Burlington  to  Waterbury  within  a  year.  He  purchased 
the  old  Dillingham  residence  on  Main  Street  and  conducted  a 
sanitarium  there  for  some  years.  While  still  a  student  in 
Waterbury  Center  he  met  Miss  Clarissa  Smith,  a  member  of 
his  seminary  class.  They  were  married  September  30,  1886. 
Doctor  Minard  was  a  man  of  singularly  attractive  address, 
winning  and  courteous  manners  and  agreeable  personality. 
He  was  an  enthusiastic  student  and  practitioner,  a  kind  and 
helpful  friend  and  an  energetic,  public-spirited  citizen. 

The  best  available  information  about  the  origin  of  the  Water- 
bury branch  of  the  Henry  family  begins  with  Samuel  Henry  of 
South  Hadley  and  Amherst,  Massachusetts.  The  next  in 
line  is  Sylvester  Henry,  who  married  Sybil  Proctor  about 
1800.  This  Sylvester  Henry  was  born  in  Amherst,  Massachu- 
setts, November  20,  1776.  He  followed  an  uncle,  Jason  Cady, 
to  Vermont.  The  following  biographical  sketch  by  Mrs. 
Sarah   (Henry)  Jewett,  a  daughter  of  Sylvester  Henry  and 


Sybil    (Proctor)    Henry,   is    taken    from    Eldridge's    "Henry 
Genealogy"  (191 5): 

Of  my  father's  early  3'ears  we  know  very  little.  At  fourteen  he  left 
home  to  learn  the  carpenter's  trade,  and  served  an  apprenticeship  of  seven 
years,  having  three  months'  schooling  each  year.  During  this  time  his 
food  and  clothing  were  very  scanty.  His  evenings  were  spent  in  studying 
and  reading  history  by  torch-light  made  of  pine  knots;  and  such  was  his 
love  of  knowledge  and  diligence  that  he  became  well  informed  for  those 

At  the  age  of  twenty-one  he  took  what  little  he  had,  and  in  company  with 
his  brother,  Samuel,  started  for  Vermont.  The  country  was  nearly  a 
wilderness  with  few  settlements  and  few  people.  The  roads  were  marked 
trees.  He  came  to  Waterbury.  There  were  two  or  three  framed  houses 
and  several  log  cabins.  He  liked  the  country,  but  as  he  could  not  obtain 
work  here,  he  pushed  on  to  Burlington,  Vermont.  There  he  had  all  the 
work  he  could  do  and  remained  there  four  or  five  years,  often  visiting 
Waterbury  in  that  time,  and  finally  bought  a  house  and  several  acres  of 
land  where  William  Carpenter's  house  stands  (1876).  There  are  two 
houses  yet  standing  in  Burlington  that  he  and  his  brother,  Samuel,  built. 
He  was  married  to  Sybil  Proctor,  daughter  of  Isaac  Proctor,  a  kind  hearted 
and  excellent  man.  They  were  poor  in  purse  but  rich  in  good  health,  in 
industrious  and  frugal  habits  and  a  disposition  to  overcome  obstacles. 

In  March,  1807,  he  traded  his  home  in  the  village  for  this  (Henry)  farm 
and  moved  into  a  poor  cabin  situated  where  the  garden  now  is.  The  snow 
was  very  deep  and  father  made  steps  down  into  the  cabin,  and  his  youthful 
wife  went  down  with  her  baby  and  all  her  dishes  in  her  arms.  She  thought 
it  was  like  going  out  of  the  world  to  come  way  down  here  in  the  woods  to 
live.  She  was,  however,  cheerful  and  hopeful,  and  set  about  making  her 
home  as  comfortable  as  possible.  She  pinned  sheets  and  towels  against 
the  logs;  washed  the  one  window;  scrubbed  the  floor;  and  by  night,  as  the 
fire  blazed  up  in  the  big  fireplace,  her  cabin  seemed  quite  cozy  and  home- 

In  this  humble  home  there  were  born  to  them  a  son  and  a  daughter, 
James  M.  and  Betsey.  In  the  course  of  time  they  got  up  a  frame  house  and 
moved  into  the  kitchen, — that,  with  the  bedroom  and  buttery,  being  all 
that  was  finished.  She  spun  and  wove  her  sheets,  towels,  and  tablecloths, 
her  coverlets  and  blankets,  to  furnish  her  new  house,  and  made  full  clothes 
and  flannels  to  clothe  her  husband  and  children.  She  brought  water  from 
the  brook,  and  in  a  hurrying  time  would  help  on  the  farm.  Father  was 
ever  busy,  working  at  his  trade  winters,  and  on  the  farm  summers.  He 
built  the  house,  woodshed,  and  barn;  built  the  church  and  many  of  the 
houses  at  the  village,  cleared  the  land,  planted  the  orchard,  made  roads, 
bridges,  and  fences.  He  also  had  much  town  business  to  do,  and  some  for 
the  state.  He  was  elected  to  the  Legislature.  He  was  a  Whig  in  politics 
and  a  great  lover  of  his  country.     He  attended  the  Congregational  Church, 

PERIOD   1830-1850  97 

He  was  dignified  and  stern  in  manner,  and  not  at  all  familiar  with  his 
younger  children.  He  was  ever  adding  to  the  farm,  always  in  debt  for 
land,  and  when  mother  wanted  anything  for  the  house,  the  answer  was, 
"Wait  until  we  are  out  of  debt."  Mother  had  a  cheerful,  hopeful  disposi- 
tion, a  hand  and  heart  ready  to  help  those  who  wanted  help,  and  was 
very  useful  among  the  sick.  She  brought  up  her  girls  to  spin,  weave,  make 
cheese  and  butter,  make  their  own  clothes  and  knit  their  own  stockings. 
These  industrious  habits  and  frugal  ways  have  been  a  rich  legacy  to  them, 
and  now,  after  she  has  been  dead  thirty-six  years,  they  rise  up  and  call  her 

Sylvester  with  his  brother  Samuel,  both  carpenters,  came 
to  Burlington  and  built  the  two  Englesby  houses  on  the  corner 
of  St.  Paul  and  College  Streets  about  1800.  He  was  paid  off 
in  silver  quarters  and  with  that  money  came  to  Waterbury 
and  bought  the  tract  known  since  as  the  Henry  farm  above 
referred  to. 

Sylvester  Henry,  son  of  Samuel,  was  for  many  years  a 
prominent  citizen  of  Waterbury.  He  served  for  several  years 
as  a  selectman,  justice  of  the  peace,  and  town  representative 
in  the  Assembly  for  two  years  (1812-1813).  He  is  described 
as  a  man  of  wide  reading  and  literary  taste,  added  to  which 
was  a  singularly  shrewd  and  accurate  knowledge  of  land 
values.  He  died  in  1840.  Sybil  (Proctor)  Henry,  wife  of 
Sylvester,  was  a  woman  whose  delight  it  was  to  be  of  service  to 
those  of  her  neighbors  needing  assistance  of  a  practical  kind 
when  in  trouble  or  illness.  An  unusual  coincidence  occurred 
in  the  fact  that  of  this  family  of  four  sons  and  four  daughters, 
two  sons  each  reared  a  family  of  the  same  size,  one  of  these 
being  a  family  of  four  sons  and  four  daughters.  These  were 
the  families  of  Sylvester  (second  son  of  Sylvester,  Sr.)  and 
James  M.,  respectively. 

James  M.,  eldest  son  of  Sylvester,  was  born  in  Waterbury  in 
1809.  His  early  education  was  obtained  in  the  public  schools. 
He,  like  his  father,  was  a  diligent  reader  and  close  observer. 
His  philosophy  of  life,  born  of  reading  and  observation,  seemed 
to  be  to  take  men  as  he  found  them  and  not  to  undertake  the 
impossible  task  of  recreating  them.  Mr.  Henry  found  farm 
life  unsuited  to  his  tastes  and  disposition  and  attempted  with 
success  endeavors  in  other  fields.     He  identified  himself  in 


middle  age  with  the  cause  of  temperance  and,  like  his  father 
again,  served  the  town  as  a  justice  of  the  peace,  and  town 
representative  in  the  Assembly  (i 859-1 860).  He  died,  aged 
about  fifty-five  years.  James  M.  Henry  had  eight  children: 
William  Wirt,  (General)  Henry,  Delia  M.,  John  F,,  Eliza, 
Sybil  Proctor,  James  Edwin,  Sarah  and  George. 

John  F.  Henry,  brother  of  General  Henry,  went  from  Water- 
bury  to  Brooklyn,  New  York.  He  married  for  the  first  time 
Josephine  Barrett.  Two  children  were  born  of  this  marriage, 
William  and  John.  His  second  wife  was  Lydia  Delphine 
Hart.  A  son,  John  F.  Henry,  resides  at  Saranac  Lake.  Delia, 
sister  of  General  Henry,  married  Doctor  Anderson  Miller  of 
North  Carolina,  who  fought  on  the  side  of  the  Confederacy 
during  the  Civil  War.  She  had  five  children:  Eliza  Henry 
married  Emery  Scagel.  They  had  two  children,  Dora  and 
Flora.  Sybil  Henry  married  Lyman  Hinkley,  one-time 
lieutenant-governor  of  Vermont;  they  had  one  child.  James 
Edwin  was  killed  fighting  for  the  Union  in  the  Battle  of  Peters- 
burg. Sarah  married  Salmon  Green  of  Richmond;  their 
children  were  Henry,  William,  Edwin,  Sybil,  Harriet,  Sarah, 
Nellie,  Delphine,  Roscoe  and  Lyman.  George  Henry,  young- 
est brother  of  General  Henry,  died  comparatively  young  after 
serving  through  the  Civil  War. 

In  the  family  of  Sylvester  Henry,  Sr.,  besides  James  M., 
there  were  Mary  (Mrs.  Newton  Atherton),  Ann  (Mrs.  Corne- 
lius Sherman),  Sarah  (Mrs.  Jewett)  and  Luther.  John  F. 
Henry  went  to  Brooklyn  and  built  up  a  large  business  in  drugs 
and  medicines  from  small  beginnings  in  Waterbury;  he  was  a 
candidate  for  the  mayoralty  and  is  said  to  have  run  ahead  of 
his  party  strength. 

Sylvester,  second  son  of  Sylvester,  Sr.,  accumulated  a 
modest  fortune;  was,  for  a  time,  constable  in  Waterbury. 
Three  of  his  sons  served  in  the  Union  army  in  the  Civil  War. 
He  died  in  1871,  aged  about  fifty-eight. 

Luther,  fourth  son  of  Sylvester,  Sr.,  was  born  in  Waterbury 
in  1826.  When  he  was  fourteen  years  of  age  his  father  died, 
leaving  his  minor  son's  guardianship  to  the  village  selectmen, 
whose  fidelity  and  ability  in  administering  trusts  were  well 

PERIOD    1 830-1 850  99 

established.  Luther's  education  was  had  at  Newbury  Semi- 
nary. Upon  attaining  his  majority  he  made  some  unsuccess- 
ful speculations  in  dealing  in  patent  rights.  In  common  with 
many  other  young  law  students,  he  entered  the  office  of  Hon- 
orable Paul  Dillingham  and  was  admitted  to  the  bar  of 
Washington  County  in  May,  1849.  He  is  described  by  a 
fellow  member  of  the  bar,  L.  L.  Durant,  in  this  language: 
"As  a  lawyer,  he  was  never  learned  in  the  books;  but  in  a 
knowledge  of  men  and  things,  he  was  not  to  be  excelled.  With 
keen  discrimination  and  quick  discernment,  he  readily  grasped 
the  strong  points  of  a  case,  and,  bringing  all  his  efforts  to  bear 
upon  them,  could  not  easily  be  led  away.  He  was,  so  to 
speak,  a  natural  lawyer,  as  all  who  entered  the  lists  with  him 
can  testify,"  Mr.  Henry  was  instrumental  in  building  the 
Waterbury  and  Duxbury  bridge  across  the  Winooski.  He 
was  twice  married;  the  first  time  to  Miss  Flora  Taplin;  the 
second,  to  Miss  Kate  Royce.  Three  children  were  born  to 
him.     He  died  January  i,  1867,  aged  forty. 

Franklin  Sylvester  Henry  was  the  son  of  Sylvester  Henry, 
second,  and  brother  of  Mrs.  Albert  Spencer.  He  served  with 
the  Seventeenth  Regiment  of  Vermont  Volunteers  which  went 
to  the  war  in  1864.  In  the  same  regiment  was  Lieutenant  J. 
Edwin  Henry,  his  cousin,  who  was  killed  at  Petersburg. 
Franklin  Sylvester  Henry  was  the  loyal  son  of  Waterbury  who 
carried  into  effect  the  long  discussed  project  of  erecting  a 
suitable  monument  to  the  memory  of  the  brave  soldiers  of 
the  town,  whose  deathless  glory  it  was  to  outnumber  any 
other  town  in  the  state  in  her  ever-ready  quotas  of  men.  Pres- 
entation of  this  noble  gift  of  Mr.  Henry  devolved  upon  Gen- 
eral William  W.  Henry  (his  cousin).  Senator  William  P. 
Dillingham,  O.  A.  Seabury  and  H.  C.  Whitehill,  as  a  Board 
of  Trustees  in  response  to  a  request  made  the  preceding  year 
by  Mr.  Henry,  before  his  death.  Franklin  Sylvester  Henry 
became  associated  as  traveling  salesman  with  Henry,  Curran 
&  Company  of  New  York,  large  dealers  in  drugs  and  medicines, 
after  his  return  from  the  Civil  War.  He  made  his  home  in 
Cleveland,  Ohio,  and  later  engaged  in  business  on  his  own 
account  in  that  city,  where  he  soon  demonstrated  his  ability 


to  handle  large  affairs.  A  few  months  after  preferring  his 
request  that  a  monument  committee  be  appointed,  his  health 
failed  and  he  was  obliged  to  seek  relief  at  Hot  Springs,  Arkan- 
sas. A  telegram  was  received  in  Waterbury,  February  ii, 
1914,  announcing  his  death  from  pneumonia,  just  four  days 
after  the  setting  of  the  beautiful  monument,  so  near  his  heart. 
Mr.  Henry  was  a  fine  type  of  business  man  and  was  peculiarly 
adapted  to  cope  with  undertakings  of  magnitude.  He  was  a 
strong  man,  of  kindly  impulses  and  sympathetic  nature.  He 
died  at  the  age  of  sixty-eight  years,  leaving  a  wife,  Mrs. 
Franklin  Sylvester  Henry  (Mary  Kirkpatric  Wilson),  a  sister, 
Mrs.  Albert  Spencer  of  Waterbury,  and  a  brother,  Frederic 
Henry  of  Cleveland. 

Stiles  Sherman  properly  belongs  to  an  earlier  period.  He 
was  the  father  of  twelve  children,  several  of  whom  died  in 
early  youth.  His  youngest  daughter  was  Mrs.  Lyman  Beebe 
of  Burlington;  her  daughter,  Mary  Jane  Beebe,  became  the 
wife  of  General  Henry.  The  youngest  son  was  Seth  Chandler 
Sherman  who  was  graduated  with  honors  from  the  University 
of  Vermont  in  1829,  and  removed  to  Quincy,  Illinois,  where 
he  married  and  died.  Besides  a  brother  of  Seth  Chandler, 
who  went  to  central  New  York  early  in  life,  there  was  Heman 
Sherman,  who  died  in  Ogdensburg,  New  York,  and  was  buried 
in  Waterbury.  An  elder  sister  married  Elam  Carpenter, 
brother  of  Judge  Dan  Carpenter,  and,  on  his  death,  married 
Luther  Cleaves.  There  were  a  son  (Sherman)  and  two  daugh- 
ters of  this  family,  who,  with  their  parents,  removed  to  St. 

Many  interesting  stories  are  told  of  the  old  time  festivities, 
incidental  to  corn  huskings,  sugar  parties  and  the  like,  enjoyed 
by  the  young  blades  and  damsels  of  Waterbury  at  the  hospita- 
ble Beebe  farm. 

Among  the  famous  wheelwrights  of  this  region  was  Jesse 
Perry,  whose  daughter  is  Mrs.  B.  R.  Demeritt. 

"Perry  Hill"  is  named  for  Benjamin  Perry,  the  founder  of 
the  Waterbury  family. 

One  of  the  eccentric  village  institutions  was  Sayles  Hawley, 
keeper  of  a  hotel  on  the  site  of  the  old  Pride  tavern.     He  was 

PERIOD    1830-1850  lOI 

an  incorrigible  wag,  whose  wholesome  good  humor  fairly  radi- 
ated from  his  countenance.  Two  prominent  politicians  were 
once  engaged  in  a  wordy  wrangle,  which  bade  fair  to  end  in 
fisticuffs,  when  Sayles  Hawley,  then  a  mischievous  youngster 
of  eighty  years,  quelled  the  row  by  quoting  in  his  inimitable 
fashion  the  old  rhyme  admonishing  little  children  "not  to  let 
their  angry  passions  rise."  Mr.  Hawley  married  Miss  Hub- 
bard of  Montpelier. 

Two  postmasters  were  Thomas  B.  Scagel  and  his  son,  Emery 
D.  Scagel.  The  first  named  lived  where  Doctor  Bid  well's 
house  stands.     The  son  engaged  in  the  drug  business. 

Daniel  Demmon,  a  farmer,  was  the  father  of  two  sons. 
Daniel,  Jr.,  and  Jared  Demmon,  for  a  short  time  a  law  partner 
of  Paul  Dillingham. 

The  Atkins  family  was  a  numerous  one  and  boasted  several 
giants.  They  were  locally  known  and  sometimes  feared  as 
wits  and  jokers,  particularly  Henry  and  Albro.  Horace  and 
Henry  were  house  builders  and  carpenters.  Captain  George's 
name  is  in  the  list  of  the  famous  forty  volunteers  recorded  as 
being  at  the  Battle  of  Plattsburg.  David  was  a  deacon  and, 
like  most  deacons,  a  town  officer.  John  very  early  incurred 
the  reputation  of  being  "queer"  because  he  was  said  to  gather 
sap  with  one  pail,  whereas  most  sugar  makers  used  two  if 
working  without  a  team.  John's  method  was  too  revolu- 
tionary to  escape  comment.  Jerum  Atkins,  son  of  John,  was 
by  way  of  being  a  mechanical  genius.  He  put  in  his  early  years 
with  Henry  Carter,  a  wheelwright;  then  he  went  West  and 
became  the  inventor  of  the  first  grain  raking  attachment  to 
the  famous  McCormick  reaper.  Like  many  inventors, 
Jerum  Atkins  sowed  for  others  to  reap.  Lack  of  means,  ill 
health,  bad  business  management  and  sordid  over-reaching 
on  the  part  of  patent  pirates,  all  contributed  to  deprive  Atkins 
of  the  fruits  of  his  genius. 

One  of  the  old  time  medical  practitioners  was  Doctor 
Oliver  W.  Drew,  who  came  from  South  Woodstock  to  Water- 
bury  in  1820.  His  father  before  him  was  a  physician  and  his 
son,  Frederic,  also.  Doctor  Oliver  Drew  practiced  medicine 
in  Waterbury  for  fifty-five  years  and,  upon  his  retirement, 


took  up  his  residence  with  his  only  daughter,  the  wife  of  a 
clergyman  in  Acton,  Massachusetts.  He  died  in  Massachu- 
setts in  1878,  and  his  remains  were  interred  in  the  cemetery 
here.  His  first  wife  was  Lucretia  Arms,  the  mother  of  Doctor 
Frederic  Drew  and  one  daughter;  his  second  wife  was  Mar- 
garet Woodward,  daughter  of  Doctor  Woodward  of  Mont- 
pelier,  and  one  time  resident  of  Waterbury;  his  third  wife  was 
Olivia  L.  B.  Atherton. 

Doctor  Frederic  Drew  pursued  a  classical  course  in  Burling- 
ton at  the  University  of  Vermont  and  acquired  his  professional 
training  at  the  Woodstock  Medical  College  and  the  College  of 
Physicians  and  Surgeons  in  New  York,  from  which  he  was 
graduated  in  the  spring  of  1857.  He  started  in  practice  in 
Attica,  Indiana;  thence  he  removed  to  Junction  City,  Kansas, 
in  1859.  After  two  years  he  was  made  postsurgeon  at  Fort 
Riley,  where  he  remained  until  his  death  at  the  age  of  thirty- 
five  years,  during  the  Civil  War.  He  left  a  widow,  Nelly 
(Cheney)  Drew,  whom  he  had  married  in  Attica,  Indiana,  in 
December,  1861. 

The  elder  Doctor  Drew  was  one  of  Waterbury 's  sturdy 
oaks;  dependable,  sensible,  practical,  trustworthy,  conscien- 
tious and  industrious,  he  realized  to  the  full  the  highest  type 
of  physician,  adviser  and  public-spirited  resident.  Doctor 
Frederic  Drew's  reputation  as  a  surgeon  had  already  become 
widely  known  in  Kansas  when  he  died.  He  was  also  regarded 
as  a  man  of  well-disciplined,  scientific  mind,  gentle  culture, 
kind  sympathy  and  generous  heart. 

Among  the  lawyer  graduates  from  the  office  of  Paul  Dilling- 
ham was  Columbus  F.  Clough,  son  of  Thaddeus  and  Clarissa 
(Morse)  Clough,  formerly  of  Stowe,  but  latterly  of  Waterbury. 
Thaddeus  Clough  was  a  farmer  and  man  of  affairs.  He  served 
as  selectman  twelve  successive  years  and  was  town  representa- 
tive in  the  General  Assembly  in  1836,  1847  and  1848.  He  died 
November  28,  1883,  aged  eighty-two  years.  His  wife  died 
September  30,  1876,  at  the  age  of  eighty-four.  Columbus,  the 
son,  was  born  June  28,  1833.  His  early  life  and  training  was 
much  the  same  as  that  of  his  boy  companions, — doing  farm 
work  and  attending  school.     Later  he  attended  Bakersfield 

PERIOD    1 830-1 850  103 

and  Morrisville  Academies  in  preparation  for  college.  He  was 
dissuaded  from  pursuing  a  college  course  and  began  his  law 
studies  in  the  office  of  Paul  Dillingham.  The  four  years  spent 
under  the  tutelage  of  so  experienced  a  preceptor  fitted  him  for 
admission  to  the  bar  at  the  age  of  twenty.  He  was  obliged  to 
wait  until  he  attained  his  majority  before  applying  for  admis- 
sion. After  being  admitted  to  practice,  March  11,  1856, 
Mr.  Clough  became  immersed  in  business  and  legal  practice 
until  he  removed  to  Waitsfield  January  26,  1861.  Here  he 
remained  attending  to  a  growing  practice  in  Washington, 
Windsor,  Orange,  Chittenden  and  Lamoille  Counties,  until 
October  17,  1867,  when  he  returned  to  Waterbury.  At  differ- 
ent times  he  was  associated  in  legal  partnerships  with  Judge 
Hiram  Carleton  and  Edwin  F.  Palmer,  Esq.  Mr.  Clough 
married  Persis  L.  Allen  (daughter  of  Charles  S.  and  Nancy 
Allen,  and  granddaughter  of  Deacon  Asaph  Allen)  July  29, 
1861,  who  now  lives  in  Randall  Street,  Waterbury.  Mr. 
Clough  was  a  painstaking,  careful  adviser  and  soon  acquired 
prominence  as  an  advocate.  He  was  a  man  of  strong  con- 
victions and  belonged  to  the  then  justly  celebrated  group  of 
Union  Democrats.  He  was  accidentally  killed  by  an  electric 
car  near  Mill  Village,  July  27,  1899. 

It  were  almost  supererogatory  to  ascribe  to  the  climate  and 
environment  of  Waterbury  the  great  longevity  of  its  residents 
when  the  same  might  with  equal  truth  be  predicated  of  every 
other  town  in  Vermont.  At  all  events,  Waterbury  has  not 
derogated  from  the  reputation  of  the  rest  of  the  state  in  that 
respect.  Among  the  early  families,  Betsy  (Partridge)  Car- 
penter, widow  of  Judge  Dan  Carpenter,  lived  to  the  age  of 
93  years;  a  Mrs.  Woodward,  to  the  age  of  about  95;  Elizabeth 
Corlis,  94;  Mr.  Heaton,  96;  D.  Stowell,  about  92;  John  Mont- 
gomery, over  85;  Enoch  Coffran,  over  87;  Moses  Nelson,  over 
85;  Nancy  Frink,  86;  Mrs.  Daniels,  about  97;  Henry  F.  Janes, 
87I ;  Mrs.  Janes,  nearly  82 ;  Doctor  Henry  Janes,  over  83 ;  John 
Seabury,  87 ;  L.  Hutchins,  about  80.  (These  ages  are  taken  for 
the  most  part  from  Hemenway's  History  of  Washington 
County,  p.  871.)  At  this  writing,  George  W.  Randall  is  90 
years  of  age.  Governor  Paul  Dillingham  was  92  at  the  time 
of  his  death. 



From  a  population  of  1,992  souls  in  1840,  the  growth  of 
Waterbury  in  the  decade  of  1 840-1 850  was  not  especially  en- 
couraging. The  town  with  a  grand  list  of  $5,304.78  showed  a 
population  of  2,352  in  1850.  During  the  Taylor- Fillmore  ad- 
ministration (i 848-1 852),  the  Anti-Slavery,  Free  Soil  and 
Abolition  agitation  continued  locally  as  in  other  towns  of  the 
state.  Business  recovered  slowly  from  the  stringent  period  of 
the  late  30's.  The  merchants  of  the  town  were  Goss  &  Delano, 
S.  C.  Hutchins,  Stimson  &  Arms,  James  Cristy,  E.  G.  Scott 
&  Company,  J,  D.  Smith,  D.  Tarbell  &  Company,  A.  Prime, 
W.  H.  Woodward,  J.  C.  &  S.  Brown,  S.  D.  Sturtevant.  The 
manufacturers  were  Thompson,  Seabury  &  Blanchard,  woolens. 
V.  R.  Blush,  S.  S.  Spicer,  leather.  Lucius  Parmelee,  S.  G. 
Howe,  E.  W.  Bates,  boots  and  shoes.  Hutchins  &  Wade, 
starch.  A.  A.  Atherton,  Horace  Atkins,  furniture.  C. 
Graves,  stoves  and  tin  ware.  O.  Howe,  G.  H.  Lease,  trunks 
and  harness.  H.  W.  Wells,  A.  Hills,  G.  P.  Hills,  D.  D.  Wood- 
man, C.  Simmons,  wagons  and  sleighs.  D.  Stowell,  planing 

Mill  Village,  lying  at  the  lower  falls  of  Thatcher's  Branch 
on  the  Stowe  road,  derives  its  name  from  the  early  mill  sites 
located  there.  The  water  power  has  its  source  in  a  succession 
of  three  falls  within  a  quarter  of  mile,  affording  an  equal  num- 
ber of  mill  privileges.  The  first  mill  is  now  a  flour  and  feed 
mill,  owned  by  and  conducted  for  the  E.  T.  Seabury  estate, 
under  the  management  of  W.  H.  Seabury.  There  is  no 
authentic  record  showing  who  the  first  builder  was,  but  it  is 
believed  that  Isaac  Woolson  built  it  in  about  1807;  a  deed 
from  him  of  a  mill  of  its  description  to  Oliver  C.  Rood,  dated  in 
1810,  is  still  in  existence.  William  W.  Wells  bought  the  prop- 
erty of  Dutton  and  improved  it  inside  and  out,  remodeling  it  for 
a  flour  mill.    The  chain  of  title  appears  to  be  as  follows :    Isaac 

8  105 


Woolson  to  O.  C.  Rood,  1810;  O.  C.  Rood  to  Carpenter  & 
Eddy,  1826;  Carpenter  &  Eddy  to  David  Dutton  and  Atkins, 
1827;  David  Atkins  to  William  W.  Wells,  1835;  Wells  estate 
to  John  Q.  and  E.  T.  Seabury,  1870.  In  1857  new  model 
waterwheels  were  installed  in  place  of  the  huge  old  twenty- 
four  foot  over-shot  wheel ;  these  were  soon  replaced  by  others. 
Mr.  Wells  undertook  to  do  a  large  business  in  manufacturing 
and  dealing  in  flour  and  feed  without  a  suitably  adapted 
water-power.  His  successors,  J.  Q.  and  E.  T.  Seabury,  ran 
the  mill  for  ten  years.  J.  Q.  Seabury  then  sold  his  share  to 
his  brother  and  went  to  California,  where  he  died  in  1908. 
E.  T.  Seabury  died  in  1899,  since  which  time  the  mill  has  been 
conducted  as  above  described.  The  village  found  it  necessary 
to  take  certain  springs  for  its  water  supply  from  the  sources  of 
the  mill  stream  and  thereby  lessened  its  flow.  It  soon  became 
necessary  to  build  a  dam  for  the  conservation  of  the  water,  to 
replace  the  water-wheels  with  others  better  adapted  to  small 
streamsand  to  increase  the  head  by  several  feet  to  offset  the  loss 
of  the  spring  sources ;  these  improvements  were  made  in  1903. 

The  first  grist  mill  in  Waterbury  is  said  to  have  been  erected 
by  Caleb  Munson,  the  third  settler  in  the  town,  about  fifty 
rods  above  the  Seabury  mill  and  on  the  opposite  side  of  the 
stream.     This  mill  was  destroyed  by  fire  sometime  in  the  30's. 

I.  C.  &  S.  Brown  began  business,  in  a  small  way,  in  a  con- 
fectionery and  grocery  shop  immediately  after  the  advent  of 
the  railroad  in  a  part  of  the  old  Washington  House  on  the  old 
site  of  the  present  inn.  Thereafter  they  built  a  store  on  Park 
Row,  which  burned  in  1857,  but  was  rebuilt.  The  firm  dealt 
largely  in  flour,  food  stuff's  and  produce,  and  was  the  first  to 
ship  fruit  from  Vermont  markets  to  Montreal.  They  also 
shipped  large  consignments  of  fresh  fish  there.  Sidney  Brown 
was  a  shrewd  buyer.  On  one  occasion  he  cornered  the  New 
England  market  for  salt  salmon.  The  brothers  came  from 
Williamstown  and  began  very  early  to  deal  in  fresh  fish,  which 
they  would  freeze  and  supply  to  the  surrounding  markets. 
Apples  were  bought  in  standing  crops  by  the  buyer  for  the 
firm — an  innovation  that  compelled  the  wonder  and  admira- 
tion of  the  growers. 

PERIOD    1850-1875  107 

At  a  town  meeting,  February  21,  1850,  it  was  voted: 

That  the  town  will  surrender  to  the  Lamoille  County  Plank  Road  Com- 
pany the  present  travelled  road  from  Winooski  Turnpike,  northerly  by 
Dea.  Parker's,  the  Methodist  Chapel  and  Silas  May's  to  Stowe;  and  that 
Harvey  Prescott,  Henry  F.  Janes,  James  Greene,  E.  S.  Newcomb  and 
Richard  Demeritt  be  a  committee  on  the  part  of  the  town,  to  agree  with 
said  Plank  Road  Co.  on  the  conditions  upon  which  the  surrender  shall  be 
made  and  that  the  said  agreement  when  made,  reduced  to  writing  and 
recorded,  shall  be  final. 

Final  action  by  the  town  was  not  taken  until  the  March 
meeting  1857  when  it  was  voted: 

That  this  town  will  pay  to  the  Lamoille  County  Plank  Road  Company 
at  the  end  of  each  year  from  this  date  the  sum  of  $450.00  while  said  Com- 
pany keep  their  road  open  for  travel  on  condition  and  in  consideration  that 
the  inhabitants  of  this  town  be  allowed  to  travel  except  staging  and  per- 
manent teaming  on  said  road  its  entire  length  free  of  toll  and  also  that  said 
Company  from  year  to  year  keep  the  town  harmless  from  damages  for 
want  of  repair  and  further  that  they  repay  to  those  who  have  purchased 
passes  for  1857  in  proportion  for  the  unpaid  (unused?)  time  of  said  passes* 

At  the  March  (5th)  meeting  in  1850  it  was  voted  "that  the 
selectmen  be  instructed  to  take  charge  of  the  liquor  business- 
and  procure  pure  liquor  and  employ  an  agent  to  sell  the  same 
at  a  low  price,  if  the  state  vote  is  '  no  licence'  this  year."  This 
Utopian  state  of  affairs  could  not  last;  in  the  first  place,  the 
vote  raised  an  unexpected  difficulty  regarding  the  necessary 
qualifications  of  selectmen.  Doubtless,  the  Doctor  Wileys  of 
the  day  would  have  scouted  the  very  possibility  of  a  select- 
man's knowing  pure  from  impure  liquor  whatever  he  might 
know  about  low  prices;  added  to  this,  there  was  the  growing 
Washingtonian  temperance  influence  everywhere  throughout 
the  state.  So  it  was  that  all  previous  experiments  in  dealing 
with  the  liquor  traffic  were  merged  in  the  operation  of  the 
modified  Maine  Prohibitory  Law  which  was  enacted  in  1853. 

Owing  to  the  pronounced  anti-slavery  sentiment  in  Water- 
bury,  the  election  of  Franklin  Pierce  to  the  Presidency  and  his 
administration  were  distinctly  unpopular.  Brave,  indeed, 
would  that  protagonist  have  been  who  dared  to  point  out  the 
disinterested  character  of  President  Pierce's  public  service. 
There  were  those  who  suspected  the  motives  of  a  man  who 


not  only  resigned  from  the  United  States  Senate  but  declined 
an  appointment  to  fill  a  vacancy  in  that  body,  declined  the 
nomination  as  governor  of  New  Hampshire,  declined  an 
appointment  as  attorney-general  of  the  United  States,  the 
Secretaryship  of  War  and  accepted,  under  protest,  the  nomina- 
tion of  the  Baltimore  Convention  for  the  Presidency.  Water- 
bury,  however,  even  in  those  days  of  smoldering  political  ani- 
mosities, was  not  without  her  heroes  of  peace  who  were  willing 
to  lend  their  support  to  the  administration  and,  incidentally, 
enjoy  the  usual  emoluments. 

After  President  Pierce  had  become  fairly  settled  in  the 
White  House,  the  burning  question  in  Waterbury  was  that 
relating  to  the  probable  successor  of  Rufus  C.  Smith  as  post- 
master. Among  the  ardent  Democrats  of  the  town  was  O.  C. 
Howard.  The  popular  proprietor  of  the  Washington  Hotel, 
Mr.  Howard  boasted  a  wide  acquaintance  with  all  sorts  and 
conditions  of  men;  in  fact,  he  had  repeatedly  qualified  as  a 
charter  member  of  the  "  I-Knew-Him-When"  Club.  Mr. 
Howard  claimed  a  close  acquaintance  with  President  Pierce 
and  told  tales  of  how  he  and  "Frank"  Pierce  used  to  take 
fishing  and  other  excursions  in  New  Hampshire,  long  before 
General  Pierce  had  become  a  figure  in  national  life.  So  great 
was  Mr.  Howard's  admiration  of  the  President  that  he  caused 
the  walls  of  his  hotel  rooms  to  be  decorated  profusely  with 
portraits  of  his  distinguished  friend  and,  by  this  means,  inci- 
dentally he  himself  appeared  by  a  reflected  light. 

To  those  interested  in  securing  the  influence  of  some  local 
person  with  the  appointive  power  in  Washington,  Howard 
appeared  as  a  god-send;  here,  obviously,  was  the  very  man. 
Accordingly  Mr.  Howard  made  the  trip,  nothing  loath  to 
renew  his  acquaintance  and  intimacy  with  the  Chief  Execu- 
tive and,  quite  casually,  prefer  his  modest  request.  Upon 
arrival  in  the  Presence,  to  his  incredulous  dismay  and  hopeless 
mortification,  President  Pierce  not  only  failed  to  recognize 
him  but  declined  to  recall  the  fishing  and  other  excursions 
cherished  in  memory  so  dearly  by  Mr.  Howard.  Returning 
home  mortified  and  chagrined,  Mr.  Howard  ripped  the  Pierce 
portraits  from  the  walls  of  his  hotel  and,  walking  to  the  head 

PERIOD   1850-1875  109 

of  the  cellar  staircase,  kicked  each  picture  into  the  cellar,  in  a 
frenzy  of  righteous  indignation.  Thomas  B.  Scagel  was  made 

Waterbury  has  not  been  able  to  boast  many  latter  day 
Democrats  of  prominence.  In  the  case  of  Joseph  Warren, 
born  in  Waterbury,  July  24,  1829,  it  must  be  said  that  he  left 
his  native  town  before  taking  up  his  life  work  as  a  journalist. 
Mr.  Warren  was  graduated  at  the  University  of  Vermont  with 
the  class  of  1851 ;  going  to  Albany,  he  became  assistant  editor 
of  the  Country  Gentleman,  a  widely-read  publication  of  high 
class.  As  early  as  1853  he  became  associate  editor  of  the 
Buffalo  Courier.  Five  years  later  he  became  editor-in-chief 
and  continued  in  that  capacity  until  his  death.  Mr.  W'arren 
succeeded  that  old  Democratic  war  horse.  Dean  Richmond, 
as  leader  of  the  Erie  County  Democracy  in  New  York.  He 
was  on  the  board  of  managers  and  chairman  of  the  Executive 
Committee  of  the  State  Asylum  for  the  insane,  a  member  of 
the  Board  of  State  Normal  School  Trustees,  a  projector  of  the 
Buffalo  Fine  Arts  Academy,  a  president  of  the  BulTalo 
Y.  M.  C.  A.,  member  of  the  Council  of  Buffalo  Medical  School, 
president  of  the  New  York  State  Associated  Press,  and  a 
member  of  Ancient  Landmark  Lodge  of  Masons.  He  left  a 
wife  and  son. 

It  would  be  poor  requital  to  Reverend  Charles  Carroll 
Parker,  to  whom  we  are  indebted  for  his  interesting  historical 
address  on  Waterbury,  even  to  seem  to  minimize  his  proper 
place  in  these  pages.  He  it  was  who  first  urged  the  erection 
of  a  suitable  monument  as  a  memorial  to  the  soldier  dead  of 
Waterbury.  That  this  plan  was  not  carried  out  until  many 
years  after  Mr.  Parker's  death  long  remained  a  matter  of 
keen  regret,  though  the  omission  has  since  been  nobly  re- 
paired. Mr.  Parker  was  born  in  Underbill,  September  26, 
1814,  the  son  of  Edmond  and  Hepzibah  (Curtis)  Parker.  His 
early  life  was  much  the  same  as  that  of  all  farmers'  boys, 
working  on  the  farm  and  attending  school  during  the  winter 
and  spring  until  he  attained  to  eighteen  years  of  age.  At 
nineteen  he  began  a  long  period  of  school  teaching;  for  eight 
successive  winters  his  work  was  that  of  a  country  school 


teacher.  He  prepared  for  college  at  Jericho  Academy,  Brad- 
ford Academy,  and  under  the  private  tutelage  of  Reverend 
Samuel  Kingsbury  in  Underhill. 

After  a  four  years'  course  at  the  University  of  Vermont, 
during  which  Mr.  Parker  received  no  pecuniary  aid  from 
sources  other  than  his  own  efforts,  he  was  graduated  in  1841, 
taught  in  the  boys'  high  school  of  Burlington  two  years, 
entered  Union  Theological  Seminary,  New  York,  in  the 
autumn  of  1843,  and  taught  the  following  year  in  Burlington. 
He  acted  as  financial  agent  of  the  University  until  1847; 
resumed  the  study  of  theology,  and  was  ordained  in  Tinmouth 
in  1848. 

Coming  to  Waterbury  upon  an  invitation  to  preach,  in  the 
spring  of  1853,  he  gave  up  his  connection  with  the  Tinmouth 
church  and  was  installed  as  pastor  of  the  Congregational 
Church  in  Waterbury,  June  7,  1854.  In  the  autumn  of  1866 
he  was  elected  principal  of  the  Ladies'  Seminary  in  Gorham, 
Maine,  and  left  Waterbury  to  take  up  his  duties  there.  Mr. 
Parker's  historical  address  on  Waterbury  was  delivered  Feb- 
ruary 10,  1867,  within  a  month  after  his  dismissal  by  the  local 
Congregational  Council. 

After  preaching  three  years  in  the  Congregational  Church 
in  Gorham,  Maine,  he  labored  as  a  pastor  successively  in  the 
Congregational  Church  in  Orient,  Long  Island,  and  the  Presby- 
terian Church  in  Passippamy,  New  Jersey.  Mr.  Parker  was 
married,  November  28,  1844,  to  Elizabeth  McNiel  Fleming  of 
Burlington,  and  by  her  had  one  son  and  three  daughters.  He 
died  at  Passippamy,  New  Jersey,  February  15,  1880. 

Mr.  Parker's  name  will  always  be  held  in  grateful  remem- 
brance not  only  for  the  intelligent  service  he  rendered  his 
townsmen  in  the  preparation  of  his  historical  address  but  for 
many  other  acts  flowing  from  his  all-embracing  public  spirit. 
Official  notice  was  taken  of  Mr.  Parker's  recommendations 
regarding  a  soldiers'  monument  in  the  following  way:  At 
the  March  (5th)  town  meeting  in  1867,  a  vote  of  thanks  was 
given  Reverend  C.  C.  Parker  "for  his  able  remarks  favoring 
the  erection  of  a  soldiers'  monument  in  this  town,"  and  also 
it  was  voted  "to  perpetuate  the  sentiments  contained  in  the 

PERIOD   1850-1875  III 

remarks  of  Reverend  C.  C.  Parker  favoring  the  erection  of  a 
soldiers'  monument."  Beyond  this  formal  official  action 
nothing  was  done  toward  carrying  out  the  long  cherished 
project  until  Mr.  Franklin  Sylvester  Henry  of  Cleveland,  Ohio, 
infused  new  life  into  the  plan  and,  by  his  own  personal  interest 
and  munificence,  accomplished  in  1914  what  was  first  proposed 
in  1867. 

A  political  rally  in  the  Fremont  campaign  was  held  in  the 
large  hall  of  the  Washington  House,  at  which  the  new  Repub- 
lican doctrines  were  expounded.  Many  who  had  been  Demo- 
crats were  present;  among  the  speakers  were  Luther  Henry, 
Esq.,  and  E.  P.  Walton  of  Montpelier,  candidate  for  Con- 

If  Franklin  Pierce's  election  were  received  in  Waterbury 
with  mistrust  and  foreboding,  James  Buchanan's  choice  as 
President  aroused  bitter  enmity.  His  non-coercive  policy  was 
regarded  as  little  short  of  treason.  To  one  reading  Buchanan's 
messages  and  protests  of  the  last  year  of  his  administration  it 
is  apparent  that,  though  he  stood  with  his  back  to  the  wall 
and  buttressed  by  the  decisions  of  the  United  States  Supreme 
Court  regarding  powers  of  a  territorial  legislature,  yet  popular 
clamor  and  factional  resentments  were  too  strong  for  him  on 
the  question  of  the  right  of  the  Southern  States  to  secede. 
Waterbury  was  no  exception  regarding  this  attitude. 

The  convenience  of  the  voters  at  the  March  meetings  had 
not  received  the  attention  so  important  a  matter  as  the  sub- 
ject demanded.  Farmers  residing  at  the  farthest  removed 
point  from  the  "Street"  and  Center  had  been  obliged  to  drive, 
ride  horseback  or  walk  to  the  single  polling  place  at  the  Center 
each  year  in  order  to  record  their  wishes  and  preferences  at 
town  and  freemen's  meetings.  It  may  be  said  that  this  duty 
for  the  most  part  was  uncomplainingly  performed  in  all  kinds  of 
weather  and  under  all  kinds  of  difficulties  in  the  way  of  bad 
roads  and  inadequate  transportation.  The  same  spirit  might 
well  prod  our  latter  day  electorate  into  a  similar  sense  of  public 
obligation.  With  this  matter  of  convenience  in  view  at  the 
March  meeting  in  1859  it  was  voted :  "  That  the  town  and  free- 
men's meetings  be  hereafter  held  alternately  at  the  Street 


and  at  the  Center — that  is,  one  year  at  the  Street  and  one 
year  at  the  Center,  commencing  at  the  Street  at  our  next 
March  meeting."  At  a  town  meeting.  May  14,  i860,  it  was 
voted:  "To  instruct  the  selectmen  to  act  in  conjunction  with 
the  selectmen  of  the  town  of  Duxbury  in  building  and  estab- 
lishing a  good  and  substantial  Arch  Bridge  across  Onion  River 
(at  the  south  end  of  the  public  highway  on  H.  F.  Janes'  land), 
provided  that  the  town  of  Waterbury  shall  be  subject  and 
obliged  to  pay  only  five  hundred  dollars  for  building  said 
bridge  and  for  the  land  damage  of  Albert  Stern." 

The  decade  of  1 850-1 860  marked  no  changes  of  importance 
in  the  business  life  of  the  town.  The  merchants  in  1859  were: 
J.  G.  Stimson,  C.  N.  Arms,  Leland  &  Ashley,  dry  goods  and 
groceries.  I.  C.  &  L.  Brown,  D.  M.  Knights,  O.  A.  &  C.  C. 
Morse,  groceries.  W.  W.  Wells,  flour  and  grain.  C.  &  J.  S. 
Graves,  hardware,  stoves,  etc.  J.  F.  Henry,  drugs.  D.  E. 
Lucy,  jeweller.  J.  M.  Henry  &  Sons,  wholesale  patent  medi- 
cines. Miss  J.  M.  Cooke,  millinery,  Waterbury  Village. 
W.  W.  Wells,  Woodworth  &  Lyon,  dry  goods  and  groceries, 
Waterbury  Center.  Manufacturers:  Thompson  and  Seabury, 
woolens.  V.  R.  Blush,  Henry  Kneeland,  leather.  Hewett  & 
Jones,  stoves  and  hollow  ware.  James  Crossett,  lumber. 
M.  W.  Shirtliff,  clapboards.  E.  W.  Ladd,  marble.  Daniel 
Stowell,  T.  P.  Glover,  machinists.  J.  G.  &  E.  A.  Colby, 
machine  shop,  willow  peeling  machines  and  willow  ware. 
J.  M.  Henry  &  Sons,  Down's  Elixir.  There  were  five  lawyers, 
four  physicians,  one  dentist  and  six  clergymen  in  the  village 
and  Center. 

The  daily  village  life  was  outwardly  serene  and  undisturbed, 
but  a  slowly  growing  undercurrent  of  anxiety  was  felt  among 
the  groups  of  friendly  disputants  in  the  "old  corner  store" 
and  other  places  where  the  townsmen  gathered  to  talk  over 
the  ever- widening  breach  between  the  North  and  the  South. 
It  was  as  if  the  first  faint,  distant  premonitions  of  what  Water- 
bury would  so  soon  be  called  upon  to  undergo  were  becoming 
gradually  insistent.  Nor  was  this  anxiety  allayed  by  the 
Buchanan  administration.  The  Lincoln-Douglas  debates 
had  been  eagerly  followed  by  the  people  of  Waterbury  and 

PERIOD   1850-1875  113 

gave  rise  to  minor  local  schisms  as  the  grave  issues  of  the  day 
were  unfolded.  And  so  the  decade  ended,  while  the  thought- 
ful were  gravely  considering  the  signs  of  the  times  and  the 
wise-acres,  no  less  in  evidence  then  than  now,  were  vociferously 
predicting  disaster. 

A  resume  of  Waterbury's  vote  at  Freeman's  meetings  will 
indicate  the  revulsion  of  feeling  from  the  comparatively  indif- 
ferent Whig  attitude  to  the  solidified  Republican  or  new  party 

In  1852  at  the  September  meeting,  Governor  John  S.  Robin- 
son received  135  votes  in  Waterbury;  Erastus  Fairbanks  re- 
ceived 106,  and  Laurence  Brainard  the  same  number.  The 
presidential  electoral  vote  in  November  of  that  year  gave  the 
Franklin  Pierce  electors,  in  Waterbury,  66  as  against  Winfield 
Scott's  Whig  electors'  92,  and  this  in  spite  of  Pierce's  unpopu- 
larity.    A  third  set  of  electors  received  each,  55. 

In  1853  Governor  Robinson  succeeded  himself,  receiving 
locally  217  votes,  to  Erastus  Fairbanks'  105  and  L.  Brainard's 


In  1854  Governor  Stephen  Royce  received  191  votes,  as 

against  Merritt  Clark's  129. 

In  1855  Governor  Royce  succeeded  himself,  receiving  Water- 
bury's 238  votes,  to  Merritt  Clark's  158. 

In  1856  Governor  Ryland  Fletcher  had  260  votes  locally, 
to  Henry  Keyes'  125.  At  the  November  meeting,  1856,  the 
Fremont  Republican  presidential  electors  received  each  289, 
as  against  113  for  the  Democratic  group  representing  the 
local  strength  of  James  Buchanan,  the  successful  Democratic 

In  1857  Governor  Ryland  Fletcher  received  210  votes,  to 
Henry  Keyes'  121. 

In  1858  and  1859  there  are  apparently  no  records  in  the  town 
clerk's  office  of  the  gubernatorial  votes  of  those  years. 

With  the  approach  of  the  spring  of  i860  the  Anti-Slavery 
sentiment  had  become  so  strong  that  the  nomination  of  Abra- 
ham Lincoln  in  May  and  his  election  in  November  caused  dark 
forebodings  among  the  more  radical  of  the  Abolitionists  in 
Waterbury  and  the  surrounding  towns.     They  remembered 


that  Mr.  Lincoln  had  declared:  "I  have  no  purpose,  directly 
or  indirectly,  to  interfere  with  the  institution  of  slavery  in  the 
states  where  it  exists.  I  believe  I  have  no  lawful  right  to 
do  so,  and  I  have  no  inclination  to  do  so."  This  was  not  at  all 
to  the  taste  of  those  who  had  been  fed  up  with  William  Lloyd 
Garrison's  propaganda — and  there  were  many  such  in  this 
town  and  Washington  County. 

It  is  hardly  possible  at  this  day  to  give  an  adequate  idea  of 
how  high  party  feeling  ran  among  Waterbury's  2,198  souls 
during  the  early  part  of  Lincoln's  first  administration.  In 
some  instances  the  radical  Abolitionists  were  even  louder  in 
their  denunciation  of  the  President  than  the  Democrats. 
When  the  first  company  of  troops  was  about  to  leave  Waits- 
field  for  the  front,  a  certain  Abolitionist  Lincoln-hater  was 
ridden  on  a  rail  by  the  boys  of  the  company.  Realizing  that 
the  state  of  public  feeling  at  the  time  precluded  any  form  of 
substantial  legal  redress,  he  waited  until  the  war  was  over  and 
then  sued  the  captain  of  the  offending  company  and  recov- 
ered damages  in  $700.  In  the  old  "corner  store"  in  Water- 
bury  a  merchant  became  involved  in  a  wrangle  with  a  com- 
mercial traveler,  in  which  the  merchant  made  some  slighting 
reference  to  the  President.  He  was  promptly  knocked  down 
by  the  irate  drummer.  Being  a  very  dignified  man  he  con- 
sulted with  a  friend  about  seeking  legal  redress  for  the  assault. 
His  friend  advised  him  to  do  nothing  because  it  would  be 
impossible  to  find  an  unprejudiced  jury  in  the  community  at 
that  time.     He  saw  the  reason  and  swallowed  the  afifront. 

The  first  call  for  troops  by  the  President  was  for  75,000 
militia  of  the  several  states  to  suppress  the  combinations 
against  the  execution  of  the  laws  of  the  United  States  in  South 
Carolina,  Georgia,  Alabama,  Florida,  Mississippi,  Louisiana 
and  Texas.  This  call  was  made  in  the  form  of  a  proclamation, 
dated  April  15,  1861,  in  which  Congress  was  called  to  convene 
in  special  session  July  4,  "then  and  there  to  consider  and 
determine  such  measures  as,  in  their  wisdom,  the  public  safety 
and  interest  may  seem  to  demand."  How  promptly  Water- 
bury  responded  to  the  call  for  troops  may  be  gathered  from  the 
fact  that  a  company  was  recruited  and  drills  were  begun  in  the 

PERIOD   1 850-1 875  115 

early  days  of  May.  This  was  one  of  the  ten  companies  se- 
lected by  Adjutant-General  Baxter  to  make  up  the  Second 
Regiment,  the  first  of  the  three  years  regiments.  This  first 
move  at  raising  troops  in  Waterbury  was  made  by  Captain 
Charles  Dillingham,  afterwards  lieutenant-colonel  of  the 
Eighth  Vermont.  Through  his  efforts  the  first  company  was 
raised  and  drilled  which  should  have  been  Company  A, 
by  reason  of  its  priority,  but  which  went  out  as  Company 
D  in  the  Second  Vermont  Regiment  of  Infantry,  owing  to 
delay  in  the  adjustment  of  the  minutiae  of  the  official  national 
muster.  The  ten  companies  comprising  the  Second  Regiment 
were  recruited  from  the  towns  of  Bennington,  Brattleboro, 
Burlington,  Castleton,  Fletcher,  Ludlow,  Montpelier,  Tun- 
bridge,  Vergennes  and  Waterbury.  The  history  of  this  famous 
regiment  makes  stirring  reading,  taking  part,  as  it  did,  in 
twenty-eight  engagements  from  Bull  Run,  July  21,  1861,  to 
Sailor's  Creek,  April  6,  1865,  inclusive. 

Mr.  Franklin  Carpenter,  a  mere  lad  of  between  fifteen  and 
sixteen  years  when  the  war  broke  out,  relates  how,  after 
obtaining  the  consent  of  his  parents,  he  enlisted  as  a  drummer 
with  Company  D.  Drills  were  had  first  in  Waterbury,  then 
for  a  short  time  in  Northfield  and  finally  at  the  mobilization 
camp  in  Burlington,  known  as  "Camp  Underwood"  on  the 
old  fair  ground.  Here  the  oath  of  allegiance  was  administered 
to  the  troops  by  United  States  District  Judge  Smalley.  One 
unfortunate  recruit  declined  to  take  the  oath  at  the  last  minute 
and  was  given  a  taste  of  military  sentiment  in  the  practical 
form  of  being  drummed  out  of  camp.  From  Burlington  the 
regiments  were  transported  to  Washington  with  stops  in  Troy, 
New  York,  and  New  York  City.  On  the  26th  of  June  the 
regiment  went  into  camp  on  Capitol  Hill,  Washington,  where 
it  remained  two  weeks  occupied  in  daily  drills. 

Mr.  Carpenter  recalls  the  impressions  made  on  his  youthful 
mind  by  the  magnificent  appearance  of  the  New  York  Zouaves 
under  Colonel  Ellsworth  at  Alexandria,  Virginia,  where  the 
Vermont  Second  was  quartered  at  Bush  Hill.  The  aggregate 
number  of  officers  and  men,  including  gains  in  recruits  of  the 
Second  Regiment,  was  1,858;  there  were  killed  in  action,  4 


officers  and  134  enlisted  men;  of  those  dying  of  wounds  there 
were  2  officers  and  80  enlisted  men ;  deaths  from  disease  were 
139;  deaths  in  Confederate  prisons,  not  of  wounds,  were  22, 
and  deaths  from  accidents  were  3. 

The  history  of  the  various  Vermont  regiments  in  which 
Waterbury  was  represented  has  already  been  written  with  such 
telling  force  as  might  well  be  inspired  by  the  deeds  the  histo- 
rian chronicled.  The  list  of  officers  and  men  who  entered  the 
service  as  from  Waterbury  numbers  approximately  250.  These 
were  divided  up  among  the  Second,  Third,  Fourth,  Fifth, 
Sixth,  Seventh,  Eighth,  Ninth,  Tenth,  Thirteenth,  Fifteenth 
and  Seventeenth  Regiments  of  Infantry,  also  C  Cavalry.  As 
we  shall  see,  there  were  more  Waterburyites  in  the  Second, 
Tenth,  Thirteenth  and  Seventeenth  Regiments  than  in  the 
others  named.  The  number  of  engagements  in  which  the 
Third  Regiment  had  honorable  part  between  Lewinsville,  Sep- 
tember II,  1861,  and  Petersburg,  April  2,  1865,  were  twenty- 
eight — with  two  exceptions  the  same  battles  in  which  the  Sec- 
ond Regiment  was  also  engaged.  This  is  true  also  of  the  Fourth 
Regiment,  the  Fifth  Regiment  and  the  Sixth  Regiment.  The 
Seventh  Regiment's  list  of  engagements  included  Siege  of 
Vicksburg,  Baton  Rouge,  Gonzales  Station,  Mobile,  Spanish 
Fort,  and  Whistler.  The  Eighth's  list  numbered  eleven 
between  the  occupation  of  New  Orleans,  May,  1862,  and 
Newtown,  November  12,  1864.  The  list  of  the  Ninth's  battles 
included  Harper's  Ferry,  September  13,  1862;  Newport  Bar- 
racks, Chapin's  Farm,  Fair  Oaks  and  Fall  of  Richmond,  April 
3,  1865.  The  Tenth  Regiment  was  made  up  of  companies 
recruited  in  Bradford,  Burlington,  Waterbury,  Rutland, 
Swanton,  St.  Albans,  Derby  Line,  and  Ludlow.  Company 
B  was  from  Waterbury  and  was  organized  August  4,  1862,  by 
Captain  Edwin  DiUingham. 

As  a  spur  to  the  gaining  of  recruits,  large  bounties  were 
personally  pledged  by  private  individuals  and  premiums 
offered  of  $2.00  per  capita  of  recruits  by  the  general  govern- 
ment to  recruiting  officers.  By  the  first  of  September,  1862, 
the  Tenth  Regiment  of  1,016  officers  and  men  was  mustered 
into   service   in    the    camp    at  Brattleboro.     Several  of  the 

PERIOD   1850-1875  117 

officers  had  already  seen  service,  notably  Colonel  Jewett,  who 
had  previously  served  as  first  lieutenant  with  the  First  Regi- 
ment, Major  William  W.  Henry,  who  had  been  lieutenant  of 
Company  D,  Second  Regiment,  and  Surgeon  Child  of  the 
First  Regiment.  From  the  time  when  the  Regiment  went  into 
its  first  engagement  (Orange  Grove,  November  2"],  1863)  until 
it  emerged  from  its  last  (Sailor's  Creek,  August  6,  1865),  its 
record  was  unvarying  as  to  its  readiness,  courage  and  efficiency. 
The  esprit  de  corps  remained  intact  throughout  the  inevitable 
epidemic  of  regimental  politics.  The  total  deaths  of  the 
regiment,  including  those  killed  in  action  (83),  those  who  died 
of  wounds  (58),  who  died  of  disease  (153),  those  who  died  in 
Confederate  prisons  (38)  and  deaths  by  accident  (2),  were  332. 

The  Battle  of  the  Opequon  on  the  19th  of  September  will 
long  remain  in  the  memory  of  loyal  sons  of  Waterbury  as  the 
historic  engagement  in  which  the  brilliant,  gallant  young 
Major  Edwin  Dillingham  was  struck  by  a  solid  shot  and  killed. 

The  Battle  of  Cedar  Creek  on  the  19th  of  October  was  a 
decisive  engagement  in  which  Colonel  William  W.  Henry, 
though  hardly  convalescent  from  a  sharp  illness,  was  in  com- 
mand. At  the  critical  point  in  the  ebbing  and  flowing  of 
advantage  to  the  Union  forces,  and  when,  hardly  pressed 
along  the  whole  line,  they  began  to  retreat  slowly,  exposed  to  a 
cross-fire  of  musketry  and  artillery,  Captain  Lucien  D.  Thomp- 
son of  Waterbury  was  killed.  Captain  Thompson  assisted 
Major  DiHingham  in  the  recruiting  of  Company  B.  In 
December,  1862,  he  was  promoted  to  a  first  lieutenancy  in 
Company  G.  He  was  reserved  and  retiring  and  his  almost 
painful  modesty  made  him  hesitate  to  accept  promotion,  but 
it  came  when  he  was  made  captain  of  Company  D,  after  a 
baptism  of  fire  in  a  dozen  battles.  His  body  was  allowed  to 
remain  on  the  battlefield  for  several  hours  and  when  found  it 
had  been  partially  stripped  by  the  enemy.  It  was  brought  to 
Waterbury  for  burial.  Speaking  of  the  morale  of  the  regiment 
in  this  battle,  Colonel  Henry  says  in  his  report:  "  It  is  impossi- 
ble to  particularize  any  officers  or  men,  where  all  so  fully  per- 
formed their  duty  and  behaved  so  nobly." 

The  Seventeenth  Regiment,  although  the  last  recruited  in 


Vermont  and  necessarily  having  the  briefest  history  in  point 
of  time,  nevertheless  crowded  into  its  eleven  months  of  active 
service  in  the  field  13  fiercely  fought  battles,  in  which  of  the 
aggregate  of  1,118  officers  and  men,  70  were  killed  in  action; 
61  died  of  wounds;  57  died  of  disease;  279  total  wounded,  and 
32  died  in  Confederate  prisons.  Of  the  twenty-two  men  from 
Waterbury  in  the  Seventeenth  Regiment  two  were  commis- 
sioned officers,  Second  Lieutenant  J.  Edwin  Henry  of  Com- 
pany K,  and  Second  Lieutenant  Wilbur  E.  Henry  of  Com- 
pany K.  In  the  final  assault  on  Petersburg,  April  2,  1865, 
the  regiment  had  about  three  hundred  men  in  line  in  com- 
mand of  Major  Knapp.  It  made  a  first  assault  on  the  works 
at  the  right  of  Fort  Mahone  but  was  compelled  to  fall  back 
to  the  rifle  pits.  Rallying  for  the  second  time  the  regiment 
advanced  to  a  second  assault.  During  this  battle,  which  was 
the  last  the  regiment  was  to  engage  in.  Second  Lieutenant 
J.  Edwin  Henry  of  Waterbury  was  killed.  He  was  a  brother 
of  General  William  W.  Henry  and  is  described  in  these  words 
by  the  historian,  Benedict:  "Though  a  youth  of  but  nineteen 
years,  he  had  already  shown  himself  to  be  a  capable  and  gal- 
lant officer. "  His  body  was  brought  back  to  Waterbury  and 
buried  April  30,  1865. 

The  Waterbury  contingent  in  the  single  cavalry  regiment 
from  Vermont  appears  to  have  numbered  less  than  a  dozen 
men.  The  history  of  the  regiment  shows  that  it  comprised 
from  the  beginning  to  the  last  2,297  officers  and  men  and  was 
raised  under  the  direct  authority  of  the  United  States,  instead 
of  being  recruited  under  the  state  authorities.  Company  C 
was  recruited  in  Washington  County  and  was  captained  by 
William  Wells  whose  genius  as  a  cavalry  commander  was 
afterwards  extolled  by  such  chieftains  as  General  Sheridan 
and  General  Custer.  The  number  of  killed  in  the  regiments' 
seventy-five  engagements  were  63  officers  and  men;  those 
dying  of  wounds  were  39;  those  dying  of  disease  were  112; 
those  dying  unwounded  in  Confederate  prisons  were  approxi- 
mately 130.  The  regiment  averaged  participation  in  two 
engagements  each  month  between  Mount  Jackson,  April  16, 
1862,  and  Appomattox  Court  House,  April  9,  1865,  inclusive. 

PERIOD    1850-1875  119 

The  rapid  rise  to  promotion  and  distinction  of  Captain  William 
Wells  will  be  noted  later  in  a  brief  sketch  of  that  intrepid  leader. 
Time  has  softened  many  asperities  and  mellowed  many  a 
disposition  to  criticise  and  find  fault.  If  President  Lincoln 
found  it  in  his  heart  to  make  allowances  for  dereliction  in 
military  duty  and  to  intercede  for  unfortunate  offenders, 
it  ill  becomes  us  at  this  late  day,  without  any  knowledge  of  the 
merits  of  each  case,  to  condemn  those  Waterbury  soldiers 
whose  shortcomings  have  been  officially  recorded.  "There 
was  glory  enough  to  go  'round, "  as  Admiral  Schley  said  of  the 
naval  battle  of  Santiago  in  1898.  The  frailties  of  the  brave 
men  who  went  from  Waterbury  have  been  bathed  in  the  lustre 
of  their  achievements  as  a  whole.  A  far  abler  panegyrist  has 
eloquently  spoken  on  Waterbury 's  soldiers  in  the  language  of 
affectionate  regard  that  can  be  commanded  only  by  one  having 
had  intimate  and  neighborly  association  with  them.  Indeed, 
when  all  is  said,  the  Memorial  Day  offering  of  May  30,  1914. 
will  stand  as  a  masterpiece  in  that  regard. 

List  of  Commissioned  Officers 

Brevet  Major-General  William  Wells,  age  twenty-three, 
C  Cavalry.  (Com.  ist  Lieut.  Co.  C,  Oct.  14,  '61;  Capt., 
Nov.  18,  '61;  Maj.,  Oct.  30,  '62;  Col.,  June  4,  '64;  Bvt.  Brig. 
Gen.,  Feb.  22,  '65;  Brig.  Gen.,  May  19,  '65;  Bvt.  Maj  Gen.; 
wounded,  July  6,  '62;  Sept.  13,  '63.) 

Brevet  Brigadier-General  William  W.  Henry,  age  thirty. 
Company  D,  Second  Regiment.  (Com.  1st  Lieut.,  May  22, 
'61;  Maj.  loth,  Aug.  26,  '62;  Lieut.  Col.,  Oct.  17,  '62;  Col., 
April  26,  '64;  Bvt.  Brig.  Gen.,  March  9, '65;  wounded,  Cold 
Harbor,  May,  '64;  res.  Dec.  17,  '64.) 

Colonel  Henry  Janes,  Surgeon,  age  twenty-nine.  (Com. 
surg.  3rd,  June  24,  '61;  Surg.  U.  S.  V.,  March  26,  '63;  Bvt. 
Lieut.  Col.  U.  S.  V.,  March  13,  '65.) 

Lieutenant-Colonel  Charles  Dillingham,  age  twenty-four. 
Company  D,  Second  Regiment.  (Com.  Capt.,  May  21,  '61; 
Maj.  8th,  Jan.  18,  '62;  Lieut.  Col.,  Dec.  24,  '62;  res.  Dec.  12, 
'63.)   ^ 

Major  Edwin  Dillingham,  age  twenty-two,   Company  B, 


Tenth  Regiment.  (Com.  Capt.,  Aug.  4,  '62;  Maj.,  June  17, 
'64;  killed  in  service  at  Winchester,  or  Opequon,  Sept.  19,  '64.) 

Major  Frederic  P.  Drew,  Surgeon.     (Died  in  service.) 

Major  James  B.  Woodward,  Surgeon. 

Captain  George  H.  Carpenter. 

Captain  Lucien  D.  Thompson,  age  thirty-one,  Company 
B,  Tenth  Regiment.  (Com.  2nd  Lieut.,  Aug.  4,  '62;  ist 
Lieut.  Co.  G,  Dec.  27,  '62;  Capt.  Co.  D,  June  17,  '64;  killed 
at  Cedar  Creek,  Oct.  19,  '64.) 

First  Lieutenant  Charles  E.  Bancroft,  age  thirty-two, 
Company  I,  Thirteenth  Regiment.  (Com.  1st  Lieut.,  Sept. 
23,  '62;  res.  Jan.  8,  '63.) 

First  Lieutenant  Mason  Humphrey,  Company  — ,  N.  H. 
Fifth  Regiment.     (Killed  at  Cold  Harbor,  June,  '64.) 

First  Lieutenant  Don  D.  Stone.     (Died  in  service.) 

Second  Lieutenant  Justin  Carter,  age  twenty-three,  Com- 
pany B,  Tenth  Regiment.  (Com.  2nd  Lieut.,  Jan.  '63;  res. 
Feb.  4,  '64.) 

Second  Lieutenant  Charles  G.  Gregg,  age  twenty-one, 
Company  D,  Second  Regiment.  (Com.  2nd  Lieut.,  May  21, 

Second  Lieutenant  J.  Edwin  Henry,  age  nineteen.  Company 
K,  Seventeenth  Regiment.  (Com.  2nd  Lieut.,  Sept.  22,  '64; 
killed  at  Petersburg,  April  2,  '65.) 

Second  Lieutenant  Wilbur  E.  Henry,  age  twenty.  Company 
K,  Seventeenth  Regiment.     (Prom.  2nd  Lieut.,  July  2,  '65.) 

List  of  Non-Commissioned  Officers 

Asa  C.  Atherton,  age  twenty-four.  Company  I,  Thirteenth 
Regiment.     (Serg.;  dis.  Jan.  15,  '63.) 

Quincy  A.  Green,  Company  B,  Tenth  Regiment.  (Wounded, 
Cold  Harbor;  prom,  serg.,  April  ii,  '65.) 

Charles  C.  Guptil,  age  twenty-one.  Company  I,  Thirteenth 
Regiment.  (Reenlisted  3rd,  Bat.  serg.;  red.  Sept.  i,  '64; 
prom.  Corp.,  Oct.  i,  '64.) 

Thomas  Brudenell,  age  eighteen.  Company  I,  Ninth  Regi- 
ment.    (Corp.;  red.) 

George  Center,  age  twenty-four.  Company  D,  Second  Regi- 

PERIOD   1 850-1875  121 

ment.  (Corp.;  wounded  at  Fredericsburg;  transferred  to 
invalid  corps.) 

Augustus  L.  Fisher,  age  twenty-two,  Company  I,  Thirteenth 
Regiment.    (Corp.) 

Warren  C.  Oilman,  age  twenty-nine.  Company  D,  Second 
Regiment.     (Corp.) 

Darius  A.  Gray,  age  twenty-one.  Company  E,  Sixth  Regi- 
ment.    (Drafted;  corp.) 

Allen  Greeley,  age  twenty.  Company  B,  Tenth  Regiment. 
(Corp.;  wounded  at  Cold  Harbor;  died  in  service  July  i,  '64.) 

Hugh  H.  Griswold,  age  nineteen.  Company  I,  Thirteenth 
Regiment.  (Corp.  red.;  prom,  serg.;  reenlisted  Co.  E,  17th 
Reg't.;  serg.) 

Lorenzo  B.  Gubtil,  age  twenty- two,  Company  I,  Thirteenth 
Regiment.     (Reenlisted  Co.  K,  17th  Reg't.) 

Frank  Hart,  age  eighteen,  Company  D,  Second  Regiment. 
(Reenlisted  April  19,  '64;  corp.) 

Willis  G.  Hawley.     (Corp.) 

Daniel  J.  Hill,  age  thirty-one,  Cavalry  C.  (Serg.;  wounded 
at  Gettysburg;  transferred  to  invalid  corps.) 

Pliny  H.  Moffitt,  age  twenty-one,  C  Cavalry.  (Reenlisted 
Dec.  28,  '63;  prom,  serg.,  Nov.  19,  '64;  prom.  com.  serg.,  Jan. 
21,  '65;  transferred  to  D.) 

Henry  G.  Phillips,  age  twenty-six,  C  Cavalry.  (Serg. red.; 
prom,  serg.) 

Charles  O.  Humphrey,  age  twenty-three.  Company  I, 
Thirteenth  Regiment.     (Corp.) 

Charles  B.  Lee,  age  twenty-three.  Company  B,  Tenth  Regi- 
ment.    (Corp.;  died  in  service  in  1863.) 

Henry  L.  Marshall,  age  twenty-four,  Company  B,  Tenth 
Regiment.     (Corp.;  wounded,  Cold  Harbor,  June  i,  '64.) 

James  W.  Marshall,  age  thirty-five,  Company  I,  Thirteenth 
Regiment.     (Corp.) 

Tabor  H.  Parcher,  age  twenty-four,  Company  B,  Tenth 
Regiment.     (Corp. ;  dis.  July  6,  '64.) 

Edwin  Parker,  age  eighteen,  Company  B,  Tenth  Regiment. 


Edward  N.  Phelps,  age  twenty-two,  Company  I,  Ninth 
Regiment.     (Corp.  red.;  transferred  to  veteran  corps.) 

Tilton  C.  Sleeper.     (Corp.) 

Sidney  H.  Woodward,  age  eighteen,  Company  B,  Tenth 
Regiment.  (Wounded,  Cold  Harbor,  June,  i,  '65;  prom. 
Corp.,  April  3,  '63.) 

List  of  Privates 

Charles  Arms. 

Eli  Ashley,  age  twenty-four.  Company  I,  Ninth  Regiment. 

Alfred  Y.  Ayers,  age  nineteen.  Company  D,  Tenth  Regiment. 
(Prisoner,  June  12,  '64;  died  at  Salisbury.) 

Asa  C.  Atherton,  age  twenty-four.  Company  I,  Thirteenth 
Regiment.     (Serg.;  dis.  Jan.  15,  '63.) 

Dennis  A.  Bickford,  age  eighteen.  Company  A,  Eighth 
Regiment.     (Died  in  service,  Oct.  6,  '62.) 

Hiram  R.  Bickford,  age  forty,  Company  D,  Tenth  Regi- 

Riley  M.  Bickford,  age  twenty-four.  Company  D,  Second 

Dennis  Bissonnette,  age  thirty,  Company  K,  Seventeenth 
Regiment.     (Wounded.) 

Alonzo  Bragg,  age  twenty-six,  Company  B,  Tenth  Regi- 

Edmond  C.  Bragg,  age  twenty-two.  Company  G,  Second 
Regiment.     (Killed  at  Cold  Harbor,  June  3,  '64.) 

James  Bragg,  age  twenty-eight,  Company  G,  Second  Regi- 

James  Briggs,  age  forty,  Company  B,  Tenth  Regiment. 
(Dis.  May  15,  '65.) 

Consider  W.  Brink,  age  twenty-six.  Company  I,  Thirteenth 

William  F.  Brink,  age  twenty,  Company  D,  Second  Regi- 
ment.    (Reenlisted  Dec.  21,  '63.) 

Carmichael  A.  Brown. 

Christopher  B.  Brown,  age  twenty-two,  Company  D, 
Second  Regiment. 

George  Brown,  age  thirty-eight,  Company  B,  Tenth  Regi- 
ment.    (Died  in  Anderson ville,  July  26,  '64.) 

PERIOD   1850-1875  123 

George  W.  Brown,  age  twenty-eight,  Cavalry  C. 

Haverhill  S.  Burleigh,  age  thirty-nine,  Company  B,  Tenth 
Regiment.     (Died  of  wounds  at  Cold  Harbor,  June  20,  '64.) 

Henry  B.  Burleigh.       Killed.) 

Martin  Cane,  age  eighteen,  Company  B,  Tenth  Regiment. 
(Died  in  service  at  Danville,  Jan.  29,  '65.) 

Oscar  Camp,  age  twenty-eight,  Company  G,  Eighth  Regi- 

William  C.  Canning. 

Franklin  Carpenter,  age  seventeen.  Company  D,  Second 

Michael  Carr,  age  eighteen.  Cavalry  C.  (Reenlisted  Dec. 
28,  ^63.) 

Patrick  Carver,  age  twenty,  Company  D,  Fifth  Regiment. 

Ransom  Chaffee,  age  twenty-five,  Company  A,  Second 
Regiment.     (Drafted.) 

Amos  C.  Chase,  age  forty-four,  Company  C,  Seventeenth 
Regiment.     (Lost  arm  at  Weldon  R.  R.,  Sept.  30,  '64.) 

Cassius  G.  Chesley. 

William  Clark. 

Charles  N.  Collins,  age  sixteen.  Company  D,  Second  Regi- 
ment.    (Died  in  service,  Dec.  17,  '61.) 

Ezra  W.  Conant,  age  nineteen.  Company  B,  Tenth  Regi- 
ment.    (Wounded,  Nov.  27,  '63.) 

Joseph  B.  Conant,  age  twenty-one,  Company  C,  Fifteenth 
Regiment.     (Died  in  service,  April  12,  '63.) 

George  Colby,  age  nineteen.  Company  D,  Second  Regiment. 
(Corp.;  reenlisted  Dec.  21,  '63;  wounded;  dis.  Feb.  5,  '65.) 

James  Crawford,  age  twenty-two.  Company  I,  Thirteenth 

S.  Evander  Cree,  age  twenty-one.  Company  I,  Thirteenth 

Edwin  C.  Crossett,  age  eighteen.  Company  B,  Tenth  Regi- 

Willis  H.  Crossett,  age  eighteen,  Company  B,  Tenth  Regi- 
ment.    (Wounded;  reenlisted  in  Regulars.) 

Daniel  Dalley,  Company  B,  Tenth  Regiment.  (Transferred 
to  D.) 


Edwin  H.  Dana,  age  thirty- two,  Company  B,  Tenth  Regi- 
ment.    (Wounded,  Nov.  31,  '64.) 

Oliver  W.  Davis,  age  twenty-eight,  Company  C,  Fifteenth 

Albert  Deline,  age  twenty-five,  Company  13,  Second  Regi- 

John  Deline,  age  twenty-five,  Company  E,  Seventh  Regi- 
ment.    (Dis.  Oct.  15,  '62.) 

Joseph    H.  Demeritt,  age    twenty-one,  Company  I,    Thir- 
teenth Regiment. 

Harper  A.  Demmon,  age  forty-two,  Company  I,  Thirteenth 
Regiment.     (Transferred  to  C,  Oct.  11,  '62.) 
Henry  B.  Demmon. 

Henry   Dillingham,   Company   E,   Seventeenth   Regiment. 
(Died  in  service,  July  13,  '64.) 

Richard  D.  Dodge,  age  forty,  Company  K,  Seventeenth 

Alba  D.  Dutton. 

Thomas  F.  Dwyer,  age  thirty,  Company  B,  Tenth  Regi- 

Wilber  Foster,  age  twenty-one.  Company  D,  Second  Regi- 
ment.    (Dis.  Oct.  20,  '62.) 

Patrick    Flaherty,   age    thirty-four.   Company   D,   Second 
Regiment.     (Dis.  Dec.  18,  '62.) 

Joseph  O.  Freeman,  age  twenty-one.  Company  B,  Tenth 
Regiment.     (Wounded,  July  9,  '64.) 

Daniel  N.  French,  age  twenty-eight,  Company  I,  Thirteenth 

Henry  E.  French. 

Martin    E.    French,    Company    I,    Thirteenth    Regiment. 

Joseph  Gabaree,  age  thirty-three,  Company  K,  Seventeenth 
George  Gale. 
Benjamin  Gagnon. 

Isaac  Godfrey,  age  twenty-two,  Company  B,  Tenth  Regi- 

Jacob  Godfrey,  age  nineteen.  Company  B,  Tenth  Regiment. 

PERIOD   1850-1875  125 

Lyman  Godfrey,  age  twenty-five,  Company  C,  Fifteenth 
Regiment.  (Reenlisted  in  Co.  C,  17th  Reg't;  died  in  service, 
Salisbury,  Oct.  2,  '64.) 

Nobles  Godfrey,  age  twenty-five.  Company  C,  Seventeenth 

Timothy  C.  Godfrey,  age  thirty-one,  Company  D,  Second 
Regiment.     (Dis.  June  2,  '62.) 

William  Goodwin,  age  thirty-four.  Company  K,  Seventeenth 

Hamilton  Glines,  age  forty,  Company  B,  Tenth  Regiment. 
(Wounded,  Cold  Harbor,  Va.;  died  in  service,  June  18,  '64.) 

Ira  S.  Gray,  age  twenty-four,  Company  D,  Fifth  Regiment. 
(Killed,  Savage  Station,  June  29,  '62.) 

Milo  K.  Gray,  age  twenty-two,  Company  I,  Thirteenth 

Charles  Greeley. 

Almon  D.  Grififin,  first  S.  S.  F.  Music. 

Horace  M.  Grifhth,  age  eighteen,  Company  K,  Seventeenth 

Emery  Guptil,  age  eighteen.  Company  D,  Fifth  Regiment. 
(Reenlisted ;  wounded.) 

Edmund  Guinan,  Third  Battery. 

George  Hakey,  age  eighteen.  Company  K,  Seventeenth 

William  Hall,  age  twenty-six,  Company  D,  Second  Regi- 

Isaac  Harris,  Jr.,  age  thirty- five.  Company  C,  Fifteenth 
Regiment.     (Dis.  June  19,  '63.) 

Leonard  Hart,  Company  C,  Fifteenth  Regiment. 

Alonzo  Hart,  age  thirty-seven,  Company  D,  Second  Regi- 

Frederic  A.  Hart,  age  twenty- five,  Company  D,  Second  Regi- 

Benjamin  L.  Hawley,  age  twenty-two,  Company  H,  Seven- 
teenth Regiment. 

Franklin  S.  Henry,  age  twenty,  Company  K,  Seventeenth 


George  S.  Henry,  age  nineteen,  Company  K,  Seventeenth 

Martin  L.  Henry,  age  nineteen.  Cavalry  C.  (Reenlisted, 
4th  Hancock  Corps.) 

Franklin  J.  Hill 

George  W.  Hill,  age  forty-four,  Company  G,  Fourth  Regi- 
ment.    (Dis.  June  3,  '62.) 

Martin  Hogan. 

James  O.  Hovey,  age  twenty.  Company  D,  Second  Regi- 
ment.    (Reenlisted  Dec.  21,  '63.) 

George  Hubbard,  age  twenty-two.  Company  D,  Second 
Regiment.  (Reenlisted  Jan.  i,  '63;  killed,  Spottsylvania, 
May  12,  '64.) 

Robert  Hunkins,  age  twenty-two,  Company  D,  Second 
Regiment.     (Reenlisted  Jan.  31,  '63;  killed.  Wilderness,  May 

5.  '64.) 

Frank  Huntley,  age  eighteen.  Company  D,  Second  Regi- 

Charles  A.  Hutchins,  Company  E,  Seventeenth  Regiment. 
(Reenlisted  Feb.  15,  '64.) 

Henry  D.  Hutchins,  Company  D,  Second  Regiment. 

William  H.  Hutchins,  age  nineteen,  Company  K,  Seven- 
teenth Regiment. 

Andrew  Jackson. 

John  Jerome,  age  thirty-two.  Company  B,  Tenth  Regiment. 
(Dis.  April  16,  '63;  reenlisted  Co.  K,  17th  Reg't.) 

Allen  Jewitt,  age  eighteen.  Company  G,  Fourth  Regiment. 
(Dis.  March  2,  '62.) 

Cornelius  Jocko. 

Marcellus  B.  Johnson,  age  twenty-one,  Company  G,  Fourth 
Regiment.  (Died  Oct.  7,  '62,  of  wound  received  Sept.  15, 
'62,  South  Mountain.) 

Daniel  Jones,  age  twenty-nine,  Company  E,  Eleventh  Regi- 

James  W.  Jones,  age  thirty-five,  Company  B,  Tenth  Regi- 
ment.    (Wounded  and  dis.  May  15,  '65.) 

Edwin  Joslyn,  age  seventeen,  S.  S.  E.  2,  (Died  in  service, 
July  II,  '62.) 

PERIOD    1850-1875  127 

John  Kellogg,  Company  I,  Thirteenth  Regiment.  (Dis. 
Nov.  28,  '62.) 

Edward  Kirby,  age  twenty-two,  Company  A,  Seventh 
Regiment.     (Mustered  out,  Aug.  30,  '64.) 

Charles  La  Page,  Company  K,  Seventh  Regiment. 

Henry  Lee.     (Died  in  service.) 

James  Linnehen,  age  forty-four,  Company  D,  Fifth  Regi- 
ment.    (Mustered  out,  June  29,  '65.) 

Henry  L.  Locke. 

Burton  G.  Locke. 

Sayles  H.  Locke,  age  twenty-three.  Company  D,  Second 
Regiment.     (Died  in  service,  April  26,  '62.) 

Austin  J.  Loomis,  age  thirty-four,  Company  B,  Tenth  Regi- 

Orlin  W.  Loomis. 

James  Madigan,  age  eighteen,  Company  I,  Ninth  Regiment. 

Ira  A.  Marshall,  age  thirty-eight,  Company  D,  Second  Regi- 
ment.    (Dis.  July  16,  '62.) 

Dennis  Martin,  age  eighteen.  Company  H,  Sixth  Regiment. 
(Reenlisted  March  i,  '64.) 

John  Martin,  age  twenty-one.  Battery  3. 

Patrick  Martin,  Company  H,  Sixth  Regiment. 

William  P.  Mason,  Jr. 

Harrison  Maynard. 

John  McCaffrey,  Company  A,  Sixth  Regiment. 

Luther  Merriam. 

Charles  Moody,  age  twenty-one,  Company  K,  Seventeenth 

Dexter  Moody,  age  twenty-seven.  Company  B,  Tenth  Regi- 

Hartwell  Moody,  age  thirty-one,  Company  D,  Second  Regi- 

Samuel  Morey,  age  twenty-three,  Company  D,  Second  Regi- 

Michael  Morrisey,  age  eighteen.  Company  G,  Second  Regi- 
ment.    (Reenlisted  in  Cowans  Battery.) 

Joseph  B.  Morse. 


Thomas  Morway,  age  twenty-nine,  Company  H,  Thirteenth 

Lucian  M.  Murray,  age  twenty-one,  Company  G,  Fourth 
Regiment.     (Died  in  service,  Nov.  8,  '62.) 

Walter  H.  Nelson,  age  eighteen.  Company  B,  Tenth  Regi- 
ment.    (Wounded,  Nov.  27,  '63,  June  i,  '64.) 

James  Nichols.     (Died  in  service.) 

John  O'Connor,  age  eighteen,  Company  I,  Fourth  Regiment. 

Patrick  O'Connor,  age  sixteen.  Company  K,  Seventeenth 
Regiment.     (Music.) 

Henry  F.  Parker,  age  twenty-one.  Company  D,  Second 
Regiment.     (Dis.  May  29,  '62.) 

Lucius  L.  Pollard,  age  twenty-five,  Company  G,  Third 
Regiment.     (Drafted.) 

Philander  A.  Preston,  age  twenty-seven,  C  Cavalry;  born 
in  Waterbury,  Nov.  27, 1833.  (Enlisted  Vt.  Cav.,  Sept.  i,  '61 ; 
with  Reg't  till  July  6,  '63;  wounded;  in  hospital  till  Dec; 
returned  to  duty;  reenlisted  Jan.  '64;  taken  prisoner,  Stony 
Creek  Station;  thence  to  Andersonville  and  Charleston; 
finally  to  Florence  where  he  was  literally  starved  to  death.) 

Carlos  Prescott,  age  twenty-three.  Company  D,  Second 
Regiment.  (Dis.  July  24,  '62;  died  of  disease  contracted  in 

Leroy  Prescott,  age  nineteen.  Company  I,  Thirteenth  Regi- 

George  Ray,  Company  D,  Fifth  Regiment. 

George  C.  Rice,  age  eighteen.  Company  G,  Tenth  Regi- 
ment. (Died  at  Alexandria,  before  joining  regiment  in 

Winslow  C.  Rollins,  age  twenty-six.  Company  D,  Second 

Alva  Rowell,  age  twenty-six.  Company  I,  Thirteenth  Regi- 
ment.    (Reenlisted;  killed  at  Wilderness.) 

John  W.  Sawyer,  age  twenty-nine,  Company  B,  Tenth 

Calvin  E.  Seaver,  age  twenty-seven.  Company  I,  Thirteenth 

Henry  G.  Sherman. 

PERIOD   1850-1875  129 

Curtis  C.  Sleeper,  age  nineteen,  Company  C,  Second  Regi- 
ment.    (Dis.  Nov.  I,  '62;  wounded,  June  29,  '62.) 

David  D.  Sleeper. 

James  W.  Sleeper. 

John  R.  Slowcum. 

Clifford  Smith,  age  twenty-one,  Company  A,  Seventh  Regi- 

Charles  Smith,  age  forty-five,  Company  B,  Tenth  Regiment. 
(Transferred  to  invalid  corps,  July  i,  '63.) 

Jerry  Smith,  age  twenty-six,  Company  A,  Seventh  Regi- 

George  E.  Smith,  age  nineteen.  Company  D,  Second  Regi- 

Herschall  F.  Smith,  age  twenty-six.  Company  I,  Thirteenth 

William  C.  Smith,  age  eighteen,  Company  I,  Thirteenth 

William  D.  Smith,  age  twenty-two,  Company  I,  Thirteenth 

William  H.  Stimson,  age  twenty-four.  Company  C,  Third 
Regiment.  (Jan.  29,  '62;  dis.  Feb.  3,  '63;  wounded,  June  29, 

Frank  Stearns,  age  eighteen,  Company  C,  Seventeenth 
Regiment.  (Died  Jan.  6,  '64,  of  wounds  received  in  action 
May  12,  '64.) 

Benjamin  F.  Stone.     (Died  in  service.) 

Horatio  G.  Stone,  age  nineteen.  Company  D,  Second  Regi- 
ment.    (Died  of  wounds  received  at  Wilderness,  May  4,  '64.) 

John  Stone,  M  Cavalry.     (Saddler.) 

Orvand  A.  Stone,  age  thirty-two.  Company  I,  Thirteenth 

Willard  S.  Stone,  age  twenty-four.  Company  D,  Second 
Regiment.     (Killed  at  Wilderness,  May  5,  '64.) 

Way  land  A.  Strong,  age  twenty-two.  Company  K,  Seven- 
teenth Regiment. 

Edward  Taylor,  age  eighteen.  Company  B,  Tenth  Regi- 

Joseph  Tate,  Company  D,  Fifth  Regiment. 


John  Toban,  Company  D,  Fifth  Regiment. 

George  Tatro,  age  twenty-eight,  Company  B,  Tenth  Regi- 
ment.    (Died  Dec.  28,  '64.) 

Burton  C.  Turner,  age  eighteen.  Company  D,  Second  Regi- 
ment.    (Died  in  service,  Nov.  5,  '64.) 

Chauncey  Turner,  age  twenty.  Company  D,  Second  Regi- 
ment.    (Drafted.) 

Alexander  Warden. 

Charles  Wells. 

Edward  Wells,  age  twenty-five,  Fifth  Regiment.  (Band; 
dis.  Feb.  20,  '62.) 

Edwin  H.  Wells,  age  twenty-two.  Company  K,  Seventeenth 

Henry  Wells,  age  twenty-five.  Company  A,  Seventh  Regi- 
ment.    (Died  Aug.  9,  '62,  in  service.) 

Liberty  White,  age  forty-four.  Company  B,  Tenth  Regi- 

George  S.  Whitney. 

George  I.  Wilson,  Company  D,  Second  Regiment. 

Henry  M.  Wood,  age  eighteen,  Company  E,  Eighth  Regi- 
ment.    (Died  in  service,  Sept.  13,  '63.) 

William  W.  Wood,  age  nineteen.  Company  E,  Eighth  Regi- 
ment.    (Died  in  service,  July  14,  '63.) 

Theodore  Wood.     (Killed  in  service.) 

George  S.  Woodward,  age  twenty-two,  C  Cavalry.  (Killed 
in  service,  April  3,  '63.) 

Ira  S.  Woodward,  age  eighteen,  Company  B,  Tenth  Regi- 

William  Woodward,  age  nineteen.  Company  B,  Tenth  Regi- 

William  Charles  Woodruff,  age  twenty-six,  Company  I, 
Thirteenth  Regiment. 

Charles  B.  Wooster. 

B.  Franklin  Wright,  age  eighteen.  Company  D,  Second 

Hiram  P.  Wright,  age  twenty-eight,  C  Cavalry.  (Wounded 

Charles  S.  Wrisley,  age  twenty-eight.  Company  C,  Fifteenth 

PERIOD   1850-1875  131 

Jacob  Wrisley,  age  nineteen,  Company  D,  Second  Regiment. 

Warner  W.  Wrisley. 

George  W.  York,  age  thirty-three.  Company  K,  Second 
Regiment.     (Drafted ;  died  of  wounds  received  at  Wilderness.) 

John  W.  York,  age  twenty-one.  Company  D,  Second  Regi- 
ment. (Reenlisted  as  color  bearer  for  Gen.  Wright  com'd'g 
6th  Corps.) 

Gustavus  S.  Young. 

Hiram  Young,  age  forty-four.  Company  B,  Tenth  Regiment. 
(Died  in  service.) 

Joseph  E.  Young,  age  thirty-six.  Company  B,  Tenth  Regi- 
ment.    (Wounded  at  Spottsylvania.) 

Nathaniel  J.  Young. 

At  the  May  (6th)  town  meeting  in  1861  it  was  voted :  "  That 
the  selectmen  are  hereby  authorized  to  draw  orders  on  the 
town  treasurer  for  the  purpose  of  defraying  the  expenses  of 
the  drill  now  going  on  in  Waterbury  and  for  furnishing  an  out- 
fit and  necessary  clothing  of  such  volunteers  from  said  town 
as  shall  be  mustered  into  the  military  service  of  the  state  or 
the  United  States  not  to  exceed  the  sum  of  six  hundred  dollars 
in  the  whole.  Said  selectmen  to  examine  and  audit  all  accounts 
presented  and  allow  such  as  they  deem  just  and  equitable." 

At  the  town  meeting,  September,  1862,  it  was  voted :  "That 
the  town  do  pay  to  each  man  who  has  or  shall  volunteer  and 
who  is  accepted,  mustered  in  and  shall  serve  as  a  nine  months' 
militia  man  to  the  number  that  is  the  town's  quota  under  the 
call  of  the  President  for  three  hundred  thousand  militia  to 
serve  nine  months  in  the  present  war,  the  sum  of  twenty-five 
dollars  each  bounty  and  seven  dollars  per  month  for  such  time 
as  they  serve  provided  the  State  or  General  Government  does 
not  assume  the  payment  of  the  same." 

At  a  town  meeting,  October  27,  1862,  it  was  voted:  "To 
pay  Isaac  Harris,  Jr.,  Oliver  W.  Davis,  Charles  S.  Wrisley, 
Joseph  Conant,  Leonard  Hart  and  Lyman  Godfrey  seventy- 
five  dollars  each  in  addition  to  the  twenty-five  dollars  already 
voted  by  the  town  or  county  for  enlisting  into  the  military 
service  of  the  United  States  from  the  town  of  Waterbury." 


At  a  town  meeting,  November  30,  1863,  it  was  voted:  "To 
pay  each  volunteer  from  this  town  a  bounty  of  three  hundred 
dollars  when  mustered  into  the  United  States  service." 

At  a  town  meeting,  December  14,  1863,  at  which  W.  W. 
Wells  presided  as  moderator,  it  was  voted:  "That  there  be 
raised,  levied,  collected  and  paid  into  the  town  treasury  on  or 
before  the  ist  day  of  January,  1864,  one  hundred  and  fourteen 
cents  on  the  dollar  of  the  Grand  List  of  the  town  for  1863  to  pay 
the  bounties  to  volunteers,"  and  "Voted:  That  the  selectmen 
are  instructed  in  their  discretion  to  borrow  not  to  exceed  seven 
thousand  five  hundred  dollars  for  the  purpose  of  paying  the 
bounties  to  the  volunteers." 

At  a  town  meeting,  June  18,  1864,  it  was  voted:  "That  the 
selectmen  be  instructed  to  raise  men  sufficient  to  fill  the 
expected  call  at  a  sum  not  exceeding  three  hundred  dollars 
each  and  that  the  selectmen  raise  the  money  to  pay  said  sum 
on  the  credit  of  the  town,  provided  said  persons  are  accepted 
and  mustered  into  the  service  of  the  United  States." 

At  a  town  meeting,  August  4,  1864,  it  was  voted:  "That 
the  selectmen  pay  to  the  men  enlisting  and  are  accepted  and 
mustered  into  the  United  States  service  the  sum  of  two  hun- 
dred dollars  each  in  addition  to  the  three  hundred  dollars 
heretofore  voted  for  the  same  purpose  and  that  they  pledge 
the  credit  of  the  town  in  such  manner  as  they  deem  best  to 
meet  said  expense,"  also  "Voted  that  the  above  sum  of  five 
hundred  dollars  be  paid  to  such  volunteers  only  as  are  mus- 
tered into  the  United  States  service  for  three  years  and  all 
those  that  are  mustered  in  for  a  less  time  are  to  be  paid  in  that 
proportion  for  the  time  that  they  are  mustered  in  for  and  that 
the  selectmen  borrow  the  money  for  four  months  at  six  per 
cent  interest  of  individuals  or  the  bank  as  in  their  discretion 
they  shall  deem  best  for  the  interests  of  the  town." 

At  a  town  meeting  held  August  4,  1864,  it  was  voted :  "  That 
the  selectmen  be  and  they  are  hereby  instructed  to  deposit 
twenty  seven  hundred  dollars  in  the  Bank  of  Waterbury  to  the 
credit  of  the  adjutant  general  of  the  state  of  Vermont  to  be 
paid  for  men  enlisted  by  the  commissioner  from  this  state,  in 
states  in  rebellion  under  the  late  act  of  Congress  and  mustered 

PERIOD    1850-1875  133 

into  the  United  States  service  and  credited  on  the  quota  of 
this  town." 

At  a  town  meeting  held  January  26,  1865,  it  was  voted: 
"That  the  selectmen  be  and  they  are  hereby  authorized  to 
raise  the  quota  of  the  town  under  the  call  of  December  19, 
1864,  and  to  pay  such  bounties  as  in  their  discretion  they  may 
think  proper  and  also  that  the  selectmen  be  and  are  hereby 
authorized  to  enlist  men  at  any  time  and  to  pay  such  bounties 
as  in  their  discretion  they  may  think  proper." 

Between  the  town  meeting  of  June  18,  1864,  at  which  it  was 
voted  to  raise  men  to  fill  the  expected  call  at  a  sum  not  exceed- 
ing $300  each,  and  authorizing  the  selectmen  to  raise  the  money 
on  the  town's  credit,  and  the  meeting  of  August  4,  1864,  when 
it  was  voted  to  pay  $200  in  addition  to  the  $300  already  voted, 
an  indemnity  agreement  was  circulated  in  Waterbury  for  the 
signatures  of  those  willing  to  save  harmless  the  selectmen, 
each  in  the  sum  of  $200,  until  the  next  town  meeting  August 
4,  1864.  This  indemnity  agreement,  bearing  date  July  22, 
1864,  was  signed  by  one  hundred  and  two  substantial  citizens. 

At  a  town  meeting  November  25,  1865,  it  was  voted:  "To 
instruct  the  selectmen  to  proceed  and  build  the  bridge  recom- 
mended by  the  Courts'  committee  and  ordered  by  the  Wash- 
ington County  Court  to  be  built  across  the  Winooski  River,  in 
conjunction  with  the  town  of  Duxbury,  by  contract  or  other- 
wise as  in  their  judgment  will  be  the  best  for  the  town." 

What  adequate  eulogies  can  there  be  of  the  patriotic  spirit 
which  permeated  large  Waterbury  families;  of  that  devo- 
tion animating  men  like  the  Wells  brothers,  to  lay  every- 
thing on  the  altar  of  the  Union's  cause?  Four  sons  of  William 
W.  Wells  responded  to  the  call  for  troops,  Edward  William, 
Curtis  and  Charles.  The  common  schools  of  Waterbury, 
Barre  Academy  and  Kimball  Union  Academy  of  Meriden, 
New  Hampshire,  afforded  such  educational  opportunities 
as  were  available  to  William  Wells  outside  of  the  practical 
training  he  received  in  making  a  survey  of  Washington  County 
and  as  assistant  to  his  father  in  his  extensive  business.  At 
the  age  of  twenty-three,  September  9,  1861,  William  Wells 
enlisted  as  a  private  soldier  and  busied  himself  in  helping  to 


raise  Company  C,  First  Regiment,  Vermont  Cavalry.  He 
was  sworn  into  service  October  3,  1861 ;  on  the  14th  he  received 
a  first  lieutenant's  commission;  on  the  i8th  of  November  he 
attained  his  captaincy  and  the  following  day  mustered  with 
the  Field  and  Staff  of  the  First  Regiment,  Vermont  Cavalry, 
to  serve  for  three  years.  His  commission  as  major  came 
December  30,  1862,  and  he  was  mustered  the  same  date.  A 
unanimous  recommendation  of  the  officers  of  his  regiment 
resulted  in  his  being  commissioned  colonel  June  4,  1864. 
Then  came  his  appointment  as  brevet  brigadier-general  of 
volunteers,  February  22,  1865,  and  brevet  major-general, 
"for  gallant  and  meritorious  service,"  March  13,  1865.  Prob- 
ably the  most  authoritative  cavalry  officers  in  that  branch 
of  the  service  were  Generals  Sheridan  and  Custer.  It  was 
upon  their  joint  recommendation  that  General  Wells  received 
his  commission  as  full  brigadier-general  May  19,  1865,  Gen- 
eral Sheridan  characterizing  him  as  his  "ideal  of  a  cavalry 
officer."  In  March,  1864,  he  was  placed  in  command  of  the 
Seventh  Michigan  Cavalry,  by  order  of  General  Kilpatrick, 
and  continued  in  command  for  several  weeks  on  Kilpatrick's 
Raid,  near  Richmond. 

As  major  on  Wilson's  Raid,  south  of  Richmond,  he  was 
in  command  of  his  regiment  from  date  of  muster  as  colonel 
until  September  19,  1864,  at  which  time  he  was  placed  in  com- 
mand of  the  Second  Brigade,  Third  Division,  Cavalry  Corps, 
Army  of  the  Potomac.  He  was  still  in  command  of  this 
brigade  when  Lee  surrendered  to  Grant  at  Appomattox, 
Virginia,  April  9,  1865,  remaining  so  until  he  took  over  the 
command  of  the  Third  Cavalry  Division,  May  21,  1865.  He 
had  taken  this  same  command  several  times  between  Septem- 
ber 19,  1864,  and  April  9,  1865.  Trouble  in  Texas  took  both 
cavalry  generals,  Sheridan  and  Custer,  away  from  Virginia; 
their  departure  left  General  Wells  as  ranking  officer  of  the 
cavalry  corps  from  June  i,  1865,  to  June  24,  1865.  He  was 
the  last  commander  of  Sheridan's  Corps.  He  was  in  com- 
mand of  the  First  Separate  Brigade,  Twenty-Second  Army 
Corps,  from  June  24,  1865,  to  July  24,  1865,  and  was  mustered 
out  of  service  January  15,  1866. 

PERIOD   1850-1875  135 

General  Wells  had  to  his  credit  an  active  and  foremost 
participation  in  the  following  battles  and  skirmishes  while 
campaigning  with  the  First  Regiment  Cavalry:  Middletown, 
Winchester,  Luray  Court  House,  Culpeper  Court  House, 
where  he  charged  the  enemy's  artillery,  captured  a  gun  and 
was  wounded  for  the  second  time  by  a  shell.  Orange  Court 
House,  where  he  was  in  the  thickest  of  the  fight,  Kelly's  Ford, 
Waterloo  Bridge,  Bull  Run,  Warrenton,  Hanover,  where  he 
commanded  the  Second  Battalion  of  Cavalry  of  the  First 
Vermont  in  a  repulse  of  J.  E.  B.  Stuart's  Cavalry,  Hunters- 
town,  Gettysburg,  where  July  3,  1863,  he  commanded  the 
leading  battalion  charge  on  Round  Top,  riding  by  the  side  of 
General  Farnsworth,  the  Brigade  commander,  who  was 
killed.  How  General  Wells  escaped  was  miraculous  as  the 
charge  penetrated  the  opposing  lines  for  nearly  three  quarters 
of  a  mile.  Other  engagements  in  which  General  Wells  took 
part  were  Monterey,  Leitersville,  Hagerstown,  Falling  Waters, 
Port  Conway,  Somerville  Ford,  Raccoon  Ford,  James  City, 
Brandy  Station,  Gainesville,  Bucklam  Mills,  Falmouth, 
Morton's  Ford,  Mechanicsville,  Piping  Tree,  Craig's  Meeting 
House,  Spottsylvania,  Yellow  Tavern,  Meadow  Bridge,  White 
Oak  Swamp,  Riddle's  Shop,  Ashland,  Hawe's  Shop,  Bottom 
Bridge,  Malvern  Hill,  Ream's  Station,  Nottoway  Court  House, 
Roanoke  Station,  Strong  Creek,  Summit  Point,  Charlestown, 
West  Virginia,  Kearneysville,  Boonsboro,  where  he  was 
wounded  by  a  sabre  cut.  He  was  in  command  of  a  battalion 
of  General  Sheridan's  Cavalry  Corps  at  Yellow  Tavern,  Vir- 
ginia, May  II,  1864,  when  his  great  cavalry  opponent.  General 
Stuart,  was  killed.  He  commanded  a  brigade  of  Custer's 
Division  at  Tom's  Brook  October  9,  1864. 

The  momentous  and  decisive  battle  of  Cedar  Creek,  im- 
mortalized in  the  poem  "Sheridan's  Ride,"  and  the  war  melo- 
drama of  Bronson  Howard,  "The  Shenandoah,"  was  another 
of  the  great  battles  in  which  General  Wells  took  part.  In 
this  battle,  fought  October  19,  1864,  his  brigade  took  a 
leading  part  in  turning  the  rout  of  the  Federal  troops  in  the 
morning  into  a  victory  at  night.  Of  General  Early's  forty- 
five   pieces  of   artillery  captured,   the   First  Vermont   took 


twenty-three,  this  being  the  heaviest  capture  attributed  to  a 
single  regiment  during  the  war.  Other  engagements  were 
Middle  Road,  Lacey's  Springs,  Waynesboro,  Five  Forks, 
Scott's  Corner,  Namozine  Creek,  Winticomack,  Appomattox 
Station  and  Appomattox  Court  House.  On  the  morning 
of  Lee's  surrender,  his  brigade  had  started  on  its  last  charge 
and  was  stopped  by  General  Custer  in  person.  The  total 
number  of  his  engagements  of  cavalry  were  seventy,  in  eighteen 
of  which  he  led  either  a  brigade  or  division.  He  was  a  prisoner 
of  war  in  Libby  Prison,  Richmond,  Virginia,  from  March  17, 
1863,  to  May  6,  1863.  His  biographer  says  of  his  record: 
"The  official  record  speaks  for  itself,  and  General  Wells's 
military  career  throughout  four  years  and  a  half  in  the  War  of 
the  Rebellion  evinces  the  highest  personal  qualities  of  a 
cavalry  commander,  combining  coolness,  promptness,  and 
daring  intrepidity  with  most  thoughtful  consideration  for  his 

The  Vermont  Legislature  of  191 2  appropriated  $6000  to 
commemorate  the  services  and  perpetuate  the  memory  of 
Major-General  William  Wells  and  the  officers  and  enlisted 
men  of  the  First  Regiment,  Vermont  Cavalry,  near  the  spot 
where  the  regiment  began  its  desperate  charge  July  3,  1863, 
on  the  battlefield  of  Gettysburg.  A  heroic  bronze  statue  of 
General  Wells,  surmounting  a  base  of  two  boulders,  each  inset 
with  appropriate  bronze  tablets,  now  marks  the  historic  spot. 
The  unveiHng  of  the  statue,  July  3,  1913,  was  an  occasion 
of  elaborate  ceremony,  to  which  was  invited  a  long  roster  of 
distinguished  guests.  Among  the  speakers  was  Senator  Wil- 
liam P.  Dillingham  who  tellingly  pointed  out  that  in  a  period 
of  less  than  five  years  and  at  a  time  in  life  when  young  men 
are  commonly  found  in  colleges  and  universities.  General 
Wells  had  passed  from  the  rank  of  private  to  that  of 
brigadier-general  and  brevet  major-general  of  Volunteers  of 
the  United  States  Army;  and  that  "at  an  age  when  most  men 
are  but  entering  the  activities  of  life,  he  had  made  a  record, 
the  brilliance  of  which  fifty  years  of  time  have  failed  to  lessen, 
and  which  is  now  recognized  by  those  not  then  born." 

A  second  statue  of  General  Wells  was  dedicated  at  Battery 

PERIOD   1850-1875  137 

Park,  Burlington,  May  30,  1914.  The  bronze  figure  is  a 
replica  in  bronze  of  the  statue  at  Gettysburg.  A  replica  of 
the  cavalry  charge  in  bas-relief  was  presented  by  Mr.  Frank 
Richardson  Wells,  a  son  of  General  Wells,  for  placing  upon  the 
pedestal.  October  5,  1910,  a  bronze  medallion  portrait  of 
General  Wells  was  dedicated  in  the  State  House  at  Mont- 

General  Wells  was  married,  January  18,  1866,  to  Miss 
Arahanna  Richardson,  who  was  born  July  20,  1845,  in  Fitch- 
burg,  Massachusetts.  Children  of  the  marriage  were  Frank 
Richardson  and  Bertha  Richardson.  Frank  Richardson  Wells 
was  born  February  i,  1871,  in  Burlington,  and  was  married 
in  California  November  7,  1900,  to  Miss  Jean  Mary  Hush  of 
Oakland,  California.  Bertha  Richardson  Wells  was  born 
April  23,  1873,  and  was  married  in  Burlington  July  6,  1899, 
to  Doctor  Horatio  Nelson  Jackson,  of  Burlington.  Mrs.  Wells 
died  suddenly  in  Burlington,  June  12,  1905. 

With  characteristic  energy  General  Wells  threw  himself 
into  the  pursuits  of  peace  after  the  Civil  War.  He  entered  a 
firm  of  wholesale  druggists  in  Waterbury,  which  soon  removed 
to  Burlington  in  1868.  He  was  town  representative  of  Water- 
bury  in  the  Legislature  of  1 865-1 866.  In  1866  he  was  elected 
adjutant-general  of  Vermont  and  held  the  office  until  1872. 
In  1872  he  was  appointed  collector  of  customs  for  the  District 
of  Vermont;  in  the  thirteen  years  of  his  incumbency  he  did 
much  to  increase  the  importance  of  the  post  and  brought  to 
his  administration  rare  efficiency  and  system;  at  the  expira- 
tion of  thirteen  years  he  returned  to  the  firm  of  Wells,  Rich- 
ardson &  Company.  He  was  state  senator  from  Chittenden 
County  in  1886,  and  at  dififerent  times  became  identified  or 
associated  with  such  large  interests  as  the  Burlington  Trust 
Company  (president),  Burlington  Gas- Light  Company  (pres- 
ident), Burlington  Board  of  Trade  (president),  Burlington 
Cold  Storage  Company  (director),  Rutland  Railroad  Company 
(director),  and  Champlain  Transportation  Company  (direc- 
tor). He  was  a  member  and  a  vestryman  of  St.  Paul's 
Church,  a  trustee  of  the  Y.  M.  C.  A.  of  Burlington,  and  one 
of  its  enthusiastic  supporters.  He  died  of  angina  pectoris 


in  New  York  April  29,  1892,  and  was  buried  in  Lake  View 
Cemetery,  Burlington. 

William  Wirt  Henry,  son  of  James  M.  and  Matilda  (Gale) 
Henry,  wa§  born  November  21,  1831,  in  Waterbury.  His 
school  training  was  confined  to  the  district  schools  and  one 
term  in  People's  Academy  of  Morrisville.  He  was  fired  with 
the  same  ambition  that  sent  so  many  Argonauts  from  New 
England  to  California  in  1852.  He  returned  to  Waterbury  in 
1857  and  joined  his  father  and  brother  in  business.  He 
disposed  of  his  interest  in  1861,  and  promptly  enlisted  as  a 
private  in  Company  D,  Second  Vermont  Volunteers.  Soon 
he  was  promoted  to  a  first  lieutenancy  and  took  part  in  the 
first  battle  of  Bull  Run.  Mustered  out  on  a  surgeon's  cer- 
tificate a  few  months  afterwards,  he  returned  to  the  service 
August  26,  1862,  as  major  of  the  Tenth  Infantry,  Vermont 
Volunteers.  His  gallant  and  meritorious  service  advanced 
him  rapidly  to  the  grades  of  lieutenant-colonel,  colonel  and 
finally  brevet  brigadier-general.  He  commanded  his  regi- 
ment at  the  battles  of  the  Wilderness,  Spottsylvania,  North 
Anna,  Totopotomy  Creek,  Cold  Harbor,  Petersburg,  Cedar 
Creek,  Virginia,  and  Monocacy;  he  was  hit  four  times  at 
Cedar  Creek.  Congress  granted  him  a  medal  for  gallantry 
at  Cedar  Creek. 

While  in  California  General  Henry  was  appointed  constable 
in  White  Oak  township,  Eldorado  County,  in  1856.  He  was 
chosen  state  senator  from  Washington  County  twice  after 
the  war,  and  once  from  Chittenden  County  in  1874.  He  was 
appointed  United  States  marshal  for  the  district  of  Vermont, 
during  the  administration  of  President  Hayes;  he  retained  this 
office  for  seven  years.  In  1887- 1888  General  Henry  served 
as  mayor  of  Burlington  and  was  appointed  immigrant  in- 
spector in  1892. 

General  Henry  was  married  August  5,  1857,  to  Mary  Jane, 
daughter  of  Lyman  and  Mary  Beebe.  Five  children  were 
born  to  them:  Bertram,  Mary  Matilda,  Ferdinand  Sherman, 
Katherine  and  Carrie  Eliza.  General  Henry  was  married 
for  the  second  time  to  Valera,  daughter  of  Timothy  J.  and 
Susan  (White)  Heaton,  December  3,  1872.     Coming  back  to 

PERIOD    1850-1875  139 

Waterbury  after  his  military  service  and  career,  General 
Henry  reentered  the  old  firm  which  removed  from  Waterbury 
to  Burlington.  From  the  dissolution  of  this  firm  in  1870, 
sprung  the  firm  of  Henry,  Johnson  &  Lord.  General  Henry 
was  prominent  in  Masonic  affairs  and  was  a  member  of  the 
Loyal  Legion,  the  Society  of  the  Army  of  the  Potomac,  and 
Knights  of  Pythias.  He  received  his  first  degrees  in  Masonry 
in  Aurora  Lodge,  Montpelier,  in  1 858 ;  he  was  a  charter  member 
and  past  master  of  the  lodge  at  Waterbury;  also  charter 
member  of  the  Burlington  Lodge.  He  was  past  grand 
master  of  the  lodge  of  the  L  O.  O.  F.  and  department  com- 
mander of  the  G.  A.  R.  of  Vermont.  General  Henry  was  a 
resident  of  Burlington  for  many  years. 

General  Henry's  love  for  outdoor  life  and  the  vigorous 
sports  of  hunting  and  fishing  was  well  known  and  shared 
among  his  intimates.  He  was  one  of  the  first  to  discover  the 
possibilities  of  Cedar  Beach  as  a  camping  ground  and,  with 
such  kindred  spirits  as  Senator  Proctor,  General  Foster, 
General  Wells,  General  James  Peck  of  Montpelier,  J.  G.  Reed 
and  others,  he  developed  the  possibilities  of  the  Quebec 
wilderness  as  a  fruitful  fishing  region  for  Vermonters.  The 
St.  Bernard  Club  which  General  Henry  helped  to  found  and  of 
which  he  was  honorary  president  was  the  outcome  of  his  fishing 
excursions  to  those  streams. 

General  Henry's  career  as  United  States  Consul  at  Quebec 
called  forth  ungrudging  praise  and  appreciation  from  our 
neighbors  across  the  border.  At  the  time  of  his  resignation, 
the  Quebec  Chronicle  had  this  to  say  editorially:  "His  twelve 
years'  service  has  been  marked  by  singular  ability  and  energy, 
and  by  a  tact  and  courtesy  which  have  won  golden  opinions 
from  all  with  whom  he  came  into  official  contact.  In  his 
private  capacity  he  has  attracted  the  esteem  and  cordial  good 
will  of  all  who  have  had  the  pleasure  of  his  acquaintance. 
Genial  and  unassuming,  and  of  great  kindliness  of  disposition, 
he  has  entered  heartily  into  our  private  life,  and  has  become 
one  of  ourselves.  The  government  of  the  United  States  will 
lose  a  valuable  servant  here." 

It  was  quite  apparent  during  a  brief  visit  to  Waterbury  in 


the  spring  of  191 5  that  General  Henry's  health  was  breaking 
rapidly.  He  was  confined  to  his  home  in  Burlington  during 
the  summer,  suffering  from  jaundice,  but  cheerful  and  genial 
in  his  intercourse  with  old  friends  and  acquaintances  who 
called  to  see  him.  The  end  came  at  his  home,  29  Wilson 
Street,  Burlington,  Tuesday,  August  31,  191 5.  The  funeral 
was  held  from  St.  Paul's  Church,  Thursday,  September  2. 
Many  friends  from  Waterbury  were  in  attendance. 

Of  the  five  children  of  General  W.  W.  Henry  and  Mary 
Jane  (Beebe)  Henry  who  died  in  1871,  Mary  Matilda  (Henry) 
Pease,  wife  of  F.  S.  Pease  of  Burlington,  alone  survives. 
General  Henry's  second  wife,  Valera  Y.  (Heaton)  Henry, 
whom  he  married  in  1872,  survives,  together  with  an  adopted 
daughter,  Mrs.  G.  W.  Benedict  of  Providence,  Rhode  Island. 

Major  Edwin  Dillingham,  second  son  of  Honorable  Paul  and 
Julia  (Carpenter)  Dillingham,  lives  in  the  affectionate  regard 
and  the  loving  memory  of  those  still  with  us  who  were  wont  to 
meet  him  in  his  daily  avocations  and  intimate  village  life. 
He  was  born  in  Waterbury  May  13,  1839.  His  early  life  was 
spent  in  and  about  his  native  town  until  he  left  to  pursue  his 
academic  education  in  preparation  for  his  ultimate  study  of 
law,  his  chosen  profession.  Before  beginning  his  legal  studies 
he,  in  common  with  many  another  young  man  in  Waterbury, 
had  the  practical  benefit  of  a  business  training  in  the  "old 
corner  store."  Here  he  was  accustomed  to  meet  all  sorts  and 
conditions  of  people  and  it  is  related  of  him  that  he  preserved 
the  same  courteous,  chivalrous  demeanor  in  dealing  or  speaking 
with  some  humble  countrywoman  as  with  the  fashionable 
wives  or  daughters  of  the  more  fortunately  circumstanced. 

He  studied  law  in  the  office  of  his  brother-in-law.  Honorable 
Matthew  H.  Carpenter,  afterwards  United  States  Senator 
from  Wisconsin,  beginning  under  his  preceptorship  in  the 
Milwaukee  office  of  the  Senator  in  1858.  From  this  office  Mr. 
Dillingham  entered  a  law  school  in  Poughkeepsie,  New  York, 
from  which  he  was  graduated  with  honor  the  following  year. 
Supplementing  these  preliminary  studies  by  a  term  of  service 
in  the  law  office  of  his  father  (Dillingham  &  Durant)  in  Water- 
bury, he  was  admitted  to  the  Washington  County  bar  in  Sep- 

PERIOD    1850-1875  141 

tember,  i860,  and  was  then  known  to  be  the  youngest  though 
one  of  its  most  promising  members.  His  all  too  brief  period 
of  practice  was  spent  as  a  professional  associate  of  his  father. 
Not  for  long,  however,  was  Edwin  Dillingham  destined  to 
pursue  the  peaceful  pursuits  of  congenial  professional  life. 
Like  the  loyal  son  of  Waterbury  he  was,  he  made  prompt  and 
intelligent  response  to  the  President's  call  of  July,  1862,  for 
300,000  troops. 

His  work  as  a  recruiting  officer  in  the  western  part  of  Wash- 
ington County  bore  fruit  in  the  forming  of  Company  B  of  the 
Tenth  Regiment  of  Volunteers,  of  which  he  was  elected  captain. 
Not  long  after  the  Tenth  had  taken  its  place  in  active  service, 
Captain  Dillingham  was  detailed  as  assistant  inspector-general 
on  the  staff  of  Brigadier-General  Morris,  commanding  the 
First  Brigade,  Third  Division,  Third  Army  Corps,  Army  of 
the  Potomac. 

While  serving  as  aide-de-camp  to  General  Morris  at  the 
Battle  of  Locust  Grove,  November  27,  1863,  and  while  carry- 
ing orders  to  his  own  regiment,  his  horse  was  shot  under  him 
and  he  was  taken  prisoner,  marched  to  Richmond  and  shut  up 
in  Libby  Prison.  After  four  months  of  prison  life,  amid  sur- 
roundings and  in  an  atmosphere  trying  to  the  stoutest  hearts 
and  souls,  he  was  paroled,  exchanged  and  finally  returned  to 
his  regiment.  Soon  he  was  placed  in  command  of  a  battalion 
of  exchanged  prisoners  and  enlisted  men  to  be  restored  to  their 
respective  commands  at  the  front  between  the  Rapidan  and 
Petersburg.  Having  completed  this  task  he  reported  for 
duty  June  3,  1864,  at  Cold  Harbor — the  name  fraught  with 
such  fatal  significance  to  so  many  Waterbury  homes.  Here 
he  found  that  Colonel  Jewett  had  resigned  and  his  townsman, 
Lieutenant-Colonel  Henry,  with  Major  Chandler,  had  been 
promoted  to  the  first  and  second  places  in  command ,  respec- 
tively. Both  Colonel  Henry  and  Major  Chandler  were  dis- 
abled, the  former  by  a  wound  received  early  in  the  campaign 
and  the  latter  by  illness.  The  command  of  the  regiment  then 
devolved  on  Captain  Dillingham  who  held  it  until  the  return 
of  Lieutenant-Colonel  Chandler  to  duty  and  his  own  (Dilling- 
ham's) promotion  to  his  majority.     He  accompanied  his  regi- 


ment  as  major  successively  to  the  James  River,  Bermuda 
Hundreds  and  (July  8,  1864)  Frederic  City,  Maryland.  At 
the  Battle  of  Monocacy,  fought  on  the  9th,  Major  Dillingham 
was  second  in  command,  with  Lieutenant-Colonel  Chandler 
detailed  to  command  the  skirmish  line  and  Colonel  Henry 
in  command  of  the  regiment. 

The  regiment  was  called  upon  to  march  about  six  hundred 
miles  between  July  21,  1864,  and  August  22,  1864.  On  the 
2ist,  Major  Dillingham  was  invested  with  full  command  of 
the  regiment  at  Charlestown  and  remained  in  command  until 
the  day  of  Winchester  or  Opequon,  September  19,  1864,  when 
he  led  a  regiment  of  about  three  hundred  and  fifty  men  (sadly 
reduced  by  a  sick  list  of  over  three  hundred)  into  action.  At 
about  noon,  in  the  advance  of  the  brigade  and  division  to  the 
assault,  the  troops  were  exposed  to  a  raking  fire  of  Braxton's 
Artillery.  Here  the  intrepid  major  was  struck  by  a  solid  shot 
which  almost  tore  off  his  left  leg.  He  was  borne,  bleeding,  to 
the  rear  and  died  in  three  hours,  not,  however,  before  he  had 
found  strength  and  courage  to  say:  "I  am  willing  to  give  my 
life  for  my  country  and  I  am  not  afraid  to  die." 

After  all,  it  were  better,  perhaps,  to  give  here  the  words  of 
one  of  Major  Dillingham's  comrades,  who  knew  whereof  he 
spoke,  when  he  described  the  dead  officer  thus :  "  He  was  young, 
handsome,  brilliant,  brave  amid  trials,  cheerful  under  dis- 
couragements, upright  and  with  the  kindness  of  heart  which 
characterizes  the  true  gentleman,  combined  with  firmness  and 
energy  as  a  commander;  respected  by  all  his  command  and 
loved  by  all  his  companions."  Major  Dillingham's  body  was 
brought  home  for  interment  to  the  Waterbury  cemetery,  to 
which  spot  repaired  members  of  the  Tenth  Regiment  on  the 
4th  of  September,  1893,  at  their  eighth  annual  reunion  to  pay 
appropriate  honors  to  their  dead  comrades. 

During  the  preparation  of  this  compilation  Doctor  Henry 
Janes,  Waterbury's  foremost  citizen,  passed  away  June  10, 
1915.  Though  not  unexpected,  the  death  of  Doctor  Henry 
Janes  came  as  a  shock  to  all  ages  and  classes  of  his  townspeople 
by  whom  he  had  always  been  venerated  and  beloved.  The 
last  of  a  distinguished  family  on  both  the  maternal  and  pater- 

PERIOD   1850-1875  143 

nal  sides,  his  life  has  ever  been  one  reflecting  that  family's 
best  traditions.  The  love  he  bore  his  native  town  amounted 
almost  to  a  passion  and  this  devotion  was  returned  in  full 
measure  by  the  people  of  Waterbury  so  that  when  the  end 
came  Thursday  night  June  10,  191 5,  after  weeks  of  his  rapidly 
waning  vitality,  the  people's  grief  was  in  no  sense  mitigated  by 
reason  of  its  expectancy. 

Henry  Janes  was  born  in  Waterbury  January  24,  1832, 
the  son  of  Honorable  Henry  F.  and  Fanny  (Butler)  Janes. 
His  father  was  an  early  resident  in  Waterbury,  coming  to  the 
town  in  1817;  he  was  one  of  the  two  lawyers  the  town  then 
boasted,  the  other  being  Judge  Dan  Carpenter.  "Esquire" 
Janes  served  as  state  treasurer  and  was  elected  to  fill  the 
unexpired  term  of  Benjamin  F.  Deming  in  Congress  in  1834. 
Doctor  Janes'  mother  was  the  daughter  of  Governor  Ezra 
Butler,  the  second  settler  of  Waterbury,  the  town  builder, 
clergyman,  judge,  presidential  elector,  town  representative, 
congressman  and  Chief  Executive  of  Vermont. 

Doctor  Janes  received  his  academic  education  at  Morris- 
ville  and  St.  Johnsbury  Academies.  He  commenced  his 
medical  studies  under  Doctor  J.  B.  Woodward  in  1852  at 
Waterbury.  He  attended  medical  lectures  at  Woodstock 
College  in  1852,  and  two  years  after  at  the  College  of  Physi- 
cians and  Surgeons  in  New  York  City  where  he  was  graduated 
an  M.  D.  in  1855.  He  served  there  as  an  assistant  physician 
and  house  physician  in  Bellevue  Hospital  for  nearly  one  year. 
He  removed  to  Chelsea,  Massachusetts,  in  1856,  and  returned 
to  Waterbury  in  1857,  where  he  soon  acquired  a  large  and 
lucrative  practice. 

In  1 861  Doctor  Janes  entered  the  army,  surgeon  of  the 
third  Vermont  Volunteers;  he  was  commissioned  surgeon 
of  the  United  States  Army  in  1863.  In  1865  he  was  bre vetted 
lieutenant-colonel.  By  far  the  greater  part  of  his  military 
service  was  in  hospital  duty  successively  at  Burkettsville,  in 
the  fall  of  1862,  where  he  was  placed  in  charge;  at  Frederic, 
Maryland,  in  the  winter  and  in  charge  of  the  hospitals  of  the 
Sixth  Army  Corps  the  following  spring.  In  the  summer  and 
fall  of  1863  he  was  in  charge  of  the  army  hospitals  in  and  about 


Gettysburg  and  the  Letterman  General  Hospital,  where  20,000 
wounded  soldiers  from  the  field  of  Gettysburg  were  being 
cared  for.  Here  he  was  afforded  an  opportunity  of  studying 
treatment  of  fracture  and  amputations.  He  spent  the  winter 
and  spring  of  1864  in  the  South  Street  General  Hospital  in 
Philadelphia.  In  the  summer  of  1864  he  was  in  charge  of  the 
hospital  steamer  Maine.  Going  to  the  Sloan  General  Hospital 
at  Montpelier  in  the  autumn  of  1864,  he  remained  there  until 
the  close  of  the  war.  He  left  the  army  in  1866  and  spent  a 
short  time  in  New  York,  studying  injuries  to  the  bones  and 
brain.  He  returned  to  Waterbury  in  1867  and  resumed  his 
practice  there,  which  he  interrupted  long  enough  to  enable  him 
to  travel  abroad  during  a  part  of  1874.  He  published  in  the 
Transactions  of  the  Vermont  Medical  Society,  a  paper  on  the 
treatment  of  gun-shot  fracture,  especially  of  the  femur;  in 
1 87 1,  1872  and  1873  various  papers  on  some  of  the  incidents 
following  amputations;  in  1874  other  papers  on  amputations 
at  the  knee  joint  followed;  in  1877  he  wrote  a  paper  on  spinal 

Doctor  Janes  was  a  member  of  Washington  County  Medical 
Society,  the  American  Medical  Association,  the  Vermont 
State  Medical  Society,  of  which  he  was  president  in  1870  and 
whose  representative  he  was  at  the  meetings  of  the  American 
Medical  Association  in  i860,  1866,  1871  and  1880.  He  was  a 
member  of  the  Massachusetts  Medical  Society  and  an  honor- 
ary member  of  the  California  State  Medical  Society.  He 
served  as  consulting  surgeon  at  the  Mary  Fletcher  Hospital 
in  Burlington,  Heaton  Hospital  in  Montpelier,  surgeon-general 
of  Vermont  National  Guard,  chairman  of  Vermont  State 
Board  of  Medical  Censors,  president  of  Vermont  State  Board 
of  Medical  Registration,  trustee  of  the  University  of  Vermont 
and  president  of  the  Board  of  Waterbury  Village  Trustees. 
He  also  served  a  term  as  a  member  of  the  Vermont  Legislature 
in  1890.  He  was  a  member  of  Bellevue  Alumni  Association, 
the  G.  A.  R.,  the  Loyal  Legion,  and  Sons  of  the  American 

Doctor  Janes  was  actively  interested  in  the  Congregational 
Church  of  Waterbury  and  for  a  long  time  took  pride  in  personal 

PERIOD   1850-1875  145 

efforts  at  maintaining  good  music  there.  His  charming  home 
in  Waterbury  was  a  delightful  storehouse  of  many  historical 
documents  of  pecuHar  interest  to  people  of  his  native  town. 
He  was  an  affable  host,  an  entertaining  conversationalist, 
cheerful  companion  and  staunch  friend.  His  self-effacing 
modesty  was  so  pronounced  that  the  successive  honors  which 
came  his  way  were  only  discovered  by  his  friends  when  con- 
cealment was  no  longer  possible.  To  a  certain  few  of  his  life- 
long friends  he  would  occasionally  mention  striking  incidents 
of  his  military  life  such,  for  example,  as  his  being  present  on 
the  speaker's  platform  when  Mr.  Lincoln  delivered  his  mem- 
orable address  at  Gettysburg. 

Doctor  Janes  is  survived  by  no  near  relatives.  One  cousin, 
George  Butler,  and  his  son,  I.  Butler,  live  at  Battle  Creek, 
Michigan.  Other  cousins  are  Mrs.  Ella  Roscoe,  formerly  of 
Wisconsin  and  Minnesota,  who  has  made  her  home  at  Doctor 
Janes'  residence  for  the  past  four  years,  and  the  Misses  Thomas 
of  Stowe.  Mrs.  Henry  Janes,  who  was  born  Frances  Bergin 
Hall,  of  Boston,  Massachusetts,  died  in  1909. 

On  Sunday  afternoon,  June  13,  brief  but  impressive  funeral 
services  were  had  in  the  old  Congregational  Meeting  House. 
Rev.  W.  L.  Boicourt  spoke  of  the  devotion  of  Doctor  Janes  to 
science  and  his  long  life  of  untiring  professional  and  social 
endeavor.  Senator  W.  P.  Dillingham  and  ex-Governor 
Samuel  Pingree  each  paid  eloquent  tributes  to  their  departed 
friend,  the  former  foreshadowing  the  generous  intentions  of 
Doctor  Janes  as  to  the  town's  participation  in  his  estate. 

Cold  type  never  emphasizes  its  utter  inadequacy  so  markedly 
as  when  its  aid  is  sought  to  set  forth  the  emotions  of  a  common 
grief  such  as  was  felt  in  Waterbury  and  yet  the  reasons  for 
this  grief  and  sense  of  loss  are  not  far  to  seek.  The  record  a 
good  man  leaves  in  a  community  may  be  mute  but  it  has  an 
insistent  eloquence  that  tongue  or  pen  cannot  compass. 

From  the  remarks  of  ex-Governor  Pingree  and  Senator  W. 
P.  Dillingham  at  Doctor  Janes'  funeral  it  was  apparent  that 
each  speaker  felt  with  their  hearers;  the  words  they  chose 
instinctively  brought  them  at  one  with  all  other  friends  of 
the  man  who  had  gone.     Senator  Dillingham's  allusion  to  the 


practical  form  Doctor  Janes'  devotion  to  his  townspeople 
might  develop  was  afterwards  illuminated  by  the  splendid 
provision  made  in  his  last  will  and  testament.  After  certain 
specific  bequests  to  legatees  named,  Doctor  Janes  gave  all  his 
real  estate,  including  the  residence  on  Main  Street,  to  the 
Waterbury  Public  Library  Association,  subject  to  a  life  interest 
in  certain  portions  designated  under  certain  conditions.  He 
also  named  the  Waterbury  Public  Library  Association  as 
residuary  legatee.  The  gift  to  the  Library  Association,  was, 
to  use  the  language  of  the  will,  "in  pursuance  of  a  long-cher- 
ished desire  to  aid  such  association  in  its  educational  work  and 
as  a  tribute  to  the  memory  of  my  wife,  Frances  B.  (Hall) 
Janes,  whose  earnest  interest  in  the  maintenance  of  the  library 
and  whose  educational  influence  in  the  community  ceased 
only  when  she  departed  this  life.  And  I  have  done  this  in  the 
hope  that  eventually  the  entire  premises  devised  to  such  asso- 
ciation may  come  under  the  wise  management  of  its  trustees 
and  be  so  utilized  as  to  promote  a  higher  culture  and  an  increas- 
ing intellectual  and  moral  development  among  the  people  of 
Waterbury  and  adjacent  towns  for  generations  to  come  and 
that  the  scope  of  its  work  may  be  enriched  and  enlarged  by 
gifts  from  other  citizens."  That  latest  evidence  of  devotion 
coming  as  it  did  made  it  appear  as  if  the  dead  hand  of  the 
generous  donor  continued  its  lifelong  accustomed  deeds  of 

It  was  the  editor's  never-to-be-forgotten  privilege  to  see  and 
talk  with  Doctor  Janes  in  his  home  several  times  during  May, 
1915.  Indeed,  his  kindly  interest  in  this  present  undertaking 
was  evinced  in  many  ways.  On  one  occasion  he  alluded 
feelingly  to  a  poem  from  the  collection  of  S.  S.  &  H.  C.  Luce, 
already  spoken  of  in  these  pages,  and  insisted  upon  rising 
from  his  place  and  getting  the  volume  from  the  book  case. 
The  poem's  title  is  "The  Village  Doctor,"  and  was  written  in 
January,  1871 ,  by  Samuel  Slayton  Luce.  The  four  last  stanzas 

Far  up  the  winding  mountain  road, 

Through  forest  dark  and  blinding  snow, 

He  reached  the  desolate  abode 
Of  sickness,  poverty  and  woe. 


Blush   Hill   Road   ix  Winter 

THE  NEV;  ^"J'  -  „! 

PERIOD    1850-1875  147 

Long  years  have  passed ;  yet  oft  I  ask, 

As  howls  the  tempest  in  its  might, 
While  sitting  by  the  evening  fire, 

"What  faithful  doctor  rides  tonight?" 

Yes,  faithful;  though  full  well  I  know 

The  world  is  sparing  of  its  praise; 
And  these  self-sacrificing  men 

But  seldom  tempt  the  poet's  lays. 

And  yet,  I  trust,  when  at  the  last 

They  leave  the  world  of  human  strife. 

Like  him  "who  loved  his  fellow  men," 

Their  names  shall  grace  the  "Book  of  Life." 

It  is  as  if  the  writer  of  the  lines  had  prophetically  epitomized 
the  great  Hfe  service  of  Doctor  Janes  to  the  community,  no 
less  than  that  of  Doctor  T.  B,  Downer  of  Waterbury  Center, 
the  particular  person  held  in  mind  by  the  poet. 

The  march  of  events  was  rapid  after  the  capitulation  of 
General  Lee  in  the  historic  McLean  house  at  Appomattox 
Court  House  April  9,  1865.  Coincidently  with  this  decisive 
act  the  fierce  and  unnecessary  Battle  of  Mobile  was 
raging.  Johnston  surrendered  April  26.  President  Lincoln 
made  his  last  public  address  to  a  company  gathered  in  the 
White  House,  Tuesday  evening,  April  11.  The  tragic  hap- 
penings at  Washington  of  April  14  came  with  a  benumbing 
shock  to  the  whole  country.  When  the  news  of  President 
Lincoln's  assassination  reached  Waterbury,  Saturday,  April  15, 
it  found  a  community  almost  apathetic  through  the  dull 
insistence  of  rapidly  recurring  bereavements  in  the  war  just 
ended.  It  is  said  by  one  recalling  the  incident  that  there  was 
really  more  excitement  over  the  killing  of  Colonel  Ellsworth 
at  Alexandria  in  1861.  It  was  as  if  the  town  had  suffered  so 
much  that  it  received  what  came  with  a  sort  of  despairing 
fatalism  and  sense  of  hopeless  impotency,  but  this  inability  to 
give  expression  to  a  profound  grief  at  the  President's  hideous 
murder  did  not  argue  that  it  was  felt  the  less  keenly. 

But  the  war  was  over;  the  Vice-President  had  been  installed 
in  office  and  Waterbury,  like  all  other  towns,  pulled  herself 
together  to  take  account  of  stock;  to  readjust  herself  to  the 


immediate  demands  of  peace ;  and  to  repair  the  indirect  ravages 
caused  by  the  war  so  far  as  possible.  This  meant  a  recogni- 
tion of  certain  grave  conditions.  The  town  was  not  growing 
by  an  encouraging  ratio.  Between  the  years  i860  and  1870, 
there  was  an  increase  of  from  2,198  to  2,634 — only  436  souls — 
whereas  the  population  of  the  town  in  1850  was  2,352.  So 
work  commenced. 

Johnson's  administration  was  regarded  in  Waterbury  as  a 
sort  of  judgment  upon  the  Republican  party  for  having  taken 
even  a  loyal  Democrat  from  the  South  so  closely  into  the 
councils  of  the  nation.  The  war  governors  of  Vermont  had 
all  been  uncompromising  and  unswerving  in  their  sentiments 
of  loyalty  to  the  Union,  but  with  them  that  meant  something 
more  than  a  hasty  reconstruction  policy  that  would  unwisely 
put  too  much  power  into  the  hands  of  the  so  recently  defeated 

It  was  reasonably  feared  that  the  Democratic  party's  haste 
to  restore  all  the  states  to  their  former  status  in  the  Union 
was  ill-timed  and  badly  advised.  General  amnesties  were  still 
regarded  with  suspicion  in  New  England.  Regulation  by 
the  Southern  States  of  their  several  elective  franchises  seemed 
to  the  Northern  Republican  the  height  of  folly,  or  worse. 
The  unrestrained  expressions  of  leading  Democrats  regarding 
"the  debt  of  gratitude  owing  Andrew  Johnson  by  the  American 
people"  found  no  answering  chord  in  Vermont  or  Waterbury. 
Yet  all  these  pronouncements  were  found  in  the  Democratic 
platform  in  1868,  so  that,  when  the  electors  or  Freemen  of 
Waterbury  were  called  upon  to  register  their  choice  of  electoral 
candidates  in  November,  it  was  not  at  all  surprising  that 
they  should  have  given  the  Ulysses  S.  Grant  Republican 
electors  419  votes  as  against  the  Horatio  Seymour  Democratic 
electors'  99. 

As  may  have  been  intimated  before.  Democrats  were  not 
numerous  in  Waterbury,  at  least  they  were  not  so  many  as 
to  be  taken  by  their  political  opponents  as  a  matter  of  course. 
Among  these  was  John  Montgomery.  Mr.  Montgomery 
owned  Duxbury  as  his  birthplace  and  November  19,  1794, 
as  the  date  of  his  birth .     His  father  was  Thomas  Montgomery, 

PERIOD    1850-1875  149 

also  of  Duxbury ;  his  mother  was  Lucy  (Blanchard)  Montgom- 
ery. John  married  Miss  Tryphena  Towle  and  settled  on  the 
homestead.  He  gave  up  Duxbury  for  Waterbury  where  he 
came  to  live  on  Perry  Hill  in  1836.  From  this  farm  site  he 
moved  again  to  a  much  larger  place  at  the  mouth  of  Cotton 
Brook  on  Waterbury  River,  where  he  passed  the  remainder  of 
his  days,  dying  May  7,  1887,  at  the  advanced  age  of  nearly 
ninety-two  and  one-half  years.  As  the  Nestor  of  his  party 
in  the  community  his  judgment  was  respected  and  valued 
highly.  His  life-long  record  as  a  citizen  and  neighbor,  how- 
ever, was  far  from  being  bound  by  party  limitations.  His 
retentive  memory  is  said  to  have  remained  practically  un- 
impaired at  the  close  of  his  life.  There  were  born  to  Mr.  and 
Mrs.  Montgomery,  Lucy  (Mrs.  Samuel  Lewis),  John  E.,  George 
R.,  who  married  Sylvia  Farr,  Mary  A.  (Mrs.  Doctor  Huse), 
Eliza  (Mrs.  Silas  Perry) ,  deceased,  and  Charles  C,  who  married 
Carrie  Lewis.  Charles  took  over  the  farming  operations  on 
his  father's  estate  but  removed  to  Hadley,  Massachusetts, 
where  he  died. 

Another  Democrat  was  Charles  C.  Robinson,  son  of  Noah 
and  Calista  (Russell)  Robinson,  who  was  born  in  Stowe,  No- 
vember 21,  1833.  Mr.  Robinson  went  through  the  usual 
routine  of  common  schools  and  finished  at  the  academy  of 
Bakersfield.  He  married  Mary  Jane  Prescott  of  Waterbury, 
February  18,  1864,  and  went  to  live  at  the  Center  on  a  farm. 
Mr.  Robinson  served  his  fellow  citizens  as  selectman,  overseer 
of  the  poor,  and  auditor.  He  was  candidate  for  town  repre- 
sentative and  ran  ahead  of  his  ticket.  Children  of  the  mar- 
riage were  Harvey  P.,  Carrie  E.,  Ethel  C.  and  Charles  C. 

Memories  of  by-gone  political  campaigns  in  the  town  and 
the  incidental  rallies  of  early  post  helium  days  are  not  so  easily 
evoked  as  might  seem  possible.  This  is  probably  due  to  the 
matter-of-course  results  of  those  campaigns.  A  citizen,  who 
would  instantly  resent  the  imputation  that  his  memory  is 
anything  but  photographic,  expresses  wonder  why  one  should 
be  interested  in  knowing  about  the  various  national  and  state 
administrations  succeeding  the  war.  Yet  interesting  inci- 
dents occurred.     Once   Honorable   Edward  J.  Phelps,   later 


ambassador  to  the  Court  of  St.  James,  delivered  a  political 
speech  from  the  steps  of  the  Congregational  Church,  in  which 
his  disparaging  remarks  on  the  subject  of  the  negro  as  a  possi- 
ble citizen  aroused  much  rancor  and  disapprobation,  even 
among  the  Democrats  in  the  audience,  and  afforded  an  oppor- 
tunity to  an  interested  auditor,  Mr.  O.  A.  Seabury,  to  make  an 
inimitable  and  speaking  cartoon  of  the  orator. 

Some  reminiscent  citizens  recall  the  advent  to  the  town  of  a 
typical  South  Carolinian  ex-Confederate  officer  and  spell- 
binder. Now  ex- Confederates  were  not  popular  in  Water- 
bury,  whatever  their  oratorical  powers  might  be.  The  par- 
ticular speaker  was  one  whose  reputation  as  an  orator  had 
preceded  him  and  it  was  readily  admitted  on  all  sides  that  he 
deserved  it,  but  to  the  bewilderment  of  the  people  this  ex- 
Confederate  did  not  seek  to  win  them  by  oratory;  moreover, 
he  actually  did  win  them  by  his  natural  courtesy,  charming 
manners  and  liberal  give-and-take  attitude  in  argument.  To 
many  this  first  rebel  seen  out  of  captivity  or  hostile  engagement 
was  an  agreeable  disappointment. 

The  baseball  enthusiasts  of  today  in  Waterbury  may  be 
interested  to  know  that  the  national  game  was  not  overlooked 
locally  forty-eight  years  ago.  There  is  now  in  existence  a  re- 
port of  a  game  between  the  Green  Mountain  team  of  Bolton 
and  the  Annulet  team  of  Waterbury,  played  at  Bolton  on  the 
31st  of  May,  1867.  It  goes  without  saying  that  the  team  from 
Waterbury  won,  but  the  grotesque  score  of  115  to  46  runs  is 
not  quite  understandable.  In  the  Annulet  roster  are  found 
such  names  as  William  Deal,  pitcher;  Fullerton  (Judge), 
first  base;  J.  J.  Colby,  second  base  (now  of  Los  Angeles,  Cali- 
fornia) ;  Charles  Atherton,  catcher  (now  of  Essex) ;  Leander 
Kirby,  center  field;  Proctor,  short  stop;  Canning,  third  base; 
William  Guptil,  right  field;  and  E.  Hutchins,  left  field. 

The  year  1870  found  Waterbury  with  a  population  of  2,633. 
The  town  government  included  such  tried  officials  as  John  D. 
Smith,  clerk;  Horace  Fales,  C.  C.  Robinson  and  S.  R.  Huse, 
selectmen;  C.  N.  Arms,  treasurer;  Daniel  Hopkins,  constable, 
and  Melville  E.  Smilie,  superintendent.  The  listers  were 
Nathaniel  Moody,  John  D.  Smith,  and  Andrew  J.   Brown; 

PERIOD    1850-1875  151 

overseer,  P.  L.  Muzzey;  agent,  Noah  Robinson;  postmasters 
were  Justin  W.  Moody  and  (Center)  John  D.  Smith.  The 
bar  was  represented  by  Paul  DilHngham,  WilHam  P.  DilHng- 
ham,  C.  F.  Clough,  E.  F.  Palmer,  George  W.  Kennedy  and 
M.  E.  SmiHe.  Physicians  were  Henry  Janes,  Horace  Fales, 
J.  E.  Frink,  L.  H.  Thomas,  G.  T.  Flanders,  and  P.  W.  Thomas, 
oculist.  E.  F.  Skinner  was  the  local  dentist.  There  were 
about  thirty  merchants  of  all  sorts  and  dealers  in  staple  arti- 
cles. The  manufacturers  numbered  about  a  dozen.  The 
hotels  were  the  Waterbury  Hotel,  kept  by  W.  H.  Skinner; 
Village  Hotel,  by  J.  Brown,  and  Green  Mountain  House,  by 
H.  J.  Campbell.  There  were  eight  churches  in  the  Village 
and  the  Center.  Leander  Hutchins  was  president  of  the 
Waterbury  National  Bank,  and  Curtis  Wells  was  cashier. 

Few  changes  occurred  between  1870  and  1875  in  the  business 
life  of  the  town.  There  was  a  change  in  the  roster  of  bank 
ofificials  when  Paul  Dillingham  succeeded  Leander  Hutchins  as 
president  of  the  Waterbury  National  Bank.  The  leading 
names  of  those  in  professional,  commercial  and  manufacturing 
circles  were  much  the  same  as  those  given  before. 

The  list  of  manufacturers  included  B.  F.  Peckett,  boots 
and  shoes;  A.  H.  Selleck,  cassimeres  and  flannels;  Fairbanks 
&  Smith,  chair  seats;  O.  E.  Scott,  clocks  and  watches;  Colby 
Wringer  Company,  clothes  wringers,  etc.;  H.  W.  Smith  & 
Company,  inks;  C.  C.  Warren,  leather;  G.  W.  Randall,  Shurt- 
leff  &  Fullerton,  leather.  The  merchants  were :  M.  M.  Knight, 
Richardson  &  Fullerton,  C.  E.  Wyman;  books  and  stationery, 
J.  W.  Moody;  boots  and  shoes,  L.  Parmalee;  butter  and  pro- 
duce, J.  A.  Burleigh;  drugs  and  medicines,  W.  E.  Carpenter, 
M.  O.  Evans;  flour,  meal  and  grain,  Zenas  Watts;  furniture, 
A.  A.  Atherton,  F.  B.  Taylor;  hardware,  Cecil  Graves;  milli- 
nery, Mrs.  H.  J.  Parker,  Mrs.  A.  C.  Stebbins;  picture  frames, 
caskets,  etc.,  G.  H.  Atherton;  wholesale  groceries.  Arms  & 
Haines.  There  were  about  four  stores  at  the  Center  at  this 
time,  1875. 

A  recapitulation  of  the  town  vote  in  gubernatorial  and 
presidential  elections  between  i860  and  1875  is  given:  the 
Freeman's  meeting  in  November  of  i860  gave,  respectively, 


Governor  Erastus  Fairbanks  240  votes  as  against  John  G. 
Saxe's  140,  and  the  Abraham  Lincoln  RepubHcan  electors  227, 
as  against  the  John  C.  Breckenridge  Democrats'  116. 

In  1 86 1  the  town  polled  195  for  Governor  Frederick  Hol- 
brook,  as  against  Andrew  Tracy's  102,  Benjamin  H.  Smalley's 
II,  and  Paul  Dillingham's  i. 

In  1862  Governor  Holbrook  was  reelected,  receiving  from 
Waterbury  183  votes  to  Benjamin  H.  Smalley's  12. 

In  1863  Governor  John  Gregory  Smith  received  Waterbury's 
offering  of  226  votes,  to  Timothy  P.  Redfield's  88. 

In  1864  Governor  John  Gregory  Smith  succeeded  himself, 
obtaining  from  Waterbury  237  votes,  as  against  Timothy  P. 
Redfield's  109. 

Waterbury  repeated  her  emphatic  testimony  in  favor  of 
the  Abraham  Lincoln  Republican  electors  by  giving  them  316 
votes,  as  against  115  for  the  McClellan  Democrats  at  the 
November  election  in  1864. 

In  1865  Waterbury,  the  home  town  of  the  (Union)  RepubH- 
can gubernatorial  candidate,  Paul  Dillingham,  gave  him  289 
votes  to  62  for  Charles  N.  Davenport. 

In  1866  Governor  Paul  Dillingham  succeeded  himself, 
receiving  in  Waterbury  239,  to  Charles  N.  Davenport's  52. 

In  1867  Governor  John  B.  Page  received  in  Waterbury  237 
votes,  to  John  L.  Edwards'  77. 

In  1868  Governor  Page  was  reelected,  Waterbury  giving 
him  387  votes,  as  against  J.  L.  Edwards'  128.  This  being 
the  presidential  year,  the  vote  was  heavier  at  the  September 
elections  than  ordinarily. 

In  1869  the  town  gave  Governor  Peter  T.  Washburn  228 
votes,  as  against  57  for  Homer  W.  Heaton. 

In  1870  Governor  John  W.  Stewart  received  203  votes, 
against  Homer  W.  Heaton's  78. 

In  1872,  the  first  biennial  gubernatorial  election.  Governor 
Julius  Converse  received  from  the  town  327  votes,  as  against 
121  for  A.  B.  Gardner. 

The  political  wiseacres  argued  from  these  figures,  as  usual, 
a  substantial  ballot  for  the  Republican  Grant  electors  in  No- 
vember, nor  were  they  disappointed;  but  this  vote  exceeded 

PERIOD    1850-1875  153 

the  Republican  gubernatorial  vote  by  only  2,  the  Grant  elect- 
ors receiving  329,  as  against  the  Greeley  (Liberal  Republican) 
electors'  80.  President  Grant  at  this  time  was  at  the  very 
apex  of  his  personal  popularity.  The  unfortunate  scandals  of 
his  first  administration  made  possible  by  designing  politi- 
cians had  not  served  to  alter  Vermont's  loyalty  toward  him. 

It  was  not  surprising  that  the  candidacy  of  Horace  Greeley, 
running  as  a  Liberal  Republican  on  the  Democratic  ticket, 
should  have  caused  some  anxiety  to  old-line  Republicans  in 
Waterbury.  The  New  York  Tribune,  either  in  its  weekly  or 
semi-weekly  edition,  had  long  been  accepted  as  a  sort  of  po- 
litical bible  by  many  subscribers  who  had  followed  Greeley's 
uncompromising  hostility  to  every  thing  Democratic,  up  to 
1872,  with  unconcealed  approval.  They  argued  that  if 
Greeley,  whose  honesty  and  purity  of  motives  were  unassail- 
able, should  desert  the  regular  organization  there  must  be 
some  good  reason  for  it,  but  when  the  candidate  in  his  Maine 
speeches  called  for  Southern  support,  the  inevitable  reaction 
set  in.  Waterbury  did  not  hold  Southern  support  in  high 
esteem  in  1872. 

In  1874  Governor  Ashael  Peck  received  259  votes  in  Water- 
bury, as  against  W.  H.  H.  Bingham's  113.  It  was  during 
Governor  Peck's  term  that  William  P.  Dillingham  served  as 
Secretary  of  Civil  and  Military  Affairs  and  this  administration 
brings  us  to  1876. 

All  this  while  Waterbury  was  largely  dependent  for  her  news 
service  on  semi-weekly  New  York  and  Boston  newspapers  for 
outside  news.  Nearer  at  home  were  the  daily  and  weekly 
Burlington  Free  Press,  Burlington  Times,  St.  Albans  Daily 
Messenger,  Montpelier  weeklies.  Watchman  and  State  Journal, 
Argus  and  Patriot,  Green  Mountain  Freeman,  Burlington  Sen- 
tinel and  St.  Albans  Transcript.  These  newspapers,  for  the 
most  part,  were  repositories  of  political  and  miscellaneous 
information;  they  were  well  edited  and  some  gained  wide  cir- 
culation beyond  the  state  boundaries.  A  few  were  indelibly 
stamped  with  the  characteristics  of  their  editors  and  were 
sources  of  much  entertainment  as  well  as  bald  information. 


I 876-1900 

This  period,  beginning  with  Centennial  year,  brought  little 
to  disturb  the  placid  serenity  of  Waterbury.  Quite  naturally 
the  fall  Freeman's  meetings  remained  the  never-failing  boon 
for  public  interest  in  dry  times — dry  in  the  non-technical 
sense,  be  it  said.  The  people  of  Waterbury  did  not  permit 
themselves  to  become  aroused  over  the  presidential  campaign. 
It  remains  very  distinctly  to  the  everlasting  credit  of  the  sound 
sense  of  village  communities  like  Waterbury  that  they  were 
able  to  discount  such  inflammatory  matter  as  was  put  before 
the  people  in  the  platforms  of  both  leading  parties  of  that  year. 

The  Tilden  Democracy  on  the  one  hand  was  denouncing 
the  Republican  administrations  for  a  profligate  waste  of  public 
lands,  the  failure  to  make  good  legal  tender  promises,  the 
financial  "imbecility"  which  had  made  no  advance  toward 
resumption  of  specie  payments,  attempts  at  enkindling  sec- 
tional hatred  by  false  issues  regarding  the  public  schools,  and 
all  efforts  at  blocking  a  national  reform  "necessary  to  estab- 
lish .  .  .  the  Union  now  to  be  saved  from  a  corrupt  cen- 
tralism." They  cried  aloud  that  "all  these  abuses,  wrongs 
and  crimes,  the  product  of  the  sixteen  years'  ascendency  of 
the  Republican  party,  create  a  necessity  for  reform,  confessed 
by  the  Republicans  themselves." 

On  the  other  hand,  the  Hayes  Republicans  were  declaring 
for  the  permanent  pacification  of  the  Southern  section  of  the 
Union,  vaguely  for  duties  from  which  revenue  must  be  largely 
derived  which  should  be  adjusted  to  promote  interests  of 
American  labor  and  advance  the  prosperity  of  the  whole 
country;  that  the  honest  demands  of  women  for  additional 
rights,  privileges  and  immunities  should  be  treated  with 
respectful  consideration.  While  "sincerely  deprecating"  sec- 
tional feeling,  the  Republicans  noted  "with  deep  solicitude" 
that  the  Democratic  party  counted  upon  the  electoral  vote  of 


a  united  South  and  charged  that  party  with  "being  the  same 
in  character  and  spirit  as  when  it  sympathized  with  treason." 

Here  were  two  great  parties,  each  vying  with  the  other  in 
seeking  expression  for  thankfulness  for  a  reunited  country,  and 
each  apparently  doing  its  best  to  undo  everything  that  had 
been  accomplished  in  that  regard  at  terrible  cost  of  life  and 
property.  There  was  nothing  abnormal,  then,  in  the  vote 
given  by  Waterbury  of  358  for  Governor  Horace  Fairbanks  and 
163  for  W.  H.  H.  Bingham  at  the  September  meeting,  nor  was 
this  normality  disturbed  in  November  when  the  Tilden  Demo- 
cratic electors  received  194  votes,  to  the  345  for  the  Hayes  Re- 
publican electors.  Well  within  the  memory  of  many  citizens  is 
the  tense  national  situation  immediately  succeeding  Novem- 
ber elections  and  during  the  electoral  count  of  the  returning 
board  and  the  sittings  of  the  electoral  commission.  With  that 
sense  of  justice  characteristic  of  composite  village  sentiment, 
political  opponents  in  Waterbury  generously  accorded  to  Mr. 
Tilden  unqualified  admiration  for  his  indignant  rejection  of 
corrupt  and  venal  overtures  for  the  sale  of  Louisiana's  elect- 
oral vote  and  for  his  dignified  acquiescence  in  an  ofificial 
finding  that  remains  questionable  to  this  day.  They  realized 
how  that  acquiescence  prevented  a  recurrence  of  the  horrors 
of  civil  war — an  eventuality  that  Waterbury  had  good  reason 
for  dreading,  if  ever  an  American  town  had. 

The  town  had  held  its  usual  March  meeting  on  the  13th,  in 
the  Centennial  year,  1876,  with  the  result  of  electing  W.  P. 
Dillingham  as  moderator;  Frank  N.  Smith,  town  clerk; 
Luther  Davis,  John  B.  Parker  and  George  W.  Warren,  select- 
men; James  K.  Fullerton,  treasurer;  James  A.  Burleigh,  over- 
seer of  the  poor;  Oscar  W.  May,  constable  and  tax  collector; 
Oscar  W.  May,  A.  B.  Remington,  L  Remington,  listers;  Daniel 
Hopkins,  W.  P.  Dillingham,  S.  R.  Huse,  auditors;  William 
Carpenter,  public  trustee;  Noah  Robinson,  George  W.  Moody, 
Horace  Fales,  fence  viewers;  John  S.  Batchelder,  E.  F.  Palmer, 
Daniel  Hopkins,  grand  jurors;  Lucius  Parmalee,  inspector  of 
leather;  E.  H.  Wells,  pound  keeper;  twenty-five  surveyors; 
Edwin  F.  Palmer,  agent;  George  C.  Washburne,  superintend- 
ent of  schools;  George  W.  Randall,  inspector  of  lumber. 

PERIOD    1876-1900  157 

Governor  Redfield  Proctor's  vote  in  the  town  at  the  Septem- 
ber meeting  in  1878  was  253  to  W.  H.  H.  Bingham's  94,  while 
Mr.  C.  C.  Martin  polled  104  in  the  same  race.  The  two  suc- 
cessful candidates  for  state  senate  were  William  P.  Dillingham 
and  Albert  Dwinnell,  each  receiving  254  votes;  James  K.  Tobey 
and  Goin  B.  Evans  each  received  88,  and  George  W.  Randall 
and  Medad  Wright  each  104,  Waterbury  furnishing  three  of 
the  six  senatorial  candidates. 

Governor  Roswell  B.  Farnham's  vote  at  the  Freeman's 
meeting  in  September,  1880,  was  327;  his  opponent,  Edward 
J.  Phelps,  later  to  become  ambassador  at  the  Court  of  St. 
James,  receiving  130.  Messrs.  Dillingham  and  Dwinnell  were 
reelected  state  senators,  receiving  325  votes,  as  against  129 
for  Homer  Heaton,  and  128  for  L.  A.  Joslyn.  At  the  Novem- 
ber Freeman's  meeting  in  1880,  the  five  Garfield  Republican 
presidential  electors  received  a  town  vote  of  346.  The  two 
other  groups  of  electors  receiving  59  and  173  votes  respectively, 
showing  a  remarkable  disparity  between  the  Democratic  and 
Greenback  vote  in  the  town. 

Governor  John  L.  Barstow  drew  from  Waterbury  206  votes, 
as  against  George  E.  Eaton's  48  in  September,  1882.  On  the 
county  ticket,  Hiram  A.  Huse  received  a  town  vote  for  state's 
attorney  of  206,  to  John  H.  Senter's  48,  and  C.  F.  Clough's  61, 
the  latter  a  Waterbury  lawyer.  It  is  not  without  interest  to 
note  that  in  the  Congressional  election  the  town  vote  gave 
Luke  P.  Poland  184,  George  L.  Fletcher  47,  William  W. 
Grout  20,  William  P.  Dillingham  12,  and  H.  D.  Dunbar  54. 

Governor  Samuel  E.  Pingree  polled  266  town  votes  in  Sep- 
tember, 1884,  to  Lyman  W.  Redington's  96.  Mr.  C.  F.  Clough 
of  Waterbury  was  again  a  candidate  for  state's  attorney, 
receiving  29  votes,  the  successful  candidate,  Harlan  W.  Kemp, 
receiving  263.  Frank  Atherton,  candidate  for  sherifif,  received 
263  votes. 

The  historic  Blaine-Cleveland  campaign  of  1884  found  and 
left  Waterbury  characteristically  imperturbable.  The  Blaine 
Republican  electors  received  a  town  vote  of  308  to  the 
Cleveland  Democratic  electors'  158.  The  two  remaining 
groups  of  electors  received  18  and  22  votes,  respectively.     This 


was  the  first  presidential  election  under  the  new  apportionment 
which  gave  four  electors  to  the  state,  instead  of  five  as  hereto- 

Governor  Ebenezer  J.  Ormsbee  polled  244  town  votes  in 
September,  1886,  to  Stephen  C.  Shurtleff's  114. 

Naturally  the  gubernatorial  campaign  of  1888  possessed, 
for  Waterbury,  something  far  greater  than  a  perfunctory 
interest.  The  candidates  were  William  P.  Dillingham,  who 
received  a  town  vote  of  319 ;  Stephen  C.  Shurtleff ,  who  received 
97;  Henry  Seely  and  C.  C.  Martin,  each  receiving  2.  Gover- 
nor Dillingham's  election  was  duly  and  appropriately  cele- 
brated in  the  town  with  a  torchlight  procession,  speech  making 
and  music. 

The  Harrison  Republican  electors  received  a  town  vote  that 
year  of  296,  to  the  Cleveland  Democratic  electors'  103. 

The  early  part  of  President  Garfield's  administration,  in  the 
first  part  of  the  decade  1880-1890,  brought  the  usual  confidence 
to  Waterbury  that  the  nation's  affairs  were  in  good  hands. 
Besides  Mr.  Garfield's  many  qualifications  as  a  statesman,  he 
was  known  in  Waterbury  to  have  been  a  brave  soldier  and  the 
soldier-suffrage  habit  was  naturally  strong  locally.  When,  for 
the  second  time  in  sixteen  years,  the  town  was  called  upon  to 
mourn  the  loss  of  a  stricken  President  and  to  deplore  its 
impotency  against  the  assassin's  stealth,  it  was  with  poignant 
sorrow  and  regret  that  the  people  turned  again  to  the  demands 
of  the  workaday  world. 

At  the  September  Freeman's  meeting  in  1890,  Governor 
Carroll  S.  Page  received  174  votes,  as  against  Herbert  L. 
Brigham's  100. 

The  next  candidate  on  the  Republican  side  was  Levi  K. 
Fuller  who  received  a  gubernatorial  vote  at  the  September 
(1892)  Freeman's  meeting  of  295,  as  against  154  for  Bradley 
B.  Smalley. 

At  the  November  Freeman's  meeting  of  the  same  year, 
1892,  Waterbury  gave  the  Harrison  Republican  electors  an 
average  of  255,  as  against  the  Cleveland  Democratic  electors' 
105,  this  year  marking  the  first  presidential  election  in  Ver- 
mont under  the  modified  Australian  ballot  system  and  a  de- 

PERIOD   1876-1900  159 

parture  from  the  custom  of  voting  for  the  several  groups  of 
electors  as  unit  groups. 

At  a  special  town  meeting,  April  30,  1894,  a  resolution  was 
passed  granting  the  petition  of  the  Columbian  United  Electric 
Company  for  a  franchise  to  occupy  a  portion  of  the  side  of 
the  right  of  way  of  the  highway  and  for  crossings,  widening,  etc. 

The  gubernatorial  vote  in  September,  1894,  at  the  Free- 
man's meeting  gave  a  town  vote  of  239  to  Governor  Urban  A. 
Woodbury,  as  against  George  W.  Smith's  75. 

The  successor  to  Governor  Woodbury  was  Governor  Josiah 
Grout,  who  received  a  town  vote  in  1896  of  381,  as  against 
John  Henry  Jackson's  115. 

At  the  November  (1896)  Freeman's  meeting,  the  McKinley 
Republican  electors  received  327  J  votes,  as  an  average,  against 
67  for  the  Democratic  electors. 

At  the  September  Freeman's  meeting,  1898,  Governor  Ed- 
ward C.  Smith  received  237  town  votes,  as  against  93  for 
Thomas  W.  Maloney. 

Governor  William  W.  Stickney  in  1900  received  351  votes, 
to  John  H.  Senter's  100  in  the  town. 

At  the  November  Freeman's  meeting  the  McKinley  Repub' 
lican  electors  received  272  town  votes,  as  against  93  for  the 
Democratic  electors.  Again,  in  1901,  Waterbury  was  called 
upon  to  mourn  the  untimely  death  of  a  President  taken  off 
by  the  bullet  of  a  madman. 

The  village  of  Waterbury  remained  unincorporated  until 
the  Legislative  session  of  1882  when  it  obtained  a  charter 
entitled  "An  Act  to  Incorporate  the  Village  of  Waterbury," 
approved  November  20,  1882,  under  which  fire  district 
Number  i  was  embraced  within  the  designation  "Village  of 

At  a  meeting  of  the  fire  district,  December  20,  1882,  it  was 
voted  to  accept  the  charter  passed  and  approved  as  above. 
The  first  roster  of  village  officers  were  elected  at  this  meeting 
as  follows:  president,  C.  F.  Clough;  trustees,  George  F.  Ran- 
dall, Joseph  Somerville,  John  Seabury,  G.  E.  Moody;  clerk, 
George  C.  Washburn;  treasurer,  James  K.  FuUerton;  collector, 
Zenas  Watts;    auditors,  William  Wade,  W.  P.  Dillingham, 


George  W.  Morse;  chief  engineer,  Andrew  J.  Brown;  first 
assistant,  Charles  D.  Robinson;  second  assistant,  William 
Deal;  fire  wardens,  C.  N.  Arms,  C.  E.  Richardson,  Edward 
Shiple,  Edward  Farrar.  It  was  voted  that  a  committee  of 
three  be  elected  to  draft  by-laws  for  said  village.  The  com- 
mittee elected  consisted  of  C.  F.  Clough,  William  P.  Dilling- 
ham and  Henry  Janes.  The  village  next  was  duly  divided 
into  four  wards  by  the  fire  wardens.  The  first  included  that 
part  between  the  bridge  at  east  line  of  the  village  and  D.  C. 
Caldwell's  and  the  depot  east;  the  second  included  Park  Row 
to  the  east  side  of  Stowe  Street  to  the  dry  bridge;  the  third, 
from  the  west  side  of  Stowe  Street  to  the  dry  bridge  including 
all  west  of  the  railroad  and  Thatcher's  Brook  to  the  tannery; 
the  fourth  included  all  east  of  the  railroad  and  Thatcher's 
Brook  from  the  tannery. 

The  question  of  aiding  the  construction  of  the  Mount  Mans- 
field Railroad  under  its  charter  passed  by  the  Legislature  in 
1888  arose  at  a  duly  called  town  meeting  February  11,  1889. 
The  following  was  voted:  "That  the  sum  of  seven  thousand 
dollars  be  appropriated  to  aid  in  the  construction  of  the  Mount 
Mansfield  Railroad  under  the  charter  granted  to  the  Mount 
Mansfield  Railroad  Company  by  the  Legislature  of  Vermont 
at  its  October  session,  A.  D,  1888,  such  road  to  be  constructed 
from  Waterbury  Village  to  Stowe  Center  Village  by  way  of 
Waterbury  Center  Village.  And  that  the  selectmen  are  hereby 
authorized  and  directed  to  draw  their  orders  in  favor  of  said 
company,  its  successors  or  assigns,  on  the  treasurer  of  the 
town  for  the  said  sum  of  seven  thousand  dollars,  the  same  to 
be  payable  in  two  installments  of  thirty-five  hundred  dollars 
each,  one  in  thirty  days  after  regular  passenger  trains  shall 
run  to  Waterbury  Center  Village  and  the  other  in  one  year 
thereafter.  And  that  said  selectmen,  on  the  payment  of  such 
aid  and  in  satisfaction  therefor,  are  directed  to  subscribe  for 
and  take  in  the  name  of  said  town  the  capital  stock  of  our 
said  Railroad  Company  to  the  amount  of  said  seven  thousand 

For  many  years  prior  to  the  incorporation  of  the  village  the 
tax  rate  was  about  $1 .05  on  the  grand  list  of  the  town.     After 

PERIOD    1876-1900  161 

the  incorporation  of  the  village  the  rate  by  degrees  ran  from 
$1.50  to  $2.00  on  $1.00  of  the  list.  This  increase  cannot  be 
said  to  be  due  wholly  to  the  incorporation  of  the  village  but 
coincidently  with  it  began  a  steady  rise  in  farm  products  and 
outside  values  increased.  Within  the  corporate  limits  of  the 
village,  moreover,  the  real  estate  valuations  have  increased 
by  more  than  50  per  cent.  The  increase  of  about  the  same 
amount  on  farm  property  within  the  town  limits,  though  not 
due  to  village  incorporation,  has  been  coincident  with  the 
village  realty  increase.  Naturally,  the  practical  efTorts  at 
securing  good  roads  and  their  maintenance  and  the  erection 
of  new  bridges  within  and  without  the  corporate  limits  have 
had  their  effect.  Concrete  sidewalks  received  attention  at 
the  village  meeting,  August  16,  1889,  at  which  it  was  voted  to 
begin  "on  Main  Street,  north  side  from  B.  Barrett's  Hotel, 
to  corner  of  C.  E.  Wyman's  store,  and  one  or  more  crossings 
and  as  much  more  as  in  their  (trustees')  judgment  the  appro- 
priation will  warrant." 

At  a  special  town  meeting,  April  30,  1894,  a  resolution  was 
passed  granting  the  petition  of  the  Columbian  United  Electric 
Company  for  a  franchise  to  occupy  a  portion  of  the  side  of  the 
right  of  way  of  the  highway  and  for  crossings,  widening,  etc. 

The  village  had  been  inadequately  lighted  by  oil  lamps, 
requiring  a  disproportionate  amount  of  care  and  attention  so 
that  when  the  Vermont  Electric  Company  submitted  four 
different  propositions  for  lighting  the  streets,  March  9,  1891, 
there  was  little  opposition  at  this  meeting  to  the  acceptance 
of  a  proposition  calling  for  sixteen  arc  lamps,  each  of  1,200 
c.p.  to  burn  from  dusk  until  11  p.  m.  At  a  subsequent  meet- 
ing (March  23,  1891),  however,  it  was  voted  to  rescind  the 
authorization  of  the  trustees  to  contract  with  the  Vermont 
Electric  Company,  passed  March  9,  and  further  consideration 
of  electric  street  lighting  was  deferred  temporarily. 

An  elaborate  and  exhaustive  report  was  submitted  at  a 
special  village  meeting  August  27,  1895,  touching  on  water 
supply  in  and  about  Waterbury,  the  cost  and  feasibility  of 
bringing  water  to  the  village  for  fire,  domestic  and  other  pur- 
poses.    Appropriate  resolutions  were  thereafter  (December  9, 


1895)  adopted  authorizing  the  village  to  take  and  hold,  under 
Act  195,  Laws  of  1894,  certain  springs  and  streams,  in  the 
towns  of  Waterbury  and  Stowe,  to  issue  bonds  to  the  amount 
of  $20,000,  payable  in  twenty  years,  redeemable  in  five  years, 
bearing  4  per  cent  interest,  and  authorizing  the  treasurer  to 
borrow  on  temporary  loans  not  exceeding  $14,000. 

The  rules  and  regulations  governing  the  Village  Water 
Works  were  adopted  September  24,  1896. 

In  a  communication  dated  May  10,  1897,  the  Mount  Mans- 
field Electric  Railroad  Company  gave  notice  of  its  purpose  to 
begin  construction  from  Waterbury  to  Stowe  and  described 
therein  the  section  to  be  built  in  the  village. 

On  April  12,  1898,  notice  was  given  by  the  village,  through 
the  village  clerk,  to  the  Vermont  Telephone  and  Telegraph 
Company  of  its  authorization  to  erect  and  maintain  poles  and 
wires  thereon  in  certain  streets. 

At  a  special  village  meeting,  April  13,  1900,  a  resolution 
was  adopted  empowering  the  trustees  to  contract  with  the 
Consolidated  Lighting  Company  to  furnish  two  arc  lights  of 
2,000  c.p.  each  and  one  hundred  or  more  incandescent  lamps 
of  32  c.p.  each  as  they  find  necessary  at  a  price  not  to  exceed 
$50  each  for  arc  lights  and  $6  for  each  incandescent  light 
per  year  for  a  period  of  five  years,  the  lights  to  burn  from  dusk 
until  one  o'clock  a.m.,  three  hundred  nights  in  the  year. 

Permits  were  granted  by  the  Village  Trustees  to  the  New 
England  Telephone  and  Telegraph  Company  and  the  New 
England  Telephone  Company  to  erect  poles,  wires  and  supports 
in  Stowe,  Main,  Randall  and  Foundry  Streets,  February  9, 
and  March  2,  1901. 

Thirteen  applications  by  land  owners  for  the  admission  of 
their  several  tracts  to  the  village  of  Waterbury  were  filed  for 
record  March  3,  1902.  It  was  voted  to  admit  and  set  over  to 
the  village  certain  described  lands  of:  Edward  Farrar,  F.  W. 
Powers,  L.  F.  Ricker,  Moses  Labell,  A.  P.  Foster,  William  P. 
Mason,  F.  A.  Grout,  I.  H.  Ather,  William  M.  Strong,  J.  W. 
Keefe,  H.  DilHngham,  W.  L.  Moody,  Mrs.  K.  A.  Demmon. 

Under  due  authority,  the  trustees  advertised  for  sealed  bids 
until  May  8,  1915,  at  12  m.  for  $38,000  of  the  village  of  Water- 

PERIOD    1876-1900  163 

bury,  Vermont,  four  per  cent  coupon  or  registered  bonds 
issued  to  retire  a  previous  issue  of  water  bonds,  also  to  retire 
orders  paid  for  water  system  extension  and  permanent  road 
and  sidewalk  construction,  under  authority  of  No.  281,  Acts 
of  1908,  approved  December  18,  1908.  This  issue  was  taken 
by  the  Boston  house  of  N.  W.  Harris  &  Co. 

The  village  officers  elected  December  26,  1883,  for  the  fol- 
lowing year  were:  President,  Henry  Janes;  trustees,  George 
W.  Randall,  George  E.  Moody,  Charles  C.  Warren,  James  A. 
Burleigh;  clerk,  George  C.  Washburne;  treasurer,  James  K. 
FuUerton;  collector  of  taxes,  Zenas  Watts;  auditors,  George  W. 
Morse,  Luther  Davis,  M.  O.  Evans;  chief  engineer,  William 
Cooley;  first  assistant,  O.  E.  Scott;  second  assistant,  Edward 
Farrar;  fire  wardens,  John  J.  King,  Edward  Wells,  Charles 
Keene,  L.  Morse. 

The  village  officers  for  1885  were:  President  J.  W.  Moody; 
trustees,  J.  A.  Burleigh,  L.  P.  Morse;  clerk,  George  C.  Wash- 
burne; treasurer,  N.  Moody;  collector,  Zenas  Watts;  auditors, 
George  W.  Morse,  G.  E.  Moody,  C.  F.  Clough;  chief  engineer, 
William  Conley;  first  assistant,  Edward  Farrar;  second  assis- 
tant, J.  J,  King;  wardens,  J.  E.  Sheple,  T.  B.  Crossett,  Charles 
Keene,  S.  H.  Stowell.  C.  F.  Clough  was  elected  president  in 
place  of  J.  W.  Moody  who  asked  to  be  excused  from  service. 
Nathaniel  Moody  resigned  as  treasurer  and  J.  E.  Sheple  was 
appointed  by  the  trustees  in  his  place. 

The  village  officers  for  1886  were:  President,  George  W. 
Randall;  trustees,  C.  F.  Clough,  A.  J.  Brown;  clerk,  George  C. 
Washburne;  treasurer,  James  E.  Sheple;  auditors,  G.  E. 
Moody,  M.  O.  Evans,  George  W.  Kennedy;  chief  engineer, 
G.  E.  Moody;  first  assistant,  Joseph  Somerville;  second  assis- 
tant, Edward  Farrar;  wardens,  G.  E.  Moody,  E.  Towne,  George 
C.  Demmon,  Charles  Keene. 

For  the  year  1887  the  village  officers  were:  President,  C.  F. 
Clough;  trustees,  M.  O.  Evans,  Curtis  N.  Arms;  clerk,  George 
C.  Washburne;  treasurer,  J.  E.  Sheple;  collector,  S.  H.  Stowell; 
auditors,  G.  E.  Moody,  J.  A.  Burleigh,  C.  D.  Robinson;  chief 
engineer,  G.  E.  Moody;  assistants,  C.  D.  Robinson,  Edward 


Farrar;  wardens,  E.  Farrar,  John  Carroll,  Charles  Keene,  G.  C. 

For  the  year  1888  the  village  officers  were :  President,  C.  N. 
Arms;  trustees,  J.  A.  Burleigh,  George  W.  Atkins,  C.  E.  Wy- 
man;  collector,  W.  B.  Clark;  auditors,  G.  E.  Moody,  L.  H. 
Haines,  H.  Hazeltine;  chief  engineer,  M.  O.  Evans;  assistants, 
C.  D.  Robinson,  Edward  Farrar;  wardens,  Edward  Farrar, 
John  Carroll,  Charles  Keene,  G.  C.  Demmon;  clerk,  G.  C. 

For  the  year  1889  the  village  officers  were :  President,  C.  F. 
Clough;  clerk,  G.  C.  Washburne;  trustees,  James  A.  Burleigh, 
J.  E.  Sheple;  treasurer,  C.  E.  Wyman;  collector,  W.  B.  Clark; 
auditors,  J.  W.  Moody,  H.  Hazeltine,  C.  N.  Arms;  chief  engi- 
neer, M.  O.  Evans;  assistants,  C.  D.  Robinson,  Ed.  Farrar; 
wardens,  Ed.  Farrar,  Charles  Keene,  Charles  H.  Lease,  G.  C. 

For  1890  the  village  officers  were:  President,  Frank  H. 
Atherton;  trustees,  George  W.  Atkins,  John  C.  Griggs,  C.  E. 
Wyman;  treasurer,  George  C.  Washburne;  clerk,  W.  B.  Clark; 
collector,  C.  N.  Arms;  auditors,  J.  W.  Moody,  C.  F.  Clough; 
chief  engineer,  C.  D.  Robinson;  assistants,  Edward  Farrar, 
William  Deal ;  wardens,  Edward  Farrar,  Charles  Keene,  C.  H. 
Lease,  G.  C.  Demmon. 

For  1 89 1  the  village  officers  were:  President,  Frank  H- 
Atherton;  trustees,  George  W.  Atkins,  J.  C.  Griggs;  clerk, 
George  W.  Morse;  treasurer,  C.  E.  Wyman;  collector,  H. 
Sheple;  auditors,  C.  N.  Arms,  J.  W.  Moody,  C.  F.  Clough; 
chief  engineer,  C.  D.  Robinson;  assistants,  William  Deal,  E.  H. 
Farrar;  wardens,  Charles  Lease,  J.  H  Carroll,  E.  H.  Farrar, 
G.  C.  Demmon. 

For  1892  the  village  officers  were:  President,  William 
Cooley;  trustees,  John  J.  King,  George  H.  Dale;  clerk,  George 
W.  Morse;  treasurer,  C.  E.  Wyman;  collector,  H.  S.  Sheple; 
auditors,  G.  E.  Moody,  George  W.  Randall,  C.  F.  Clough; 
wardens,  Edward  Farrar,  George  C.  Demmon,  William  Deal, 
M.  O.  Evans.  Vacancies  occurring  in  the  offices  of  president 
and  treasurer,  at  an  election  held  at  a  special  village  meeting 

PERIOD   1 876-1900  165 

January  22,  1892,  the  vacancies  were  filled  by  electing  G.  E. 
Moody,  president,  and  George  W.  Morse,  treasurer. 

The  village  officers  for  1893  were:  President,  George  H.  Dale; 
trustees,  John  C.  Griggs,  Doctor  D.  D.  Grout;  clerk,  George 
W.  Morse;  treasurer,  same;  collector,  H.  S.  Sheple;  auditors, 
C.  F.  Clough,  G.  E.  Moody,  M.  O.  Evans;  chief  engineer, 
Edward  Farrar;  assistants,  Erwin  Cooley,  L.  H.  Atherton; 
wardens,  C.  D.  Robinson,  C.  S.  Wrisley,  J.  C.  Griggs,  H.  E. 

The  village  officers  for  1894  were:  President,  C.  D.  Rob- 
inson; trustees,  J.  W.  Moody,  William  Cooley;  clerk  and 
treasurer,  George  W.  Morse;  collector,  H.  S.  Sheple;  auditors, 
C.  F.  Clough,  J.  A.  Burleigh,  G.  E.  Moody;  chief  engineer, 
Edward  Farrar;  assistants,  Erwin  Cooley,  L.  H.  Atherton; 
wardens,  J.  H.  Carroll,  Edward  Farrar,  Charles  Bailey,  James 

For  1895  the  village  officers  were:  President,  George  W. 
Randall;  trustees,  O.  E.  Scott,  G.  E.  Moody;  clerk,  J.J.  Colby; 
treasurer,  H.  S.  Sheple;  collector,  C.  C.  Graves;  auditors, 
J.  S.  Batchelder,  Henry  James,  L.  H.  Atherton;  chief  engineer, 
Edward  Farrar;  assistants,  Erwin  Cooley,  L.  H.  Atherton; 
wardens,  Joseph  Hutchinson,  Edward  Farrar,  J.  C.  Griggs, 
G.  W.  Randall. 

For  1896  the  village  officers  were:  President,  C.  F.  Clough; 
trustees,  H.  D.  Brown,  John  Deal;  clerk,  J.J.  Colby;  treasurer, 
George  W.  Morse;  collector,  C.  C.  Graves;  auditors,  H.  James, 
L.  H.  Haines,  Charles  Keene;  chief  engineer,  Edward  Farrar; 
assistants,  Erwin  Cooley,  L.  H.  Atherton;  wardens,  Seth 
Jones,  G.  E.  Moody,  Joseph  Hutchinson,  James  Somerville. 

For  1897  the  village  officers  were:  President,  J.  A.  Bur- 
leigh; trustees,  H.  D.  Brown,  Edward  Farrar;  clerk,  J.  J. 
Colby;  treasurer,  J.  W.  Moody;  collector,  C.  C.  Graves; 
auditors,  G.  E.  Moody,  G.  W.  Randall,  W.  V.  Bryan;  chief 
engineer,  Edward  Farrar;  assistants,  L.  H.  Atherton,  Erwin 
Cooley;  wardens,  Joseph  Hutchinson,  James  Somerville, 
Charles  Keene,  Will  Seabury. 

For  1898  the  village  officers  were:  President,  James  A. 
Burleigh;  trustees,  H.  D.  Brown,  Edward  Farrar;  clerk,  J.  J. 


Colby;  treasurer,  J.  C.  Farrar;  auditors,  G.  E.  Moody,  M. 
O.  Evans,  S.  W.  Jones;  chief  engineer,  Edw.  Farrar;  assistants, 
Erwin  Cooley,  James  A.  Hattie;  wardens,  Joseph  Hutchinson, 
S.  W.  Jones,  P.  G.  Wright,  W.  H.  Seabury ;  water  commissioner, 
for  three  years,  James  A.  Burleigh. 

For  1899  the  village  officers  were :  President,  G.  E.  Moody; 
trustees,  G.  B.  Evans,  T.  O'Neil;  clerk,  J.  J.  Colby;  treasurer, 
J.  C.  Farrar;  collector,  C.  C.  Graves;  auditors,  S.  W.  Jones, 
W.  V.  Bryan,  CM.  Griffith;  chief  engineer,  W.  H.  Carroll; 
assistants,  John  Deal,  James  Hattie;  wardens,  S.  W.  Jones, 
Charles  Keene,  P.  G.  Wright,  Joseph  Hutchinson;  water 
commissioner,  for  three  years,  G.  E.  Moody. 

For  1900  the  village  officers  were:  President,  G.  E.  Moody; 
trustees,  W.  J.  Boyce,  O.  L.  Ayres;  treasurer,  J.  C.  Farrar; 
collector,  C.  C.  Graves;  auditors,  George  W.  Morse,  George 
H.  Dale,  George  W.  Randall;  chief  engineer,  W.  H.  Carroll; 
assistants,  Erwin  Cooley,  John  Deal;  wardens,  Olin  King, 
S.  W.  Jones,  P.  G.  Wright,  Joseph  Hutchinson. 

For  1901  the  village  officers  were:  President,  W.  J.  Boyce; 
trustees,  Erw^n  Cooley,  John  Deal;  clerk,  J.  K.  Fullerton; 
treasurer,  George  H.  Dale;  collector,  C.  C.  Graves;  auditors, 
G.  E.  Moody,  George  W.  Morse,  W.  V.  Bryan;  chief  engineer, 
W.  H.  Carroll ;  assistants,  Olin  King,  Grant  O.  Russell ;  wardens, 
Joseph  Hutchinson,  S.  W.  Jones,  J.  F.  Somerville,  Heman 
Morse;  water  commissioner,  for  three  years,  H.  D.  Brown. 

For  1902  the  village  officers  were:  President  Charles  B. 
Clark;  trustees,  T.  B.  Crossett,  John  Deal;  clerk,  James  K. 
Fullerton;  treasurer,  G.  H.  Dale;  collector,  C.  C.  Graves; 
auditors,  G.  E.  Moody,  George  W.  Morse,  George  W.  Ran- 
dall; chief  engineer,  Olin  King;  assistants,  C.  R.  Lyman,  S. 
L.  Barber;  wardens,  Joseph  Hutchinson,  S.  W.  Jones,  H. 
L.  Morse,  W.  H.  Seabury;  water  commissioner,  for  three 
years,  G.  E.  Moody. 

For  1903  the  village  officers  were:  President,  Charles  B. 
Clark;  trustees,  W.  B.  Clark,  W.  E.  Thompson;  clerk,  James 
K.  Fullerton;  treasurer,  G.  H.  Dale;  collector,  C.  C.  Graves; 
auditors,  George  W.  Randall,  C.  D.  Griffith,  George  W. 
Morse;  chief  engineer,  Olin  King;  assistants.  Grant  O.  Russell, 

PERIOD    1876-1900  167 

Frank  Towne;  wardens,  S.  W.  Jones,  Joseph  Hutchinson, 
Frank  Towne,  Frank  Williams;  water  commissioner,  for  three 
years,  Edward  Farrar. 

For  1904  the  village  officers  were:  President,  Edward 
Farrar;  trustees,  G.  E.  Moody,  M.  E.  Davis;  clerk,  James  K. 
Fullerton;  treasurer,  G.  H.  Dale;  collector,  C.  C.  Graves; 
auditors,  C.  D.  Griffith,  J.  S.  Batchelder,  G.  H.  Dale;  chief 
engineer,  Olin  King;  assistants,  S.  VV.  Guptil,  Grant  O.  Rus- 
sell; wardens,  Joseph  Hutchinson,  James  F.  Somerville,  O. 
L.  Ayers,  Frank  Williams;  water  commissioner,  H.  D. 

For  1905  the  village  officers  were:  President,  George  W. 
Morse;  trustees,  Charles  Keene,  O.  L.  Ayres;  clerk,  James 
K.  Fullerton;  treasurer,  George  H.  Dale;  collector,  C.  C. 
Graves;  auditors,  C.  D.  Griffith,  James  K.  Fullerton,  F.  L. 
Knight;  chief  engineer,  Olin  King;  assistants,  Frank  Towne, 
J,  F.  Somerville;  wardens,  Joseph  Hutchinson,  O.  L.  Ayres, 
F.  E.  Williams,  Fred  Towne. 

For  1906  the  village  officers  were:  President,  George  W. 
Morse;  trustees,  L.  J.  Roberts,  O.  L.  Ayers;  clerk,  James  K. 
Fullerton;  treasurer,  G.  H.  Dale;  collector,  C.  C.  Graves; 
auditors,  F.  L.  Knight,  H.  D.  Brown,  C.  H.  Haines;  chief 
engineer,  Olin  King;  assistants,  Frank  E.  Towne,  Erwin 
Cooley;  wardens,  C.  I.  Hatch,  Joseph  Hutchinson,  O.  L. 
Ayers,  J.  F.  Somerville;  water  commissioner,  for  three  years, 
D.  W.  Cooley. 

For  1907  the  village  officers  were:  President,  C.  C.  Graves; 
trustees,  O.  L.  Ayers,  W.  H.  Berdan;  clerk,  James  K.  Fullerton; 
treasurer,  G.  H.  Dale;  collector,  G.  S.  Blaisdell;  auditors,  C. 
H.  Haines,  H.  D.  Brown,  F.  L.  Knight;  chief  engineer,  Olin 
King;  assistants,  Frank  E.  Towne,  F.  C.  Evans;  wardens, 
C.  H.  Haines,  H.  D.  Blakely,  C.  F.  Bailey,  E.  E.  Campbell; 
water  commissioner,  for  three  years,  H.  D.  Brown. 

For  1908  the  village  officers  were:  President,  C.  C.  Graves; 
trustees,  O.  L.  Ayers,  W.  H.  Berdan;  clerk,  James  K.  Fullerton; 
collector,  G.  S.  Blaisdell;  auditors,  H.  D.  Brown,  L.  C.  Moody, 
F.  L.  Knight;  chief  engineer,  Olin  King;  assistants,  A.  E. 
Edwards,  Guy  Scott;  wardens,  F.  E.  Williams,  Arthur  John- 


son,  J.  A.  Foster,  H.  L.  Morse;  water  commissioner,  for  three 
years,  Charles  Keene;  treasurer,  E.  E.  Joslyn. 

For  1909  the  village  officers  were:  President,  Harry  C. 
Whitehill;  trustees,  E,  E.  Campbell,  F.  C.  Luce;  clerk,  James 
K.  Fullerton;  treasurer,  E.  E.  Joslyn;  collector,  W.  J.  O'Neill; 
auditors,  F.  L.  Knight,  L.  C.  Moody,  C,  C.  Graves;  chief 
engineer,  Frank  E.  Towne;  assistants,  B.  A.  Lavelle,  Horace 
J.  Tatro;  wardens,   Henry  Carpenter,  W.  J.   Redmond,   B, 

F.  Atherton,  Frank  Williams;  water  commissioner,  for  three 
years,  W.  H.  Berdan. 

For  1910  the  village  officers  were:  President,  Harry  C. 
Whitehill;  trustees,  E.  E.  Campbell,  F.  C.  Luce;  clerk,  James 
K.  Fullerton;  collector,  W.  J.  O'Neill;  auditors,  F.  L.  Knight, 

G.  H.  Dale,  W.  B.  Clark;  chief  engineer,  Olin  King;  assistants, 
Guy  C.  Scott,  W.  N,  Gilbert;  wardens,  Olin  King,  Guy  C. 
Scott,  W.  N.  Gilbert,  S.  W.  Guptil;  water  commissioner,  for 
three  years,  G.  E.  Moody;  treasurer,  E.  E.  Joslyn. 

For  191 1  the  village  officers  were:  President,  E.  E.  Campbell; 
trustees,  A.  J.  Kelley,  F.  W.  Powers;  clerk,  James  K.  Fullerton; 
treasurer,  E.  E.  Joslyn;  collector,  W.  J.  O'Neill;  auditors, 
G.  H.  Dale,  F.  L.  Knight,  M.  H.  Moody;  chief  engineer, 
Olin  King;  assistants,  Guy  C.  Scott,  W.  N.  Gilbert;  water 
commissioner,  for  three  years,  Morris  Daley;  wardens,  Olin 
King,  Guy  C.  Scott,  W.  N.  Gilbert,  S.  W.  Guptil. 

For  1912  the  village  officers  were:  President,  F.  C.  Luce; 
trustees,  D.  T.  Harvey,  F.  C.  Lamb;  clerk,  James  K.  Fullerton; 
treasurer,  E.  E.  Joslyn;  collector,  W.  J.  O'Neill;  auditors, 
E.  E.  Campbell,  G.  H.  Dale,  F.  L.  Knight;  chief  engineer, 
Patrick  Grace;  assistants,  Guy  C.  Scott,  W.  N.  Gilbert;  water 
commissioners,  O.  L.  Ayers,  for  two  years,  W.  H.  Berdan, 
for  three  years. 

For  1913  the  village  officers  were:  President,  F.  C.  Luce; 
trustees,  D.  T.  Harvey,  F.  C.  Lamb;  clerk,  James  K.  Fullerton; 
treasurer,  E.  E.  Joslyn;  collector,  G.  S.  Blaisdell;  auditors, 
G.  H.  Dale,  F,  L.  Knight,  E.  E.  Campbell;  chief  engineer, 
Olin  King;  assistants,  James  Dickie,  W.  F.  Gilbert;  wardens, 
W.  F.  Gilbert,  Guy  C.  Scott,  Olin  King,  James  Dickie;  water 
commissioner,  for  three  years,  G.  E.  Moody. 

PERIOD    1876-1900  169 

For  1914  the  village  officers  were:  President,  V.  L.  Per- 
kins; trustees,  C.  D.  Swasey,  J.  A.  Foster;  clerk,  James  K. 
Fullerton;  collector,  G.  S.  Blaisdell;  auditors,  M.  L.  Thibault, 
Earl  Boyce,  C.  C.  Graves;  chief  engineer,  Olin  King;  assist- 
ants, Guy  Scott,  W.  F.  Gilbert;  wardens,  Frank  Williams, 
Olin  King,  Guy  C.  Scott,  W.  N.  Gilbert;  water  commissioner, 
for  three  years,  O.  L.  Ayers. 

For  191 5  the  village  officers  were :  President,  C.  D.  Swasey; 
trustees,  Jesse  A.  Foster,  F.  W.  Powers;  clerk,  James  K. 
Fullerton;  treasurer,  E.  E.  Joslyn;  collector,  G.  S.  Blaisdell; 
auditors,  C.  C.  Graves,  G.  H.  Dale,  E.  E.  Campbell;  chief 
engineer,  Olin  King;  assistants,  W.  N.  Gilbert,  Dan  Guyette; 
water  commissioner,  for  three  years,  W.  H.  Berdan. 

The  quarter  century  of  1 875-1900  marked  the  country's 
great  electrical  development  and  commercial  and  industrial 
application  of  electricity  to  the  needs  of  the  times.  The 
first  telephone  in  Waterbury  was  installed  by  Colonel  Andrew 
C.  Brown,  late  of  Montpelier,  in  the  residence  and  tannery  of 
C,  C.  Warren.  About  1882  a  toll  line  was  built  from  Mont- 
pelier to  Waterbury  and  a  telephone  was  installed  in  the  store 
of  M.  O.  Evans.  In  1884  a  small  exchange  was  established  in 
this  store  and  all  lines  were  then  connected  with  the  exchange. 

William  Paul  Dillingham  was  born  in  Waterbury,  December 
12,  1843,  son  of  Paul  and  Julia  (Carpenter)  Dillingham.  Be- 
sides the  public  schools,  he  attended  Newbury  Seminary  and 
Kimball  Union  Academy  at  Meriden,  New  Hampshire.  He 
holds  the  degree  of  LL.  D.,  both  from  Norwich  University 
and  Middlebury  College,  and  that  of  A.  M.  from  the  Univer- 
sity of  Vermont.  He  was  a  law  student  in  the  office  of  his 
brother-in-law,  Honorable  Matthew  H.  Carpenter  of  Mil- 
waukee, Wisconsin,  and  afterwards  in  the  office  of  his  father  in 
Waterbury.  He  married  Miss  Mary  Ellen  Shipman  of  Lisbon, 
New  Hampshire.  One  son,  Paul  Shipman  is  now  a  resident 
of  Montpelier,  except  during  the  summer  months  when  he, 
with  his  family,  occupies  the  Dillingham  home  on  Blush  Hill. 

William  Paul  Dillingham  was  admitted  to  the  Vermont  bar 



in  1867,  and  maintained  an  office  at  Waterbury  until  1890. 
He  was  for  many  years  in  partnership  with  his  father,  and  after 
the  latter's  retirement  he  practiced  his  profession  in  an  in- 
dividual capacity.  In  1890  at  the  close  of  his  term  as  Gover- 
nor of  Vermont  he  formed  a  partnership  with  the  Honorable 
Hiram  A.  Huse  of  Montpelier  under  the  firm  name  of  Dilling- 
ham &  Huse,  which  was  afterwards  enlarged  by  the  admission 
of  Honorable  Fred  A.  Howland,  which  partnership  continued 
until  the  death  of  Mr.  Huse  in  1902.  Since  that  time  Mr. 
Dillingham's  activities  have  been  connected  with  public 
life.  He  was  state's  attorney  of  Washington  County  in 
1 872-1 876;  secretary  of  civil  and  military  affairs,  1874- 
1876;  town  representative  from  Waterbury  in  1876,  1884 
and  1885;  state  senator  in  1878  and  1880;  state  tax  commis- 
sioner in  1 882-1 888;  Governor  of  Vermont,  1 888-1 890. 
He  was  elected  to  the  United  States  Senate  to  fill  the  vacancy 
occasioned  by  the  death  of  Honorable  Justin  S.  Morrill, 
October  18,  1900,  and  has  been  reelected  by  the  Legislature 
since — to  succeed  himself  in  1902  and  1908,  and  again  by  the 
people  November  3,  1914. 

Mr.  Dillingham's  career  as  a  public  speaker  was  determined 
largely  by  his  election  to  the  office  of  state's  attorney.  It  had 
been  his  intention  as  a  lawyer  to  devote  himself  to  office  prac- 
tice and  to  leave  advocacy  to  other  members  of  his  firm.  Like 
many  another  lawyer,  he  discovered  that  his  constant  court 
work  as  state's  attorney  developed  an  unsuspected  taste  for 
advocacy,  giving  him  an  impulse  along  the  lines  of  forensic 
work.  One  of  the  important  prosecutions  of  his  term  was 
that  of  a  gang  of  Barre  Bank  burglars,  resulting  in  the  trial, 
conviction  and  sentence  to  Windsor  of  the  leader  of  the  gang, 
after  many  obstructive  and  dilatory  legal  moves  in  New  York 
City  involving  a  series  of  hearings  on  habeas  corpus  writs 
sued  out  for  the  purpose  of  resisting  the  respondent's  extradi- 
tion into  Vermont.  These  obstructive  tactics  in  New  York 
were  eloquent  of  the  difficulties  entrenched  crime  could  place 
in  the  way  of  due  administration  of  justice  in  those  days  of 
pull  and  public  graft. 

In  his  first  message  Governor  William  P.  Dillingham  dealt 

PERIOD    1876-1900  171 

with  the  usual  overcrowded  condition  of  the  State  Reform 
School  and  also  that  of  the  Vermont  Asylum  at  Brattleboro. 
Indeed,  the  ratio  of  increase  of  those  demanding  admission 
had  grown  so  great  as  to  call  for  immediate  relief.  The 
Governor  advocated  "the  erection  of  a  state  asylum  at  some 
convenient  point  capable  of  accommodating  a  part  or  all  of 
the  insane  poor  and  such  private  patients  as  may  be  desired, 
and  upon  a  plan  which  will  permit  of  additions  or  extensions 
as  the  needs  of  the  state  may  require."  The  prohibitory 
liquor  law  had  proven  so  far  ineffective,  by  reason  of  lax 
enforcement,  that  its  operation  had  become  farcical  in  many 
respects.  The  Governor  asked  pertinently  in  his  message 
whether  the  time  had  not  come  when  a  sentence  of  imprison- 
ment should  follow  the  first  conviction  under  the  law  and 
when  a  provision  of  that  character  would  do  more  to  stop 
sales  than  any  other  measure  yet  proposed. 

In  his  valedictory  message  to  the  General  Assembly  at  the 
October  session  of  1890,  Governor  Dillingham  dealt  with  such 
subjects  as  the  education  of  deaf  and  dumb,  blind  and  feeble- 
minded children,  the  agricultural  college  fund,  the  work  of  the 
commissioner  of  agricultural  and  manufacturing  interests,  the 
chancering  of  bonds  (a  practice  under  which  systematic 
abuses  had  grown  up  in  the  treatment  of  bond  forfeitures  in 
liquor  law  violations),  the  Nuisance  Act,  education  and 
Swedish  colonization. 

The  remarkably  interesting  experiment  had  been  inaugu- 
rated of  inducing  the  best  class  of  Swedish  immigrants  to 
come  to  Vermont  and  settle  on  what  were  then  known  as 
unoccupied  or  abandoned  farms.  There  had  been  a  steady 
depreciation  for  many  years  in  farm  values.  Vermont  in 
common  with  other  Eastern  states  had  suffered  from  a  steady 
exodus  of  young  men  who  were  attracted  away,  either  by  the 
lure  of  commercial  or  industrial  pursuits  in  manufacturing 
centers  or  large  cities  or  the  call  of  a  semi-adventurous  and 
wholly  speculative  career  in  the  West.  Many  back  or  hill- 
farms  were  either  unoccupied  or  indifferently  cultivated, 
though  the  lands  were  of  good  quality  and  not  worn  out. 
Emulating  the  example  of  their  neighbors,  the  American-born 


sons  of  foreign  parents,  who  had  settled  in  groups  here  and 
there  in  the  back  towns,  also  began  to  look  farther  afield  than 
Vermont.  It  finally  came  to  the  pass  where  some  systematic 
scheme  of  repopulating  the  sparsely  settled  farm  communities 
should  be  put  into  immediate  operation.  A  number  of  Swedes 
were  induced  by  the  State  to  settle  in  the  vicinity  of  Wilming- 
ton, Weston  and  Peru.  These  were  of  the  thrifty  well-to-do 
class,  having  sufficient  means  to  make  advance  payments  on 
their  farms.  The  Governor  recommended  a  patient,  careful 
and  candid  study  of  the  problem  presented  by  the  commis- 
sioner of  whether  the  experiment  so  auspiciously  begun  should 
be  further  carried  out  by  state  aid.  A  measure  for  this  purpose 
appropriating  a  sum  of  money  was  deferred  action  until  the 
closing  hours  of  the  session,  when  it  was  defeated. 

It  was  in  May,  1889,  the  occasion  of  the  celebration  of  the 
centennial  of  Washington's  inaugural  in  New  York,  that  the 
magnificent  parade  of  State  and  Federal  troops  was  held. 
The  National  Guard  of  Vermont,  with  Governor  Dillingham 
riding  a  spirited  mare,  led  the  column  of  Vermonters.  The 
Kentucky  troops  followed  Vermont's  in  the  order  of  disposi- 
tion, with  Governor  Simon  Buckner  riding  ahead.  Upon 
breaking  ranks,  the  old  Confederate  chieftain  looked  the 
Vermonters  over  admiringly  and  expressed  to  Governor  Dill- 
ingham a  naive  curiosity  as  to  how  the  Green  Mountain  lads 
came  by  their  great  stature  and  inquired  if  it  were  not  due  to 
drinking  lime  water! 

Since  Senator  Dillingham  became  a  senator  of  the  United 
States,  he  has  served  for  a  long  time  as  chairman  of  the  Com- 
mittee on  Immigration,  the  Committee  on  Privileges  and 
Elections,  and  the  Committee  on  the  University  of  the  United 
States,  and  as  a  member  of  the  important  committees  on  the 
Judiciary,  Foreign  Relations,  Appropriations,  District  of 
Columbia,  and  Territories.  His  long  service  both  as  chair- 
man and  member  of  the  Committee  on  Immigration  has 
given  him  an  exceptional  knowledge  of  the  problems  connected 
with  foreign  immigration  so  that  when  in  1907  Congress  au- 
thorized an  exhaustive  examination  of  the  whole  question  he 
was  made  chairman  of  the  commission,  which  consisted  of 

PERIOD    1876-1900  173 

three  senators,  three  representatives,  and  three  gentlemen 
selected  from  civil  life.  This  investigation  covered  a  period 
of  three  years,  and  embraced  every  phase  of  the  subject.  It 
necessitated  travel  throughout  a  large  portion  of  Europe  and  a 
special  trip  to  the  Hawaiian  Islands,  where  the  labor  problems 
are  important.  The  printed  reports  of  the  commission  are 
contained  in  forty-two  volumes.  His  speeches  upon  this 
question  delivered  in  the  Senate  from  time  to  time  are  too 
numerous  to  be  mentioned  and  too  comprehensive  for  analy- 
sis in  this  place,  but  they,  in  connection  with  addresses  which 
he  has  delivered  in  some  of  the  larger  cities  of  the  United 
States,  have  done  much  to  educate  the  public  mind  and  to 
shape  its  opinion  upon  this  question.  In  fact.  Senator  Dilling- 
ham has  an  international  reputation  for  his  knowledge  of 
immigration  questions,  and  his  reports  and  speeches  are  widely 
quoted  as  authentic. 

As  a  member  of  the  Committee  on  Territories,  Senator 
Dillingham  was  a  member  of  the  sub-committee  which  inves- 
tigated the  conditions  in  the  territories  of  Arizona,  New 
Mexico,  and  Oklahoma,  and  he  took  active  part  in  the  debates 
upon  the  question  of  their  admission  to  the  Union.  He 
strongly  urged  the  admission  of  Oklahoma,  but  recommended 
delay  in  respect  to  the  other  two. 

As  chairman  of  a  sub-committee  of  the  Committee  on  Ter- 
ritories he  visited  Alaska,  extending  his  journey  the  whole 
length  of  the  Ukon  river,  2,300  miles,  at  the  mouth  of  which 
the  committee  was  met  by  a  revenue  cutter  and  a  visit  was 
made  to  Nome,  the  Pribilof  Islands,  the  home  of  the  fur  seal 
herds,  to  the  Aleutian  Islands,  and  to  all  of  the  Pacific  ports 
of  Alaska.  The  committee  were  for  over  six  weeks  beyond 
the  reach  of  communications;  their  report,  drafted  by  Senator 
Dillingham,  so  completely  covered  all  legislative  action  that  it 
was  accepted  as  the  basis  of  Alaskan  legislation  for  many 
years.  As  a  result  of  their  investigation  of  the  fur  seal  herds 
upon  the  Pribilof  Islands,  and  of  their  recommendations  to 
Congress  and  to  the  Department  of  State,  a  treaty  between 
the  United  States,  Great  Britain,  and  Russia,  has  been  entered 
into  for  the  protection  and  preservation  of  the  fur  seals  in 


Behring  Sea,  and  legislation  has  been  adopted  to  carry  the  same 
into  operation. 

The  limits  of  this  sketch  render  it  impossible,  even  if  ad- 
visable to  refer  in  detail  to  the  service  of  Senator  Dillingham 
in  the  Senate.  It  is  sufficient  to  say  that  as  a  member  of  the 
Committee  on  the  District  of  Columbia  he  has  had  an  active 
part  in  shaping  all  the  legislation  both  for  the  Government  of 
the  District  and  for  that  remarkable  development  of  Washing- 
ton along  all  lines  which  are  fast  making  it  one  of  the  most 
beautiful  capital  cities  of  the  world.  In  his  service  as  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Committee  on  the  Judiciary,  he  has  had  to  deal 
with  questions  both  intricate  and  important,  and,  as  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Committee  on  Appropriations,  with  problems  which 
readily  suggest  themselves  to  every  intelligent  reader. 

As  a  Senator  from  Vermont,  and  having  New  England's 
interests  especially  at  heart,  he  stoutly  opposed  President 
Taft's  scheme  for  reciprocity  with  Canada,  and  in  the  face  of 
much  criticism  he  was  equally  strong  in  his  support  of  the 
protective  principle  in  tarilY  legislation. 

The  people  of  Vermont  will  not  soon  forget  the  judicial 
stand  taken  by  Senator  Dillingham  as  chairman  of  the  Com- 
mittee on  Privileges  and  Elections  in  its  consideration  of  the 
Lorimer  case,  nor  his  able,  forceful  and  lawyer-like  r6sume  of 
the  case  in  the  Senate,  July  6,  8  and  9,  1912.  Because  Mr. 
Dillingham  disregarded  popular  clamor  and  confined  himself 
to  a  consideration  of  all  the  facts,  as  brought  out  in  the  evidence 
taken  by  the  committee,  he  was  subjected  to  some  criticism, 
which,  however,  was  only  ephemeral.  The  result  of  the  re- 
hearing, however  disappointing  to  the  courageous  few  who 
resisted  popular  clamor,  in  so  sense  changed  the  material  facts. 

William  P.  Dillingham  much  prefers  the  peaceful  village 
life  of  Waterbury  to  the  hurly-burly  of  cities;  his  love  for  his 
native  town  amounts  to  almost  an  obsession.  He  takes  de- 
light in  participating  in  town  affairs  and  is  known  and  re- 
garded by  his  townsmen  as  one  whose  interest  in  the  minutest 
matters  affecting  the  town  is  always  keen  and  suggestive.  He 
might  well  be  pardoned  for  the  pride  he  feels  in  having  been 
instrumental   in   the  establishment   and    up-building   of   the 

PERIOD    1 876-1900  175 

State  Hospital,  the  magnificent  high  school,  and  in  the  long- 
worked-for  adoption  and  building  of  the  village  water  system 
together  with  C.  D.  Robinson  and  G.  E.  Moody.  He  it  was 
who  advocated  the  first  concrete  sidewalks  for  the  village,  and 
it  was  largely  through  his  efforts,  assisted  by  those  of  Justin 
W.  Moody  and  Reverend  W.  R.  Davenport,  fellow  commit- 
teemen, that  the  fine  new  Methodist  Church  was  planned 
and  built.  It  will  long  be  remembered  of  him  that  no 
public  preferment  or  distinction  could  ever  displace  Water- 
bury  from  his  solicitous  affection  and  care.  This  is  his  home 
and  here  is  where  he  loves  to  be. 

In  accordance  with  the  recommendations  of  Governor 
William  P.  Dillingham  and  pursuant  to  the  action  of  the 
Legislature  a  site  for  the  Vermont  State  Hospital  for  the  Insane 
was  purchased  in  1889  from  Mr.  C.  C.  Warren.  The  first 
board  of  trustees  were  W.  H.  Giddings,  M.  D.,  Bakersfield, 
Vermont;  Don  D.  Grout,  M.  D.,  Stowe,  Vermont;  H.  D.  Hob- 
son,  Brighton,  Vermont.  The  superintendents  in  order  were 
W.  E.  Sylvester,  M.  D.,  appointed  in  1891  and  served  a  little 
less  than  one  year;  W.  H.  Giddings,  M.  D.,  served  four  years 
and  four  months;  Frank  Page,  M.  D.,  followed  Doctor  Gid- 
dings and  served  two  and  one-half  years.  Doctor  Marcello 
Hutchinson  followed  Doctor  Page  and  served  six  years  and 
four  months,  retiring  in  August,  1905.  Don  D.  Grout,  M.  D., 
the  present  superintendent,  followed  Doctor  Hutchinson  and 
was  appointed  September  6,  1905.  A  disastrous  fire  at  the 
hospital  occurred  December  24,  1909,  in  which  the  roof  of 
Hall  No.  3  was  destroyed,  and  Halls  Nos.  i,  2  and  3  were 
rendered  temporarily  unfit  for  use.  The  present  medical  staff 
consists  of  Don  D.  Grout,  M.  D.,  superintendent;  W.  L.  Was- 
son,  M.  D.,  assistant  physician  and  pathologist;  E.  A.  Stanley, 
M.  D.,  second  assistant  physician;  T.  J.  Allen,  M.  D.,  third 
assistant  physician.  The  number  of  employes  is  147;  the 
number  of  patients  at  present  is  768 ;  of  these  434  are  males  and 
334  females.  The  hospital  farm  of  seven  hundred  acres  is  in 
charge  of  Farmer  H.  C.  Douglass. 

Doctor  Don  De  Forest  Grout,  superintendent  of  the  Ver- 
mont State  Hospital  for  the  Insane,  at  Waterbury,  is  from  old 


New  England  stock,  the  English  founder  of  the  family,  Captain 
John  Grout  coming  to  Watertown,  Massachusetts,  in  1640. 
He  was  allowed  upon  petition  of  the  citizens  of  Sudbury  to 
"practice  the  mistery  of  chirudgery."  Of  the  fifth  generation 
in  the  direct  line  was  Don  Grout,  who  settled  in  Elmore,  Ver- 
mont, and  died  in  1841.  Major  Luman  M.  Grout,  the  father 
of  the  subject  of  this  sketch,  was  the  son  of  Don  Grout  of  El- 
more. Major  Grout  was  born  at  Elmore  March  8,  1823,  and 
died  in  Waterbury  December  9,  191 3.  In  1847  he  enlisted 
in  Company  D,  a  Vermont  company  of  the  Ninth  Regiment, 
United  States  Infantry,  for  service  in  the  Mexican  War.  He 
received  his  appointment  as  corporal  at  Fort  Adams  and  was 
in  the  battles  of  Contreras  and  Cheresbusco,  where  he  was 
severely  wounded  and  carried  from  the  field  to  a  hospital. 
After  his  honorable  discharge  from  the  army  he  represented 
the  town  of  Elmore  in  the  Legislature  in  1 857-1 858.  At  the 
breaking  out  of  the  Rebellion,  he  first  did  recruiting  and  drill- 
ing duty.  His  volunteers  formed  Company  A  of  the  Eighth 
Vermont  Regiment  of  Volunteer  Infantry.  He  was  elected 
captain  of  the  company  and  duly  commissioned.  He  took 
part  in  the  taking  of  New  Orleans  and  was  promoted  to  his 
majority  to  succeed  Colonel  Charles  Dillingham  December 
24,  1862.  After  the  war  he  lived  in  Elmore,  Montpelier, 
Stoneham,  Massachusetts,  and  finally  returned  to  the  home  of 
his  son,  Doctor  Grout,  in  Waterbury,  where  he  spent  his  last 
years.  He  was  the  last  survivor  of  the  Mexican  War  who 
went  from  Vermont  and  who  also  served  in  the  War  of  the 

Doctor  Don  D.  Grout  was  born  in  Morrisville,  Vermont,  April 
24,  1849.  He  was  educated  at  the  People's  Academy,  Morris- 
ville, and  Dartmouth  College.  He  received  his  professional 
training  at  the  Medical  School  of  the  University  of  Vermont, 
and  was  graduated  there  with  the  degree  of  M.  D.  in  1872. 
He  was  successively  an  interne  at  Kings  County  Hospital, 
Brooklyn,  New  York,  a  general  practitioner  in  Stowe,  Vermont, 
and  Waterbury.  He  has  been  surgeon  of  the  Central  Vermont 
Railroad,  health  officer  of  the  town.  United  States  Pension 
examiner  and  consulting  surgeon  of  the  Fanny  Allen  Hospital 

PERIOD    1876-1900  177 

of  Burlington.  A  Republican  in  politics,  he  has  served  as 
superintendent  of  schools  at  Walcott  and  town  representative 
from  Stowe  in  the  Legislature  in  1888.  A  member  of  the 
legislative  committee  on  the  insane,  he  had  charge  of  the 
bill  providing  for  the  present  State  Hospital  for  the  In- 
sane. Subsequently  he  was  placed  in  charge  of  the  con- 
struction of  the  hospital  buildings  and  the  removal  of  patients 
from  Brattleboro  Hospital.  He  served  four  years  as  one 
of  the  three  original  trustees  of  the  State  Hospital,  from 
the  year  1889.  He  also  served  as  trustee  and  chairman 
of  the  school  board  of  the  Village  of  Waterbury  from  1900 
to  1903.  He  was  chairman  of  the  Republican  Town  Com- 
mittee for  twenty  years.  He  was  chairman  of  the  State 
Tuberculosis  Commission  from  1902  to  1905;  delegate  to  the 
Pan-American  Tuberculosis  Congress  in  Baltimore  in  1903. 
He  was  appointed  superintendent  and  treasurer  of  the  Ver- 
mont State  Hospital  for  the  Insane  September  6,  1905,  and 
has  held  the  post  since  that  time.  Doctor  Grout  is  a  member 
of  the  Burlington  Medical  Society,  Chittenden  County  Medical 
Society,  Vermont  State  Medical  Society  and  the  American 
Medical  Association.  He  is  past  master  of  Winooski  Lodge, 
No.  49,  Free  and  Accepted  Masons;  member  of  Waterbury 
Chapter,  No.  24,  Royal  Arch  Masons. 

Doctor  Grout  married  (first  in  1873)  Nettie  A.  Jones  of 
Barre,  who  died  in  1880.  He  married  (second  in  1881)  Angie 
Wilkins  of  Stowe  and  (third  in  1892)  Ida  E.  Morse,  daughter 
of  Daniel  J.  and  Jane  (McKee)  Morse  of  Waterbury.  Chil- 
dren of  his  first  marriage  are  Inez  (Grout)  Lease,  born  August 
27,  1874;  Luman  M.,  born  January  4,  1877  (married).  Chil- 
dren by  second  wife  are  Annie  (Grout)  Gilbert;  Josephine 
(Grout)  Magee,  born  June  11,  1885;  Benjamin  Harrison, 
civil  engineer  with  Southern  New  England  railroad,  born 
September  20,  1888;  Angie  (Grout)  Gale,  born  July  18,  1892. 
Children  by  third  wife  are  Don  Jackson,  born  July  31,  1899, 
and  Frank  Morse,  October  29,  1901. 

Widely  as  Doctor  Grout  is  known  throughout  Vermont  it 
is  doubtful  if  those  not  living  in  Waterbury  and  acquainted 
with  his  work  as  head  of  the  State  Hospital  can  form  an  ade- 


quate  conception  of  the  vast  good  he  has  accomplished.  His 
broad  and  tolerant  sympathies  are  never  vainly  appealed  to. 
A  host  of  rehabilitated  men  can  testify  to  the  salutary  effects 
of  his  intelligent  and  helpful  influence.  Practical  humanity's 
cause  has  no  more  forceful  exponent  in  the  state. 

The  Seabury  family  of  Waterbury,  whose  sketch  is  given 
here,  dates  back  to  John  Seabury  of  Somersetshire,  England. 
He  came  to  Boston  in  1639.  Samuel  Seabury,  his  son,  lived 
in  Duxbury,  Massachusetts,  and  his  son,  John,  born  in  Dux- 
bury  in  1680,  is  believed  to  be  he  who  married  Elizabeth 
Alden,  granddaughter  of  John  Alden,  December  9,  1697, 
and  was  known  later  at  Groton,  Connecticut,  as  "Deacon 
John  Seabury  of  Groton."  His  son,  Samuel,  born  July  8, 
1706,  was  graduated  at  Harvard  and  was  ordained  in  England, 
in  1 73 1,  as  an  Episcopalian  rector.  He  married  Abigail  Mum- 
ford,  a  daughter  of  a  vestryman.  Their  son,  Samuel,  born 
November  30,  1729,  also  was  graduated  at  Harvard  and 
entered  the  church;  he  received  consecration  in  Scotland 
November  17,  1784,  and  was  made  Bishop,  the  first  of  his 
church  in  America.  Caleb,  elder  brother  of  Bishop  Samuel 
Seabury,  was  born  in  February,  1728.  John,  the  son  of 
Caleb,  born  in  1748,  was  the  great-grandfather  of  Mr.  O.  A. 
Seabury  of  Waterbury,  and  was  a  sea-captain. 

On  his  return  to  the  port  of  New  London,  from  a  voyage  to 
the  West  Indies  in  1781,  the  British,  boarding  the  vessel, 
surprised  his  ship's  company  and  all  on  board  were  destroyed 
except  his  seven-year-old  son,  John,  who  eluded  the  attention 
of  the  boarders  by  hiding.  This  boy,  John,  married  Mary 
Harris  and  came  alone  to  Stowe  in  1794  where  he  assisted  in 
the  organization  of  the  town;  later,  in  1797,  he  brought  his 
family  from  Colchester,  New  London  County,  Connecticut, 
to  his  new  home;  making  the  journey  on  horseback,  the 
family  party  passed  through  Waterbury,  then  a  straggling 
village  or  hamlet  consisting  of  less  than  ten  houses. 

The  children  of  John  and  Mary  Harris  Seabury  were  John, 
father  of  O.  A.  Seabury,  Caleb,  Nathaniel,  Mary  (Thomas), 
Elizabeth  (Handy)  and  Emily  (Thompson).  Hester  (Scribner), 
Harriet  (Lothian),  Salome  (Towne)  and  Joel  were  children  of 

PERIOD    1 876-1900 


-Alden-Soabar^  -Lo  thi  an-Croiiielin 


John  Alden 

Lavid  Aldcn  1646 

Elizabeth  Alden  1675 

Hev.Sara'l  Gcabury  1706 

Caleb  Seabary  1726 

Col. John  Goabary  1763 

Harriet  K.Seabury  1616 

John  G.W.Lothian  1649 

Dorothy  Lothian  1680 

Dorothy  J.Cromolin  1907 

Prise ilia  Mull ins 
I.Iary  Gouthworth 
John  Seabary 
Abigail  Lamford 
Esther  Marnford 
Dorothy  Harris 
Daniel  Lothian 
Jeanne tte  A.Basby 
John  Cromelin 

For  further  information  apply  to 

Mrs, John  Cromelin 
Prospect  Ave, 
Vernon,  II.  Y. 


ui     lo^y,    d.b    appeal b    latei    iii    tins    uuuk.      Ljy    pxvjuucing    tin 
honest,  durable  product  the  firm  grew  in  strength  and  in  the 


Elizabeth  (Handy)  and  Emily  (Thompson).   Hester  (Scribner), 
Harriet  (Lothian),  Salome  (Towne)  and  Joel  were  children  of 

PERIOD    1876-1900 



Willi  am  Llanni ng 

V/illiam  Manning  1614 

Samuel  Manning  1644 

Samuel  Manning  1665 

John  Manning  1696 

Phineas  Manning  1727 

Phineaa  Manning  1756 

Hannah  Manning  1794 

lydia  Williams  1835 

Jeanne tte  Busby  1856 

Dorothy  Lothian  1880 

Dodothy  Cromelin  1907 





Sarah  v; 




John  0, 

John  Cr 







Fox   further  information  apply  to 

Mrs. John  Cromelin 
266  ?rospect  Ave. 
Mo  un  t  Ye  r no  n ,  K .  Y . 

Feb. 1929 

^,x     lo^y,    CIS    dppemb    icttei     in    uus    uouk.       ^y     p.^^ou^ixxg    ccxx 

honest,  durable  product  the  firm  grew  in  strength  and  in  the 


iLii^auetn  (.riauuyj  ana  iimiiy  unompson;.   Hester  pcriDner;, 
Harriet  (Lothian),  Salome  (Towne)  and  Joel  were  children  of 

PERIOD    1 876-1900 



John   Alden 

Joseph   Alden  1627 

John   Alden  1674 

2benezor  Alden  1720 

Abigail    Alden  1762 

Hannah  Llanning  17S)4 

Lydia    V/illiaraa  1836 

Jeannette   A.Basby  1656 

Dorothy  Lothian  1660 

Dorothy   J.Cromelin  1907 

Priscilla  l.Iullins 
I.Iary   Simmons 
Hannah   V/hite 
Ann   v/hit taker 
Phineas   Ilanning 
Daniel    Williams 
Oeorge   Busby 
John    C^.V/. Lothian 
John  Gromelin 

For  further   information  apply   to 

LIrs.John  Gromelin 
266  Prospect  Ave. 
Llount  Vernon, LT.Y. 


or   1859,  as  appears  later  in  this  book.     By  producing  an 
honest,  durable  product  the  firm  grew  in  strength  and  in  the 

1/8  HISTORY   OF  WATERBURY,  VERMONT^^ui  v^xcx.uyy  aiiu  iz^iuiiy  unompson;.   riester  (.^criDner;. 
Harriet  (Lothian),  Salome  (Towne)  and  Joel  were  children  of 

PERIOD    1876-1900  179 

his  wife,  Dorothy  (Harris).  John  Seabury,  father  of  O.  A. 
Seabury,  was  born  in  Colchester,  New  London  County,  Con- 
necticut, August  22,  1793.  His  early  youth  was  spent  at 
his  father's  home  in  Stowe,  where  he  attended  the  common 
schools  and  worked  on  the  farm,  varying  this  with  teaching 
school  in  winter.  He,  with  several  brothers  and  his  father, 
a  colonel  of  militia,  served  in  the  War  of  1812;  starting  for 
Plattsburg  in  September,  1813,  they  arrived  at  Burlington 
only  to  find  that  communication  with  and  transportation  to 
the  other  side  of  the  lake  had  been  cut  off.  Here  the  Seaburys 
stayed  until  the  British  withdrew,  their  service  lacking  just 
one  day  of  entitling  them  to  pensions. 

Soon  after  attaining  his  majority,  John  Seabury  went  to 
work  in  a  brick-yard  in  Montreal,  Province  of  Quebec.  After 
a  few  years  in  Canada,  he  returned  to  Stowe  as  appears  by 
certain  deeds  dated  in  1823.  That  same  year,  he  came  to 
Waterbury  and  began  work  for  Ariel  Thomas  in  the  business 
of  cloth  dressing  and  wool  carding. 

In  1822  Ariel  Thomas  of  Bridgewater,  Vermont,  bought  his 
mill  site  of  William  Eddy  and  moved  from  Bridgewater, 
bringing  with  him  his  wife,  Mary  (Seabury),  daughter  of 
Colonel  John  Seabury, and  Alvinza  Thompson,  who  afterwards 
married  Emily  (Seabury),  second  daughter  of  Colonel  John. 
Thompson  entered  Thomas'  employ  as  cloth  dresser.  In  1823 
John  Seabury  bought  another  and  better  equipped  site  further 
down  the  stream  and  went  into  business  with  his  brother-in- 
law,  Ariel  Thomas.  The  firm  conducted  both  establishments 
until  the  upper  mill  burned  in  the  early  30's.  The  business 
was  thereafter  conducted  at  the  lower  mill  under  the  firm 
name  of  Thomas,  Seabury  &  Thompson  until  the  retirement 
of  the  senior  member.  Following  this  change,  the  firm  was 
known  as  Seabury  &  Thompson.  The  partners  enlarged  the 
plant  and  installed  new  and  improved  machinery  and  soon 
acquired  the  most  extensive  manufacturing  business  in  this 
part  of  the  state,  which  continued  for  over  twenty-five  years. 

The  business  was  bought  by  George  D.  Joslyn  in  1858 
or  1859,  as  appears  later  in  this  book.  By  producing  an 
honest,  durable  product  the  firm  grew  in  strength  and  in  the 


confidence  of  the  farmers  who  exchanged  their  wool  for  cloth 
at  a  fixed  price  per  yard  for  manufacture.  Up  to  this  time, 
the  early  settlers  of  Waterbury  and  vicinity  were  obliged 
to  produce  their  home-made  or  home-spun  cloths  as  best  they 
could  by  recourse  to  household  hand  cards,  spinning  wheels 
and  hand  looms.  After  the  advent  of  the  cloth  dressing  and 
carding  machinery  came  the  machinery  for  finishing  off  the 
product  of  the  hand  loom,  which  product  had  heretofore  been 
worn  in  its  rough  state  just  as  it  came  from  the  loom.  This 
improved  product  was  called  full-cloth;  so,  by  degrees,  power 
looms  and  spinning  jacks  came  into  vogue,  calling  for  factories 
in  which  every  step  of  cloth  making  could  be  carried  out. 

To  Jonathan  Robbins  belongs  the  credit  of  building  the 
first  carding  and  cloth  dressing  establishment  in  this  vicinity. 
He  built  his  plant  on  the  site  of  the  first  grist  mill  of  Carpenter 
&  Eddy  about  1815. 

In  1828  John  Seabury  married  Calista  Thompson,  the  sister 
of  his  partner,  who  came  here  from  Bridgewater  as  a  school 
teacher.  The  newly  married  pair  occupied  the  house  pur- 
chased by  John  Seabury  of  Jonathan  Robbins  in  1824.  This 
property  included  the  mill  site  of  Thompson  &  Seabury. 
The  residence,  an  old-fashioned,  three-story,  hip-roofed  build- 
ing, burned  in  1846.  The  present  Seabury  home  replaced  it 
the  same  year.     This  was  John  Seabury 's  home  until  his  death. 

The  firm  of  Seabury  &  Thompson  took  into  partnership 
Henry  Blanchard,  in  the  early  40's,  and  the  firm  was  there- 
after Thompson,  Seabury  &  Blanchard.  Not  long  after  the 
first  half  of  the  century  had  passed,  the  firm  began  to  realize 
that  their  honest  product  was  called  upon  to  compete  with 
cheap,  shoddy  material  used  in  the  trade  for  ready  made 
clothing.  Wool  declined  in  price  and  farmers  found  it  un- 
profitable to  raise  sheep — an  important  industry  in  itself. 
There  was  a  slight  reaction  at  the  outbreak  of  the  Civil  War 
when  cotton  became  dear,  but  this  was  only  temporary. 
The  business  passed  out  of  the  hands  of  Thompson,  Seabury 
&  Blanchard  into  those  of  George  D.  Joslyn,  Selleck  &  Joslyn, 
and  A.  H.  Selleck,  successively. 

How  great  a  boon  the  machine  for  cloth  manufacture  was 

PERIOD    1876-1900  181 

to  the  overburdened  housewives  of  the  period  may  be  realized 
when  it  is  pointed  out  that  the  price  in  exchange  was  at  the 
rate  of  thirty-five  cents  a  yard  and  for  twenty-two  ounces  of 
wool  the  factory  would  return  eleven  ounces  of  finished  cloth. 
For  the  first  time,  the  busy  mother  could  procure  factory 
made  flannels  for  household  uses,  underwear,  etc.,  also  cloth 
for  sheets  and  dresses.  The  decline  in  wool  and  the  competi- 
tion with  shoddy  products  reacted,  of  course,  upon  the  families 
of  the  community  to  their  loss. 

John  and  Calista  (Thompson)  Seabury  continued  to  live 
in  the  old  Robbins  residence  and  the  present  homestead  that 
replaced  it  until  their  respective  deaths  in  1881  and  1880. 
Children  born  of  the  marriage  were  Helen  (i  830-1 903),  who 
married  William  Richardson,  a  lawyer  of  Waterbury  (died 
in  1849);  Edward  Thomas  (1832-1899),  who  married  Mary 
A.  Stevens  (died  in  1883) ;  children  of  this  marriage  are  William 
H.,  Mae  F.  and  Alice  L.,  who,  with  a  second  wife,  Julia  (Bliss) 
Seabury,  survive;  and  Sylindia,  who  married  Francis  Joslyn 
(now  dead)  and  who  still  lives  with  her  daughter,  Mrs.  Minnie 
Farrell  at  Colbyville;  John  Q.,  who  went  to  Redlands,  Cali- 
fornia; after  his  death,  in  1908,  the  city  of  Redlands  caused  a 
bronze  tablet  to  be  placed  upon  his  monument  with  this 


Ovid  Arioch  (unmarried),  who  is  now  living  in  the  old 
Seabury  homestead  with  the  family  of  E.  T.  Seabury;  Mr.  O. 
A.  Seabury,  besides  being  a  patron  of  the  arts,  is  a  well  known 
raconteur  with  a  wide  acquaintance  and  hosts  of  friends 
within  and  without  the  state;  Weltha  F.  (died  in  Waitsfield 
in  1871),  who  was  the  wife  of  E.  E.  Joslyn;  their  two  children 
now  living,  are  Jesse  E.  of  Montpelier  and  L.  B.  Joslyn  of 
Waitsfield;  Martha  J.  married  N.  P.  Wheeler,  and  died  in 
1874  leaving  a  daughter  Jessie,  who  married  F.  J.  Greene  and 
now  lives  in  Petaluma,  California. 


John  Seabury,  the  head  of  this  large  family  of  Waterbury, 
was  a  man  of  strong  religious  predilections  and  became  a 
member  of  the  prudential  committee  of  the  local  Congrega- 
tional Church.  Being  an  ardent  Free  Soiler,  Mr.  Seabury 
favored  the  use  of  the  church  at  a  meeting  to  be  addressed  by 
the  first  Free  Soil  speaker  to  come  into  the  state.  This  was 
refused  by  other  members  of  the  committee,  whereupon  the 
committeeman  withdrew  and  declined  to  have  anything 
more  to  do  with  the  church,  although  his  name  was 
continued  on  the  rolls.  Subsequently  he  became  interested 
in  the  Adventist  faith  and  assisted  in  maintaining  and  building 
the  first  Advent  Church  in  Waterbury,  while  the  rest  of  the 
family  worshiped  at  the  Congregational  Church. 

Mr.  Seabury  was  wont  to  do  his  own  thinking, — sometimes 
arriving  at  conclusions  that  were  not  popular,  but  frequently, 
as  they  developed,  ahead  of  his  time.  He  was  accustomed  to 
express  himself  in  quaint  but  forceful  phraseology  though  he 
was  a  faultless  grammarian,  if  he  so  chose  to  be.  He  was  ever 
ready  to  lend  a  helping  hand  to  the  poor  and  needy;  his  home 
and  table  were  always  open  to  friends  or  strangers,  sometimes 
to  the  discomfort  of  the  other  members  of  the  family.  He 
belonged  to  that  wing  of  the  Whig  party  that  afterwards 
became  Republican  and  voted  for  Harrison  and  Tyler  in  1840. 
He  was  a  bitter  opponent  of  slavery  and  derived  his  anti- 
slavery  gospel  largely  from  the  New  York  Tribune,  showing 
his  practical  devotion  to  the  cause  by  helping  along  all  "under- 
ground railway"  enterprises  in  Vermont. 

In  personal  appearance  Mr.  Seabury  was  tall,  but  not 
erect, — about  six  feet  two  inches  in  height  and  weighing  one 
hundred  and  forty-five  pounds.  He  had  a  long,  swinging 
stride  and,  when  walking,  moved  his  arms  from  side  to  side, 
presenting  an  ungainly  appearance  which  he  sometimes  pur- 
posely affected.  He  was  a  kind,  indulgent  parent  and  husband, 
fond  of  his  children  and  their  pastimes,  never  seeming  to  feel 
annoyed  or  irritated  at  their  pranks  and  noise.  His  kindness 
and  forbearance  to  debtors  were  also  well  known.  It  never 
occurred  to  Mr.  Seabury  that  because  a  customer  never  paid 
his  bills  and  was  never  expected   to,  he  should,   therefore, 

PERIOD    1876-1900  183 

be  denied  further  credit.  With  such  a  disposition,  it  is  not 
surprising  to  learn  that  he  never  worried.  He  left  the  example 
to  his  townsmen  of  one  who  was  perfectly  honest  in  all  his 
dealings  and  whose  word  was  unquestioned. 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  Seabury  celebrated  their  golden  wedding 
in  1878.  Mrs.  Seabury  died  in  1880  and  Mr.  Seabury  one 
year  later.  They  passed  their  married  lives  on  the  home 
site  selected  in  1824.  Seven  of  their  eight  children  reached 
maturity,  one  dying  in  infancy.  All  are  married  save  one. 
There  are  now  living  seven  grandchildren,  nine  great-grand- 
children and  five  great-great-grandchildren.  Of  the  grand- 
children, William  Henry  Seabury  is  the  business  manager 
of  his  father's  estate  (E.  T.  Seabury  estate),  engaged  in  the 
wholesale  and  retail  business  of  flour,  feed  and  general  milling. 
He  lives  at  the  old  Seabury  home  with  his  stepmother  and 

Moses  M.  Knight  came  to  Waterbury  in  1848  and  married 
Sarah  (Blush)  Knight  in  1854.  Mr.  Knight  was  for  many 
years  one  of  the  successful  merchants  of  the  town.  The  only 
child  was  F.  L.  Knight,  born  April  5,  1863,  who  is  now  con- 
nected with  the  mercantile  establishment  of  F.  C.  Luce. 

Mr.  F.  L.  Knight  married  Miss  Daisy  Clark,  daughter  of 
Orrin  L.  and  Janet  (Loomis)  Clark,  of  Georgia,  Vermont. 
Children  of  Mr.  and  Mrs.  F.  L.  Knight  are  Albert  Clark, 
Edward  Morse,  J.  Bradford  and  Sarah  Janet. 

Edwin  Franklin  Palmer  was  born  in  Waitsfield,  January 
22,  1836,  the  son  of  Aaron  and  Sarah  (Thayer)  Palmer.  His 
father  and  grandfather  before  him  were  early  settlers  and 
residents  of  Waitsfield,  occupying  one  of  the  large  farms  in 
Waitsfield  Common.  Palmer  Hill,  in  the  neighborhood,  takes 
its  name  from  the  family.  Of  the  family  of  eleven,  four  of 
the  sons  were  educated  at  Dartmouth  College.  Mr.  Palmer's 
preparation  for  college  was  obtained  at  Northfield.  He 
entered  Dartmouth  in  the  fall  of  1858  and  was  graduated  in 
the  class  of  1862.  Soon  after  graduation  he  entered  the 
Union  army  with  Company  B,  Thirteenth  Vermont  Regiment, 
as  lieutenant. 

Mr.  Palmer  was  one  of  those  whose  good  fortune  it  was  to 


have  received  his  legal  education  and  preparation  for  admis- 
sion to  the  bar  in  the  office  of  Governor  Paul  Dillingham. 
Mr.  Palmer  practiced  his  profession  in  Waterbury;  he  was 
town  representative  three  times,  reporter  of  the  Supreme 
Court  and  editor  of  eight  volumes  of  Supreme  Court  Reports. 
He  served  as  State  Superintendent  of  Education  and  was 
instrumental  in  securing  to  the  state  many  new  and  long 
needed  improvements  in  her  educational  system. 

He  married  Addie  D.  Hartshorn,  at  Guildhall,  June  15, 
1865.  There  were  seven  children,  four  of  whom  are  liv- 
ing: Edwin  P.,  Jr.,  of  Duxbury;  John  H.  of  Dorchester, 
Massachusetts;  Robert  W.  of  Cambridge,  Massachusetts; 
Charles  C.  of  Warren,  New  Hampshire;  and  two  grand- 
children, Annie  Dorothy  Palmer  and  Eber  Huntley  Palmer. 

Mr.  Palmer  enlisted  in  Company  B,  Thirteenth  Vermont 
Regiment,  August  25,  1862,  from  Waitsfield.  He  was  made 
sergeant  and  afterwards  commissioned  second  lieutenant,  No- 
vember 4,  1862.  He  was  mustered  out  July  21,  1863.  Mr. 
Palmer  was  a  careful  student  of  political  and  educational  prob- 
lems and  a  ready  and  interesting  speaker.  He  was  the  author 
of  an  entertaining  volume,  "Camp  Life  by  a  Volunteer." 

Mr.  Palmer  died  October  8,  1914,  and  his  funeral  was  held 
at  the  Palmer  residence  the  following  Sunday,  October  1 1 ,  1914. 
Reverend  W.  L.  Boicourt  officiated,  assisted  by  Reverend 
W.  E.  Douglass.  John  H.  Senter,  Esq.,  spoke  of  Mr.  Palmer 
as  "a  friend,  lawyer  and  professional  man." 

Doctor  Emory  G.  Hooker,  an  esteemed  physician  of 
Waterbury,  was  born  in  Cabot,  February  19,  1839,  the  son 
of  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Liberty  Hooker.  After  a  short  period  spent 
in  Massachusetts  he  went  to  Ann  Arbor,  Michigan,  where 
he  entered  the  University  of  Michigan,  in  the  Medical  School, 
and  was  graduated  as  one  of  his  class  leaders  in  1864.  He 
completed  his  medical  education  at  the  College  of  Physicians 
and  Surgeons  in  New  York  City  where  he  was  graduated  with 
high  honors.  He  practiced  successively  in  Montpelier  and 
Waitsfield  and  came  to  Waterbury  in  1880.  His  skill  as  a 
physician  and  surgeon  was  widely  recognized  within  and  with- 
out the  state.     Doctor  Hooker  was  a  prominent  Mason  and 

PERIOD    1876-1900  185 

past  grand  master  of  Winooski  Lodge.  He  married  Miss 
Katharine  Kneeland  December  28,  1865.  Mrs.  B.  F.  Atherton 
is  a  daughter  of  the  marriage.  Doctor  Hooker  died  in  Water- 
bury  August  13,  1902,  and  the  funeral  services  were  held  at 
the  Methodist  Church.  An  eloquent  tribute  was  paid  Doctor 
Hooker  by  Doctor  Don  D.  Grout,  a  fellow  lodge  member. 
This  appeared  in  the  issue  of  the  Waterbury  Record  of  August 
19,  1902. 

The  town  builders  of  Waterbury  who  had  the  distinct 
advantage  of  being  born  here  profited  by  the  impetus  given 
the  town  by  their  forbears  and  carried  on  the  work  from  the 
point  where  their  fathers  left  off.  Such  a  man  is  George  W. 
Randall,  now  a  nonagenarian  living  in  his  old  home  on  Main 
Street,  with  Mrs.  Randall,  and  having  near  at  hand,  Doctor 
Watson  Wasson  and  Mrs.  Pearl  (Randall)  Wasson,  his  son- 
in-law  and  daughter,  respectively.  Mr.  Randall  was  born 
on  Ricker  Mountain,  September  18,  1825,  the  son  of  Oliver 
Cromwell  and  Electa  (Cofifin)  Randall,  who  was  the  great- 
granddaughter  of  Hannah  Dustin,  the  heroine  of  Haverhill, 
Massachusetts.  Both  his  father  and  grandfather  had  been 
the  earliest  settlers  on  the  mountain,  not  then  named. 

After  his  father's  death  in  1830,  his  mother,  the  daughter 
of  Moses  Cofifin,  removed  to  Stowe  and  married  George  Akeley. 
Mr.  Randall  spent  some  years  of  his  boyhood  with  an  aunt, 
Mrs.  Davis,  but  at  the  age  of  sixteen  became  apprenticed  to 
a  blacksmith  in  Waterbury  to  learn  that  trade,  boarding  during 
the  succeeding  three  years  at  the  home  of  R.  C.  Smith.  He 
soon  saw  the  necessity  for  schooling  and  accordingly  availed 
himself  of  what  could  be  furnished  at  the  common  schools 
and  the  academy  at  Bakersfield  until  he  was  twenty  years 
of  age.  He  taught  school  for  three  successive  winters  on 
Ricker  Mountain  and  "boarded  round"  as  was  then  the  cus- 
tom for  teachers. 

Mr.  Randall  relates  with  some  gusto  his  experiences  as  a 
young  man  hunting  employment  in  Boston  and  the  then 
new  city  of  Lawrence,  Massachusetts.  He  recounts  an  inci- 
dent of  having  been  present  in  the  United  States  District 
Court  in   Boston  when  one  Crafts,  a   sea-captain,  was  on 



trial  for  murder.  He  had  as  counsel  Rufus  Choate  who, 
in  seeking  to  impeach  the  testimony  of  the  vessel's  mate, 
commented  characteristically: 

Some  truth  there  was 

But  mixed  and  dashed  with  lies — 

To  please  the  fool 

And  dazzle  all  the  wise. 

This  court  experience  may  or  may  not  have  had  something 
to  do  with  Mr.  Randall's  subsequent  determination  to  study 
law  in  the  office  of  Honorable  Paul  Dillingham. 

With  the  dry  humor  his  old  acquaintances  know  so  well, 
he  gives  the  details  of  a  dog  case  he  undertook  in  which  par- 
ticipated as  counsel  Matthew  Hale  Carpenter,  afterwards 
United  States  Senator  from  Wisconsin  and  one  of  the  fore- 
most constitutional  lawyers  of  his  time.  Carpenter  at  this 
time,  however,  was  a  young  lawyer  in  the  office  of  Rufus 
Choate  in  Boston  and  was  revisiting  Waterbury  and  the  office 
of  his  former  preceptor,  Paul  Dillingham.  Young  Randall 
had  entered  this  office  as  a  student  of  Blackstone,  Chitty  and 
Kent  the  winter  before  he  became  twenty-four  years  of  age.  A 
part  of  his  clerical  duties  was  to  make  out  the  simpler  writs, 
and  copy  pleadings  and  office  papers.  One  day  during  the  ab- 
sence of  his  preceptor,  Mr.  Dillingham,  an  elderly  gentleman 
named  Hawley  applied  to  him  for  a  writ  against  the  owner 
of  a  dog  which  had  just  bitten  him.  Nothing  daunted,  young 
Randall  made  out  the  writ,  and  when  Mr.  Dillingham  re- 
turned he  said,  "Well,  George,  now  that  you  have  made  out 
this  writ,  you  may  as  well  try  the  case."  Upon  a  jury  trial, 
there  was  a  disagreement.  Then  it  was  that  the  brilliant 
advocate,  Matthew  Carpenter,  suggested  that  evidence  tend- 
ing to  show  that  the  dog  was  always  a  ferocious  beast  was 
lacking  and  the  case  should  be  strenghtened  in  this  regard. 
Instead  of  going  to  trial  for  the  second  time,  however,  the 
young  man  followed  the  advice  of  Mr.  Dillingham  who  said 
Mr.  Hawley  had  no  money  to  fool  away  on  law  and  that  there 
should  be  a  discontinuance,  each  party  paying  his  costs. 
This  was  done. 

Mr.  Randall's  early  life  was  much  the  same  as  that  of  all 

PERIOD    1876-1900  187 

New  England  country  boys.  Incidents  of  attending  school 
on  Ricker  Mountain  and  Nebraska  Brook;  his  boyish  triumphs 
in  penmanship  and  the  spelling  class;  his  all  but  tragic  expe- 
rience when,  at  a  tender  age,  he  was  lost  in  a  snow  storm  and 
was  forced  to  burrow  his  way  into  a  drift  to  keep  from  perish- 
ing until  he  was  found  by  the  searchers;  his  employment 
on  a  farm  at  sixteen;  his  blacksmithing  apprenticeship;  his 
academic  education;  his  wonderful  trip,  via  the  Isthmus,  to 
California,  starting  September  i,  1849;  his  experiences  en 
route  and  in  the  mines;  his  successful  ventures  there  and 
his  triumphal  return  only  to  make  a  second  venture ;  his  final 
return  to  Waterbury;  his  subsequent  activities  in  business 
and  political  life,  all  contribute  to  round  out  an  inspiring 
career  of  youthful  sagacity,  shrewdness  of  young  manhood, 
courage  and  industry,  and  finally  the  far-sighted  thrift,  judg- 
ment and  prosperity  of  middle  and  old  age. 

Mr.  Randall  has  prospered  largely  through  real  estate 
operations,  farming  and  lumbering.  His  sawmills  were  for 
years  the  most  extensive  in  the  vicinity  and  have  cut  1,000,000 
feet  of  lumber  annually,  employing  a  large  force  of  workmen. 
Originally  a  Democrat,  Mr.  Randall  joined  the  Republican 
party  at  its  organization  and  has  been  auditor,  lister,  select- 
man and  town  representative  several  times. 

Letters  from  Mr.  Randall  to  friends  and  relatives  written 
from  Chagres  and  Panama  on  the  Isthmus  are  interesting 
commentaries  on  transportation  facilities  then  in  vogue.  The 
fare  from  Panama,  by  the  ship  Senator,  was  $200  to  San  Fran- 
cisco. He  describes  his  stay  in  Chagres,  during  which  he 
visited  "the  old  castle, — one  mighty  mass  of  ruins,  cannon, 
grape  shot  and  all  the  munitions  of  war  which  remain  in  the 
same  condition  as  when  left  after  being  scattered  by  the  buc- 
caneers headed  by  Morgan,  Drake,  and  others  in  the  year 
1500;  in  the  midst  of  the  castle  stands  a  magnificent  orange 
tree.  .  .  .  Honorable  John  T.  Van  Allen,  American 
Minister  to  Ecuador,  came  out  on  the  Crescent  City.  He  had 
papers  for  an  American  consul  at  Chagres,  but  no  consul  could 
he  find.  He  seemed  somewhat  chagrined  at  the  mistake  of 
Uncle  Sam's  boys;  Allen  being  in  a  great  sweat  to  get  along, 


tried  to  get  the  natives  to  show  him  through,  but  the  darkies 
are  not  to  be  hurried." 

Mr.  Randall  wrote  interestingly  from  the  mines  in  Cali- 
fornia, and  also  from  San  Francisco.  He  says  of  the  latter  in 
a  letter  of  March  19,  1850:  "This  city  is  nothing  but  a  frog 
pond,  although  there  are  many  splendid  buildings.  Men 
have  died  in  this  city  like  sheep  this  winter,  although  where  I 
wintered  it  was  very  healthy.  As  regards  the  gold  in  this 
country  .  .  .  the  whole  earth,  for  many  miles,  will 
produce  gold  but  it  is  only  the  banks  or  beds  of  rivers  and 
ravines  that  pay  for  working.  .  .  .  We  had  fifteen  days 
fair  weather  in  succession  in  February.  I  had  a  good  place  or 
lead  meantime  and  took  out  between  three  and  four  hundred 
Dolls,  the  rest  of  the  time  through  the  winter  has  paid  from 
five  to  twenty  dollars  per  day  but  remember  I  only  work 
when  it  is  pleasant ;  my  health  is  too  precious  to  barter  off  for 

Mr.  Randall  in  sending  a  sum  of  money  home  preferred  to 
send  it  by  a  draft  in  triplicate  to  provide  against  loss.  He 
explained  in  his  letters  that  if  he  were  coming  home  himself  he 
would  have  brought  his  gold  dust  with  him  to  get  the  increase 
at  the  mint  over  what  he  would  be  obliged  to  take  in  Cali- 
fornia. Writing  from  the  mines  in  Dry  Creek  he  says:  "One 
day  while  prospecting  in  a  ravine  we  hit  on  a  place  where  two 
of  us  got  eight  hundred  dollars  or  25  ounces  in  eight  hours;  it 
is  coarse  gold;  one  particle  is  worth  twenty-one  Dolls." 

Mr.  Randall's  first  wife  was  Lepha  White,  who  was  born 
August  12,  1830,  and  died  March  19,  1874.  Mr.  Randall  next 
married  Miss  Belle  Gleason  of  Waterbury.  Two  children  were 
born  of  this  marriage,  George  C.  Randall,  now  engaged  in 
farming  and  the  lumber  business  near  Cotton  Brook  and  the 
Stowe  line,  and  Pearl  (Randall)  Wasson,  wife  of  Doctor  Wat- 
son Wasson  of  the  medical  staff  of  the  Vermont  State  Hospital. 

A  citizen  of  Waterbury  who  has  literally  been  one  of  her 
most  conscientious  builders  is  Mr.  William  Deal,  who  was  born 
in  Phillipsburgh,  Province  of  Quebec,  December  3,  1833,  and 
who,  though  a  resident  of  Waterbury  since  1850,  did  not 
become    a    naturalized    American    citizen    until    1888.     Mr. 

PERIOD    1876-1900  189 

Deal  married  Miss  Asenath  Marshall  of  Waterbury  in  1857. 
Two  children  (each  married)  were  born  of  the  marriage,  John, 
a  father  of  six  children,  living  in  Waterbury,  and  Mrs.  Tenie 
(Deal)  Roberts  of  Montpelier.  Mr.  Deal,  either  by  himself 
or  associated  with  others,  played  an  important  part  in  the 
building  operations  of  Waterbury  for  forty  years.  He  it  was 
who  erected  such  buildings  as  the  Waterbury  Inn  in  1864  to 
replace  the  old  Washington  House  destroyed  by  fire  October 
8,  1858.  Mr.  Deal  was  well  acquainted  with  and  a  hunting 
companion  of  John  (Ossawatomie)  Brown  of  Harper's  Ferry 
fame,  and  his  two  lieutenants,  Samuel  and  Frank  Thompson, 
when  the  four  lived  out  and  hunted  near  North  Elba,  Clinton 
County,  New  York.  Mr.  Deal  expresses  gratification  at  the 
movement  now  afoot  to  mark  the  Brown  graves  properly  in 
the  obscure  burial  place  at  North  Elba  after  fifty-five  years 
of  neglect. 

Waterbury 's  population  in  1890  was  2,232,  a  loss  of  sixty- 
five  in  the  ten  years  from  the  date  of  the  preceding  census  in 
1880.  This  loss  was  so  inconsiderable,  however,  that  the  town 
might  be  said  to  have  held  its  own.  There  was  then,  as  now, 
a  certain  floating  population  as  was  evidenced  by  the  tax 
returns.  The  Legislature  of  1890  was  the  better  for  the  pres- 
ence in  it  of  the  late  Doctor  Henry  Janes  as  town  representa- 
tive from  Waterbury.  The  personnel  of  Waterbury 's  repre- 
sentatives as  a  whole,  however,  had  preserved  its  general  level 
of  ability,  as  reference  to  the  list  beginning  with  Daniel  Bliss 
in  1792  will  indicate.  From  contemporary  data  of  the  period 
it  appears  that  the  town's  business,  social,  religious  and  educa- 
tional life  remained  practically  as  it  had  been  for  the  ten  years 

The  establishment  in  April,  1895,  of  the  Waterbury  Record, 
by  Fred  N.  Whitney  of  Northfield,  under  the  editorship  and 
management  of  Harry  C.  Whitehill,  was  an  event  fraught  with 
greater  importance  to  the  town  than  the  mere  surface  fact 
might  indicate.  It  is  always  true  of  every  town  that  the 
advent  of  the  town's  own  publication,  however  modest  and 
retiring,  is  something  of  grave  importance  to  the  community's 
life.     There  is  no  need  of  dwelling  upon  the  insensible  influence 


of  the  possibilities  of  publicity;  there  is  still  less  call  for  doing 
more  than  adverting  to  the  sense  of  proprietorship  each  citizen 
should  feel  in  his  town  newspaper.  It  may  be  said  generally, 
with  no  ulterior  purpose,  that  the  ebb  and  flow  of  the  fortunes 
of  a  town's  newspaper  is  taken,  in  large  measure,  as  a  gauge 
of  the  prosperity  of  that  town.  Even  the  most  confirmed 
cynic  will  agree  that  the  one  thing  needful  to  intelligent  com- 
munity effort  and  civic  team-work  is  the  local  newspaper. 
Not  to  recognize  this  spells  an  almost  fatal  indifference  to  the 
community's  welfare.  At  this  point  the  writer  takes  occasion 
to  remark  that  the  foregoing  has  been  rescued  from  the  rigid 
censorship  of  the  publisher  of  this  volume  only  by  dint  of  a 
stubborn  and  insistent  opposition  and  that  the  responsibility 
for  the  sentiment  expressed  and  the  propriety  of  its  expression 
rests  absolutely  with  the  writer. 

Mr.  Harry  C.  Whitehill  was  born  in  Groton,  Vermont,  May 
9,  1875,  the  son  of  Moses  H.  and  Ella  Frances  (Ricker)  White- 
hill.  He  was  educated  at  the  Groton  public  schools  and  the 
Montpelier  Seminary.  He  came  to  Waterbury  in  April,  1895, 
coincidently  with  the  establishment  of  the  Waterbury  Record. 
He  served  as  president  of  the  village  in  1909  and  is  a  director 
in  the  Waterbury  Trust  and  Savings  Bank.  He  was  married, 
January  19,  1898,  to  Miss  Mary  Moody,  daughter  of  the  late 
Justin  W.  and  Mrs.  Harriet  (Brown)  Moody.  Mr.  Whitehill's 
book  store  and  editorial  office  goes  far  to  fill  the  place  of 
the  "old  corner  store"  as  a  village  institution.  It  has  become, 
through  naturally  selective  process,  the  town  forum ;  the  habit 
of  dropping  in  has  become  inveterate.  One  need  not  be  even 
a  demi-god  to  be  eligible  to  this  Olympus;  hence  the  waiting 
list.  The  writer  once  had  some  slight  knowledge  of  an  insti- 
tution known  as  the  "Saints  and  Sinners"  corner  in  the  great 
Chicago  McClurg  publishing  house,  where  were  accustomed  to 
gather  literary  celebrities  and  bibliophiles;  he  indulges  no 
violent  presumption  when  he  asserts  that  the  influences  of  our 
local  haven  for  local  saints  and  sinners,  in  their  way,  are 
working  together  for  just  as  definite  a  goal. 

It  is  worthy  of  note  that  the  Waterbury  Record  was  issued  as 
a  daily  newspaper  during  the  Vermont  Annual  Methodist  Con- 

PERIOD    1876-1900  191 

ference,  beginning  April  10,  1895;  at  this  time  the  Record  was 
printed  in  the  Odd  Fellows  Block. 

The  flood  or  freshet  occurring  in  April,  1895,  was  the  most 
destructive  one  next  after  that  of  1869.  The  lower  end  of 
Main  Street  was  under  water  and  the  Colbyville  dam  was 
carried  away.  The  water  overflowed  the  Winooski  banks 
and  covered  the  meadow  land  south  of  the  State  Hospital's 
power  house,  coming  up  even  to  the  house  itself  and  to  the 
vestry  of  the  Methodist  Church. 

The  much  mooted,  wearisome  and  futile  controversy  was 
again  revived,  in  1895,  over  that  "iridescent  dream"  reform 
of  the  legislative  representation  system.  The  same  old  argu- 
ments were  adduced  with  the  same  old  vehemence  and  with 
the  same  old  effect,  or  lack  of  it.  It  would  appear  from  these 
old  arguments  that  the  word  "reform"  in  this  connection  must 
have  been  used  in  a  Pickwickian  sense.  What  was  urged  by 
the  advocates  of  the  new  order  was  a  change.  If  reform  means 
"to  make  over"  then,  perhaps,  the  word  was  used  advisedly. 

May  20,  1895,  was  the  date  of  a  meeting  of  citizens  to  con- 
sider the  building  of  a  carriage  road  leading  to  the  summit  of 
Camel's  Hump.  It  was  proposed  to  build  a  road  from  John 
McNeal's  farmhouse  on  a  grade  averaging  14  per  cent. 

It  renews  youth  to  read  of  the  old  time  celebration  of  the 
Fourth  of  July,  1895.  There  was  a  huge  bonfire  in  the  depot 
park;  the  usual  fireworks  and  noise;  the  usual  explosion  of  a 
badly  loaded  cannon,  and  the  usual  saddening  incident  of  its 
effect  in  injuring  a  young  boy;  there  was  also  a  parade  of 
"horribles,"  a  ball  game  with  Essex,  whose  team  scored  18 
to  Waterbury's  9  runs;  amateur  bicycle  races,  etc. 

That  the  nation's  needs  were  not  overlooked  by  the  vigilant 
press  is  attested  by  the  following  from  the  local  newspaper 
under  date  of  December  3,  1895:  "Congress  will  make  no 
mistake  during  the  coming  session  if  it  authorizes  the  con- 
struction of  a  whole  fleet  of  torpedo  boats."  If  the  editor  who 
penned  those  lines  had  the  vision  of  a  seer  as  to  conditions 
twenty  years  later,  he  could  not  have  made  a  wiser  recom- 
mendation. But  preparedness  was  then,  as  now,  talked  about 
and  preached  to  little  effect.     We  read  in  the  Waterhury  Record 


of  March  15,  1898,  of  the  precipitate  action  of  Congress,  March 
8,  in  appropriating  $50,000,000  for  national  defense  following 
the  destruction  of  the  Maine  in  Havana  harbor.  Twelve 
minutes  after  the  bill  was  reported  to  the  Senate,  the  Vice- 
President  announced  its  unanimous  passage;  after  receiving 
his  signature  it  was  rushed  to  the  White  House  where  President 
McKinley  made  it  a  law,  and  yet  even  that  implied  recogni- 
tion of  our  fatuous  complacency  did  not  prevent  the  cruel 
blundering  that  followed  in  preparation  for  the  Spanish  War. 
The  issue  of  March  22  contains  the  memorable  speech  of  Sen- 
ator Redfield  Proctor,  recounting  what  he  saw  in  Cuba  and 
concluding  with  the  pregnant  observation:  "  But  it  is  not  my 
purpose  at  this  time  nor  do  I  consider  it  my  province  to  sug- 
gest any  plan.  I  merely  speak  of  the  symptoms  as  I  saw 
them,  but  do  not  undertake  to  prescribe.  Such  remedial 
steps  as  may  be  required  may  safely  be  left  to  an  American 
President  and  to  an  American  people." 

No  Vermonter  need  be  told  of  the  electrical  effect  of  Senator 
Proctor's  speech.  The  events  that  were  crowded  into  the 
following  five  months  changed  the  whole  course  and  policy  of 
this  government.  From  being  a  lethargic,  unwieldy  body 
politic,  heavily  drugged  with  the  soporific  anesthetic  of  com- 
mercialism, it  was  suddenly  transformed  into  a  world  power, 
fighting  and  expanding  like  other  nations.  Singularly  enough 
the  lesson  of  un preparedness,  serious  as  it  seemed  at  the  time, 
has  borne  little  fruit.  Commercialism  has  again  lulled  the 
people  to  sleep  while  the  rest  of  the  world,  not  actually  bel- 
ligerent, is  vigilant,  wakeful  and  busy  in  preparation.  At 
this  writing,  the  outcome  of  a  long,  tortuous,  difficult,  diplo- 
matic correspondence  would  seem  to  have  averted  from  the 
nation  the  unthinkable  consequences  of  a  rupture  of  relations 
with  the  most  formidable  of  the  present  belligerents.  Shall 
the  avoidance  of  disaster  by  this  narrow  margin  again  go  un- 
heeded? Are  we  forever  and  a  day  to  dwell  upon  a  volcano 
of  unpreparedness? 

True  to  her  record,  Waterbury  is  able  to  say  that  she  was 
represented  even  in  the  Spanish-American  War  in  1898.  Al- 
though none  of  the  state  towns  was  required  to  furnish  a 

PERIOD    1876-1900  193 

quota,  there  were  certain  voluntary  enlistments  either  in  the 
First  Vermont  Infantry  Regiment  or  in  the  Regular  service 
by  Vermont  recruits.  Unfortunately  there  are  no  state  records 
of  enlistments  in  the  Regular  service,  so  that  it  is  not  at  this 
time  possible  to  say  just  how  many  from  Waterbury  partici- 
pated, but  this  much  is  known:  One  Michael  McNalley,  who 
gave  his  residence  as  Waterbury,  enlisted  May  13,  1898,  in 
Company  H,  and  was  mustered  out  October  2'],  1898,  at 
Montpelier,  thus  saving  Waterbury 's  record  of  representation, 
though  in  this  case  not  actual  fighting  experience,  in  all  our 

It  would  seem  that  the  enthusiasm  of  some  of  those  who  saw 
service  in  the  Philippine  Islands  the  following  year  was  consid- 
erably dampened,  if  one  may  judge  from  a  letter  received  in 
Waterbury,  bearing  date  March  5,  1899,  in  which  the  writer, 
a  private  of  volunteers,  says:  "What  the  United  States  wants 
of  these  Islands  and  their  inhabitants  is  more  than  I  can  see 
for  they  have  already  cost  more  lives  than  the  whole  group  is 
worth.  I  suppose  all  Vermonters  are  very  proud  of  Admiral 
Dewey  and  they  may  well  be.     .  The  only  fault  I 

find  with  him  is  that  he  favors  the  retention  of  these  Islands. 
Bryan  has  a  spark  of  sense  after  all  for  he  is  not  in  favor  of 
annexation."  This  last  may  indicate  how  deeply  the  iron 
had  entered  the  soul  of  the  writer. 

Building  in  Waterbury  during  the  summer  of  1899  took  an 
upward  trend.  Ten  new  houses  were  added  to  the  village 
including  two  business  blocks.  Perhaps  the  most  important 
of  all  the  improvements  was  the  commodious  new  school 
building  opened  to  local  pupils  in  1899.  Main  Street  grade 
was  permanently  improved.  Generally,  good  prices  prevailed 
for  farm  products;  the  advance  in  the  price  for  lumber  reacted 
profitably;  and  in  many  ways  the  town  partook  of  the  general 
flow  of  prosperity.  Rather  more  fortunate  than  many  other 
towns  in  the  state,  its  health  officers,  aided  by  local  physicians, 
investigated  the  so-called  Guptil  water  supply  sources  with 
results  salutary  to  public  health. 

The  location  of  a  copper  prospect  on  the  farm  of  G.  B.  Smal- 
ley,  near  Stowe,  aroused  local  interest  in  August,  1899.     There 


were  the  usual  visits  by  the  usual  experts  and  near-experts; 
there  were  the  usual  rainbow-hued  reports;  the  usual  acme  of 
excitement  and  the  usual  subsidence  of  interest  and  oblivion. 

The  business  done  in  the  town  during  the  year  warranted 
raising  the  local  post-office  to  the  second  class,  which  moved 
someone  to  remark  that  "C.  C.  Warren  is  to  the  Waterbury 
post-office  what  Wells,  Richardson  &  Company  is,  to  the  Bur- 
lington post-office." 

Spicy  ingredients  were  injected  into  the  liquor  traffic  stew 
from  time  to  time  in  the  way  of  journalistic  condiments. 
Waterbury  stoutly  maintained  that  good  hote^s  could  be 
profitably  run  and  maintained  on  the  prohibition  plan; 
other  towns  took  issue;  then  followed  argument  of  more  or 
less  relevancy  and  of  vast  capabilities  for  edification. 

The  wonderful  nineteenth  century  came  to  an  end  showing 
a  gain  in  population  of  Waterbury  in  one  hundred  years  of 
only  2,629  or  the  difference  between  644  in  1800  and  3,273  in 
1900.  But  who  shall  estimate  the  influence  of  this  small 
community  upon  the  state  and  nation? 









The  town's  general  prosperity  continued  with  little  to 
remind  one  of  the  rude  financial  shocks  that  were  convulsing 
the  large  cities  during  the  first  five  years  of  the  new  century. 
There  was  little  to  fear  from  the  instability  incidental  to  high 
finance  in  this  secluded  corner.  The  population  in  1910  of  the 
town  was  3,273  of  which  the  village  claimed  1,377.  The  March 
meetings  were  followed  in  due  course  by  the  September  and 
November  meetings.  There  was  naturally  a  feeling  of  quiet 
and  triumphant  satisfaction,  though  not  too  boisterously  ap- 
parent, at  the  choice  of  Mr.  Dillingham  for  the  United  States 
Senate  in  1900.  The  gubernatorial  campaign  of  1902  is  still  re- 
ferred to  in  Vermont  as  a  history-making  date,  when  private 
cars,  negro  songsters,  rump  conventions,  sumptuary  issues  and 
bolting  candidates  were  all  commingled  in  a  glittering  phan- 
tasmagoria of  kaleidoscopic  glory.  The  candidates  for 
governor  were  John  G.  McCullough  whose  town  vote  was 
291 ;  Felix  W.  McGettrick  whose  town  vote  was  87,  and  Per- 
cival  W.  Clement  whose  town  vote  was  159. 

In  1904  Governor  Charles  J.  Bell  received  a  town  vote  of 
401,  to  Eli  H.  Porter's  118. 

At  the  November  meeting  in  1904  the  Roosevelt  Republican 
electors  received  a  town  vote  of  274,  to  the  Parker  Democratic 
electors'  66. 

The  following  March  meeting,  in  1905,  was  the  first  to  be 
held  at  which  a  vote  on  the  license  question  was  taken  under 
the  new  law.  The  town  at  this  election  pretty  clearly  dem- 
onstrated its  sentiments  by  a  vote  of  186  against  licensing 
the  sale  of  intoxicating  liquors,  to  67  in  favor  of  license;  these 
figures  were  188  against  and  72  in  favor  of  license  in  1906. 

Governor  Fletcher  Proctor  received  a  town  vote  in  1906 
of  302,  to  Percival  W.  Clement's  202,  the  Democratic  and 
Independent  candidates  receiving  123  and  79  respectively. 


At  the  March  meeting  in  1907,  the  vote  against  license  was 
117,  and  107  for  license. 

Governor  George  H.  Prouty  received  a  town  vote  of  353, 
to  James  E.  Burke's  145,  and  Eugene  M.  Campbell's  14,  in 

At  the  November  meeting  the  Taft  Republican  electors 
received  a  town  vote  averaging  290^,  to  the  Democratic 
electors'  86^. 

At  the  following  March  (1909)  meeting  the  license  question 
was  settled  by  a  vote  of  207  against,  and  131  for  license. 
These  figures  in  19 10  were  233  and  146  respectively.  Governor 
John  A.  Mead  in  1910  received  a  town  vote  of  227,  to  Charles 
D.  Watson's  136. 

In  191 1  the  license  vote  was  221  against  and  132  favoring 
license;  these  figures  in  1912  were  246,  to  112  respectively. 

Governor  Allen  M.  Fletcher  in  19 12  received  a  town  vote 
of  213,  to  Harlan  B.  Howe's  178,  C.  F.  Smith's  59,  and 
Frazer  Metzger's  93. 

At  the  November  meeting  in  1912  the  Taft  Republican 
electors  received  a  town  vote  of  202,  to  the  Wilson  Democratic 
electors'  103,  and  the  Roosevelt  Progressive  electors'  171. 

In  1913  at  the  March  meeting  the  vote  on  the  license  ques- 
tion was  128  against,  to  70  favoring  license.  These  figures 
were  somewhat  modified  in  1914  when  there  was  a  vote  for 
license  of  206,  to  201  against.  The  fifth-class  license  received 
143  for,  to  164  against.  At  the  special  town  meeting  in  March, 
1914,  the  vote  for  license  for  malt  liquors  only  was  164,  and 
for  license  for  liquors  of  all  kinds  was  259. 

In  1915  the  vote  stood  against  license  310,  to  199  for  license. 

At  the  first  United  States  Senatorial  election  by  popular 
vote  in  November,  19 14,  Senator  William  P.  Dillingham 
received  a  vote  in  his  home  town  of  436  votes,  to  Charles 
Prouty's  82,  Non-partisan  4,  Prohibitionist  14,  and  National 
Progressives  9. 

Governor  C.  W.  Gates,  in  November,  19 14,  received  a  town 
vote  of  362,  to  Harlan  B.  Howe's  128,  and  C.  F.  Smith's  24. 

In  the  spring  of  1905  an  exhaustive  report  was  made  by  an 
investigating  committee  appointed  to  inquire  into  the  condi- 

PERIOD    1900-1915  197 

tion  and  conduct  of  the  Vermont  State  Hospital.  This  report, 
made  pubHc  June  30,  1905,  covered  such  matters  as  ventila- 
tion, fire  protection,  fire  escapes,  convalescent  patients,  exer- 
cises, care  and  treatment  of  patients,  food,  cost  of  maintenance, 
farm,  fuel,  freight,  discount  of  bills,  the  superintendent  (with 
recommendations  of  a  change  of  the  incumbent),  medical 
staff,  trustees,  etc. 

William  Cooley,  an  inventor  and  manufacturer,  son  of 
Cassius  and  Nellie  Cooley,  died  in  Waterbury,  August  9,  1905. 
Mr.  Cooley  had  spent  forty  years  of  his  life  in  Waterbury  as 
a  manufacturer.  His  inventions  included  a  cream  separator, 
a  gasoline  engine  and  other  labor-saving  devices.  Mr.  Cooley 
was  survived  by  a  wife,  two  daughters  and  five  sons.  Though 
born  in  Burlington  in  1834,  Mr.  Cooley  retained  the  vigor  and 
energy  of  youth.  His  death  was  sudden  and  entirely  unex- 

The  community  was  mildly  fluttered  by  the  arrival  at  Lake 
Mansfield  of  Rear  Admiral  Clark  of  the  United  States  Navy. 
With  taste  and  discrimination  the  admiral  chose  the  lake  as  a 
fitting  place  at  which  to  celebrate  his  sixty-second  birthday 
and  the  occasion  of  his  retirement  from  the  navy,  which  fell 
on  the  loth  of  August,  1905.  The  famous  commander  of  the 
Oregon  was  born  in  Bradford,  Vermont,  August  10,  1843.  He 
passed  much  of  his  youth  in  Washington  County  and  was 
appointed  as  a  cadet  to  the  United  States  Naval  Academy  by 
Senator  Morrill  in  i860.  He  saw  service  under  Farragut  in 
the  West  Gulf  squadron;  after  the  war  he  was  ordered  to  the 
west  coast  of  South  America  on  the  flag  ship  Vanderhilt  of 
Commodore  Rodgers.  Successively  the  young  officer  served 
on  the  Suanee,  Vandalia,  Seminole,  Dictator,  Mahopac,  as 
instructor  at  the  academy,  on  the  Hartford,  Kearsarge  and 
Monocacy.  After  service  as  assistant  navigating  officer  at 
the  Boston  yard,  he  was  ordered  to  the  Ranger;  afterwards  to 
the  patrol  fleet  in  the  Bering  Sea,  then  to  the  receiving  ship 
Independence,  next  to  the  monitor  Monterey  and  finally,  in 
March,  1898,  to  the  Oregon  as  commander. 

The  issue  of  the  Waterbury  Record  of  March  13,  1906,  pos- 
sesses a  novel  interest    by  reason  of   the  following  editorial 


extract:  "Colonel  George  Harvey  seems  to  be  very  serious  in 
the  suggestion  he  made  at  a  recent  dinner  when  he  named 
Woodrow  Wilson,  president  of  Princeton  University,  as  a  good 
man  for  the  Democrats  to  run  for  President  of  the  United 
States.  The  suggestion  has  set  people  thinking  and  the  com- 
ments of  the  press  should  be  very  pleasing,  both  to  Mr.  Wilson 
and  Colonel  Harvey." 

The  event  showed  that  the  people  who  had  been  set  thinking, 
must  have  thought  to  some  purpose.  Judging  from  present 
indications,  however,  it  is  not  at  all  improbable  that  the  his- 
torians of  the  first  quarter  of  the  twentieth  century  will 
speculate  as  to  the  exact  reasons  why  king-making  Warwick 
Harvey  should  have  evidenced  such  great  dissatisfaction  with 
his  own  handiwork  when  the  people  of  the  country  were 
blessing  him  for  it. 

The  industrial  and  commercial  life  of  Waterbury  has  been 
such  as  might  well  be  predicated  of  other  towns  of  its  size  and 
make-up  in  the  state.  One  cannot  help  deploring,  however, 
the  fact  that  the  fullest  and  most  profitable  development  of 
the  easily  adaptable  water  powers  on  the  rivers  and  streams 
flowing  through  the  town  could  not  have  been  made  more 
fully  to  inure  to  the  use  and  benefit  of  the  town. 

The  early  users  of  water  power  did  what  they  could  with 
what  they  had  and  showed  very  creditable  results.  Mill 
Village  and  Colbyville  were  the  centers  of  industrial  activity 
for  many  years. 

Early  in  1800  the  lower  fall  in  Colbyville  was  utilized  by  a 
machine  for  carding  the  wool  raised  by  the  people  of  the 
vicinity  and  those  living  at  some  distance.  It  was  not  long 
before  the  potentialities  of  the  spot  appealed  to  O.  C.  Rood  who 
there  erected  a  potato  whiskey  distillery  and,  as  says  an  un- 
conscious humorist  of  the  vicinage,  "ran  it  as  long  as  self- 
interest  or  a  true  sense  of  moral  propriety,  in  his  judgment, 
rendered  it  advisable."  One  is  naturally  led  to  wonder 
whether  the  two  considerations  named  animated  the  ultra- 
respectable  grocers  who  sold  the  product  at  retail  and  if  so, 
which  of  the  two  was  deemed  by  them  the  weightier.  Fol- 
owed  then  the  erection,  by  E.  P.  Butler  and  Erastus  Parker, 

PERIOD    1900-1915  199 

of  a  factory  for  a  less  objectionable  utilization  of  the  humble 
potato — the  manufacture  of  starch.  Then  Mr.  Butler  built 
a  saw  mill  on  the  upper  fall  which  was  operated  for  over  forty 
years.  It  was  at  this  mill  that  both  Grow  Butler,  son  of  E.  P. 
Butler,  and  George  Rood,  son  of  O.  C.  Rood,  lost  their  lives; 
the  first  by  drowning  in  the  mill  flume,  the  second  by  being 
crushed  by  a  log.  S.  S.  Spicer  took  over  the  building,  after 
its  use  as  a  starch  factory  had  been  discontinued,  for  the  pur- 
poses of  a  tanner>^     Shortly  after  this  the  building  was  burned. 

The  village  took  its  name  from  the  Colby  brothers,  George 
J.  and  Edwin  A.,  who  came  from  Bolton  in  1856.  The  broth- 
ers purchased  of  Deacon  Erastus  Parker  the  old  starch  fac- 
tory and  a  tract  of  land  which  the  former  owner  had  long 
before  planted  to  willow  trees.  The  tract  included  a  water 
privilege  on  the  stream  and  about  thirty  acres  of  land.  The 
purchase  price  for  the  whole  was  $5,500,  The  young  men, 
then  twenty-three  and  twenty-one  years  of  age,  respectively, 
paid  $1,000  down  and  gave  notes  and  a  mortgage  for  the  bal- 
ance. They  had  already  experimented  with  basket  willows 
and  thought  they  saw  an  extension  of  the  market  for  willow 
ware.  In  1857  the  brothers  started  in  a  modest  way  with  a 
single  small  wheel  at  their  plant.  Soon  they  were  able,  through 
Deacon  Parker,  to  get  the  use  of  some  mill  machinery  belong- 
ing to  a  defunct  company  in  St.  Johnsbury,  which  they  trans- 
ported and  set  up  in  the  willow  peeling  plant.  After  this, 
custom  machine  work  began  to  come  in  and  the  business  of 
manufacturing  willow  peeling  machines,  the  invention  of 
George  Colby,  began  in  earnest. 

Perceiving  the  utility  of  willow  in  the  making  of  willow 
cabs,  the  Colbys  engaged  the  services  of  a  Mr.  Landt  as  an 
expert  willow-worker  and  began  the  manufacture  of  cab 
bodies.  From  this  it  was  an  easy  transition  to  the  making  of 
cab  wheels  and  gearing.  The  business  flourished  and  a  ready 
market  was  found  for  the  finished  vehicles. 

In  the  fall  of  1859  the  firm  was  reorganized  by  the  addition 
of  Messrs.  Howden  and  Bosworth,  who  contributed  $5,500 
cash  capital.  In  i860  the  business  was  extended  to  include 
the  manufacture  and  sale  of  the  Colby  clothes  wringer,  a 


device  well  remembered  by  many  as  a  time,  labor  and  clothes 
saving  machine  invented  by  George  Colby  and  patented  by 
him  in  i860.  Soon  the  infant  industry  was  swamped  with 
orders.  The  plant  was  operated  day  and  night  with  two  shifts 
of  workmen  in  order  to  turn  out  one  hundred  wringers  per  diem. 
This  period  of  prosperity  was  suddenly  halted  by  the  breaking 
out  of  the  Civil  War.  Workmen  enlisted,  orders  fell  off,  or 
were  countermanded  and  the  business  reached  a  low  ebb. 
After  this,  as  normal  conditions  asserted  themselves,  the 
business  revived  and  was  reorganized  under  the  name  of 
Colby  Brothers,  continuing  until  1865  when  it  was  incor- 
porated with  an  authorized  capital  of  $75,000,  afterwards 
increased  to  $85,000.  The  board  of  directors  included  George 
J.  Colby,  Jesse  J.  Colby,  Erastus  Parker  and  A.  Landt.  The 
whole  plant  numbered  about  fifteen  buildings  besides  ten 
dwelling  houses. 

"Enterprise"  was  the  watchword  of  the  Colby  brothers. 
Not  content  with  their  willow  ware,  wringer  and  cab  products, 
they  began  the  manufacture  of  children's  vehicles  and  equipped 
and  maintained  a  job  printing  establishment.  Starting  with 
practically  nothing,  the  founders  built  up  a  business  within 
ten  years  that  paid  from  sixty  to  one  hundred  employees 
$2,000  to  $3,000  a  month  in  wages,  with  sales  from  December 
I,  1863,  to  June  30,  1867,  amounting  to  over  $320,000;  the 
amount  paid  for  labor  for  the  same  period  was  $96,387.62. 
Internal  revenue  tax  to  the  government  from  September  i, 
1862,  to  June  30,  1867,  was  $13,282.  In  these  days  of  fabu- 
lous receipts  and  Midas-like  industrial  operations  these  figures 
may  not  seem  imposing,  but  the  example  of  persistence,  enter- 
prise and  courage  under  seemingly  insurmountable  obstacles 
has  remained  to  succeeding  generations.  The  business  was 
literally  built  up  from  the  putting  to  work  of  a  certain  mechan- 
ical and  inventive  gift  of  one  of  the  brothers,  aided  by  the 
energy  and  business  capacity  of  the  other  two,  with  next  to 
nothing  in  the  way  of  financial  assistance.  The  business 
continued  in  the  hands  of  the  Colbys  until  their  sale  to  the 
Montpelier  Manufacturing  Company  in  the  early  70's. 

PERIOD    1900-1915  201 

One  of  the  enterprises  that  ultimately  flourished  and  brought 
wealth  and  prosperity  to  its  projectors  and  owners  was  the 
proprietary  medicine  house  of  Henry  &  Company.  About 
the  year  1845  James  M.  Henry  became  associated  with  the 
proprietor  of  certain  patent  remedies  which  he  sold  throughout 
the  country  on  a  salary.  In  1850  Mr.  Henry  obtained  the 
general  agency  for  a  certain  widely  advertised  liniment  and 
from  this  beginning  he  founded  the  wholesale  drug  house  of 
J.  M.  Henry  &  Sons  in  1857,  having  purchased  the  drug  store, 
in  the  village,  of  J.  B.  Braley  which  stood  at  the  corner  of 
Stowe  and  Main  Streets.  The  fortunate  purchase  of  all 
manufacturing  and  selling  rights  of  another  widely  known 
proprietary  elixir  gave  an  added  impetus  to  the  business. 
Possibly  the  fact  that  the  peculiarly  curative  properties  of 
the  elixir  were  advertised  to  have  been  lost  only  to  be  restored 
by  the  then  owners  did  not  diminish  the  sales  of  the  article. 
In  i860  John  F.  Henry  withdrew  from  the  firm,  E.  B.  John- 
son taking  his  place.  In  1861  William  W.  Henry  sold  his 
interest  in  the  firm  and  entered  the  Civil  War.  Various  other 
changes  were  made  in  the  firm.  In  1866  the  personnel  of  the 
firm  was  John  F.  Henry,  General  W.  W.  Henry,  General 
William  Wells,  E.  B.  Johnson,  B.  H.  Dewey,  Doctor  Simpson, 
E.  D.  Scagel  and  A.  E.  Richardson.  Later  John  F.  Henry 
withdrew  and  went  to  New  York  where  he  became  associated 
with  the  house  of  Demas  Barnes  &  Company.  The  old  drug 
store  in  Waterbury  was  finally  purchased  by  Doctor  Horace 
Fales  and  E.  D.  Scagel  in  1867. 

The  industry  of  tanning  leather  has  long  been  operated  in 
Waterbury  in  a  varying  scale  of  activity.  At  the  site  of  the 
old  saw  mill,  built  by  N.  A.  Rhoades  in  the  middle  30's,  a 
tanner  named  P.  Brown  established  a  tannery  on  the  falls  in 
Mill  Village  to  supply  his  principal  yard  in  the  village.  On  the 
west  side  of  the  branch  at  the  south  end  of  Mill  Village  Samuel 
Dutton  started  a  tannery  on  a  small  scale  to  supply  leather 
for  his  boot  and  shoe  business.  This  tannery  on  "  Peg  Island," 
socalled,  came  into  the  hands  of  his  sons,  Thomas,  David  and 
Harper,  and  from  them  passed  to  William  W.  Wells  who 
enlarged  the  plant  and  sold  out  to  D.  &.  V.  R.  Blush.     A 



disastrous  fire  destroj'ed  the  works  and  the  real  estate,  and  a 
few  unconsumed  outbuildings  then  passed  to  Sylvester  Henry. 
Mr.  Henry  and  his  son  rebuilt  the  tannery  on  a  larger  scale 
and  put  into  operation  a  well  equipped  plant,  then  considered 
to  be  one  of  the  largest  and  best  of  the  kind  in  the  state. 

In  1870  Mr.  C.  C.  Warren  took  over  the  plant  by  lease. 
From  this  time  until  the  plant  burned,  leather  continued  to 
be  manufactured  at  the  old  site  on  a  much  larger  scale  than 
before.  Mr.  Warren  had  previously  had  experience  with  his 
father  in  the  tanning  business  in  Hartland  before  coming  to 
Waterbury\  WTien  the  Mill  Village  tannery  burned  in  1899 
Mr.  Warren  organized,  in  Morrisville,  the  Warren  Leather 
Company.  He  became  President  of  the  Company  and  has 
continued  the  business  up  to  the  present  time.  Mr.  Warren 
was  born  at  Hartland,  Vermont,  February  11,  1843,  and  came 
to  Waterbury  in  1870.  Before  coming  to  Waterbury,  and 
about  the  time  of  the  discharge  of  the  Civil  War  regimental 
bands,  Mr.  Warren  was  leader  of  the  Hartland  Brass  Band. 
He  was  offered  second  leadership  of  the  Vermont  Brigade 
Band,  Second  Division,  Sixth  Army  Corps,  then  being  or- 
ganized in  Burlington,  which  was  to  take  the  place  of  the  six 
regimental  bands  discharged  from  this  brigade.  He  served  in 
this  capacity  three  years.  After  coming  to  Waterbury  he 
became  the  leader  of  the  local  cornet  band  and  continued 
leader  for  more  than  fifteen  years. 

In  1889  he  assisted  in  locating  the  Vermont  State  Hospital 
in  town  by  selling  to  the  state  the  farm  and  grounds  they  now 
occupy.  As  state  fish  and  game  commissioner  he  located  and 
erected  the  state  fish  hatchery  at  Roxbury  and,  with  the  late 
Joseph  Somerville,  supplied  the  village  of  Waterbury  with 
their  first  system  of  water-works. 

On  December  15,  1873,  he  was  married  to  Ella  F.  McElroy. 
The  family  consists  of  two  children:  Katherine  Grace,  who 
resides  at  Mt.  Vernon,  a  suburb  of  New  York,  and  Charles 
Carlton,  residing  at  136  West  44th  Street,  with  business 
address  at  7  Wall  Street,  corner  Broadway,  New  York  City. 

There  were  other  tanners  who  began  in  the  early  days  of  the 
industry  in  Waterbury  on  "Peg  Island."     Such  was  Henry 

PERIOD    1900-1915  203 

Kneeland,  and,  as  early  as  1834,  M.  and  J.  H.  Lathrop  were 
engaged  in  tanning  in  the  village.  Their  works  were  destroyed 
by  fire  and  were  never  rebuilt. 

The  firm  of  Thompson,  Seabury  &  Blanchard  was  organized 
in  1845  to  manufacture  woolen  cloths  and  flannels.  Their 
plant  was  located  on  the  site  of  the  property  now  owned  and 
occupied  by  the  W.  J.  Boyce  estate  as  a  box  factory.  Their 
successor  was  George  D.  Joslyn,  in  1862,  and  he  in  turn  was 
succeeded  by  Selleck  &  Joslyn  in  1865,  and  they  by  A.  H. 
Selleck  until  the  factory  and  machinery  were  destroyed  by 
fire  in  1875.  The  present  building  was  built  by  Mr.  Selleck 
in  1876,  he  using  the  first  floor  for  the  manufacture  of  fork 
handles  and  the  second  as  a  tenement.  The  Selleck  estate 
sold  the  property  to  M.  Davis  in  1905,  and  he  to  Boyce  & 
Perkins  in  1908.  Mr.  Selleck  spent  a  year  after  the  burning 
of  the  plant  in  1875  in  Montreal,  Province  of  Quebec.  The 
present  butter  box  factory  of  the  Boyce  estate  was  erected 
about  one  year  thereafter.  Mr.  Selleck  died  in  Needham, 
Massachusetts,  in  1884  at  the  age  of  forty-three.  His  remains 
were  interred  in  the  Waterbury  cemetery. 

Daniel  Stowell  was  the  first  machinist  in  Waterbury.  His- 
shop  was  situated  on  the  present  site  of  the  Methodist  Church. 
He  began  here  between  1845  and  1850.  His  business  was 
in  repairs  and  dressing  lumber.  He  used  the  first  stationary 
steam  engine  in  the  town.  He  joined  Henry  Carter  in  the- 
building  of  a  structure,  afterwards  the  property  of  the  State 
Reform  School. 

C.  Blodgett  &  Son  started  soon  after  the  coming  in  of  the 
railroad.  They  dealt  in  lumber  and  shingles,  with  yards 
north  of  the  railway  station.  They  did  a  large  business  in 
groceries  and  farmers'  supplies,  etc.  They  afterwards  re- 
moved to  Burlington  where  Calvin  Blodgett,  Jr.,  became 
mayor  of  the  city. 

Cook  &  Thompson  built  the  first  foundry  in  Waterbury, 
just  south  of  the  passenger  station,  which  still  stands.  They 
manufactured  stoves  and  were  in  business  during  the  period 
of  1 857-1 862.  They  were  succeeded  by  Hewitt  &  Jones  and 
Hewitt    &    Meeker.     Then    came    in    succession    Daniel    K. 


Adams,  Adams  &  Wells  and  Horatio  Moffitt  &  Company,  all 
in  the  business  of  manufacturing   stoves   between    1855  and 


J.  Crossett  and  E.  W.  Corse,  both  of  Duxbury,  were  both 
engaged  in  the  lumber  business  in  Waterbury  at  about  this 
period,  also  M.  W.  Shurtleff. 

Deacon  Erastus  Parker,  besides  being  one  of  the  early 
pillars  of  strength  to  the  town  by  reason  of  his  sagacity,  judg- 
ment, energy  and  good  counsel,  was  also  the  pioneer  manufac- 
turer of  starch  at  Colbyville.  He  sold  his  plant  and  privileges 
to  the  Colby  Brothers  and  had  the  satisfaction  of  seeing  his 
young  friends  build  up  a  prosperous  business  from  small 

Wells  &  Sherlock  were  engaged  in  the  flour  business,  in  1850 
and  1855,  at  the  mill  now  known  as  the  Seabury  mill  in  Mill 
Village.  Their  former  storehouse  is  now  occupied  by  Wallace 
Green  and  O'Brien,  the  barber,  on  Park  Row. 

E.  W.  Ladd  and  Walker  &  Fisher  were  dealers  in  monuments 
and  gravestones  at  a  shop  located  in  the  yard  of  the  James 
Burleigh  place. 

W.  F.  Hutchins  was  a  dealer  in  boots  and  shoes,  also  a 
manufacturer  of  footwear.  He  built  the  house  where  "Peg- 
leg"  Minor  once  lived,  and  now  owned  and  occupied  by  Mrs. 

Another  well  known  maker  of  boots  and  shoes  and  a  promi- 
nent citizen  was  Lucius  Parmalee,  whose  shop  and  store  ad- 
joined Lease's  harness  shop  on  Main  Street.  This  place  was 
the  home  of  the  first  Library  Association,  the  nucleus  of  the 
present  Village  Library.  Mr.  Parmalee  was  the  custodian  in 
charge.  Crawford  &  Townshend  were  also  makers  of  and 
dealers  in  footwear  in  1862. 

G.  H.  Lease  succeeded  his  father  in  the  business  of  harness 
making  and  saddlery,  and  occupied  a  shop  adjoining  the  old 
hotel  building,  long  since  razed  to  the  ground,  on  Main  Street 
and  on  the  site  of  the  present  Parker  Block.  This  was  moved 
to  the  present  site  of  M.  Messer's  building  and  is  a  part  of  it. 
Here  Mr.  Lease  continued  the  business  as  long  as  he  lived. 

George  H.  Atherton,  Justin  Hinds  and  M.  E,  Smilie  were 

PERIOD    1900- 19 1 5  205 

respectively  engaged  in  the  business  of  cabinet  making,  elec- 
trotyping  and  making  stoves  during  a  part  of  this  period. 

The  Waterbury  Manufacturing  Company  manufactured 
and  dealt  in  sash,  doors  and  blinds. 

The  far-famed  Thomas  inks  were  first  made  at  the  barn  on 
the  George  Moody  place,  now  owned  by  Mr.  O'Brien.  Thomas 
moved  to  Michigan  and  continued  to  make  a  superior  quality 
of  ink  that  soon  became  widely  used  in  the  middle  west. 

O.  E.  Scott,  maker  and  dealer  in  clocks  and  watches,  and 
optician,  began  business  in  the  George  H.  Atherton  building. 
He  then  removed  his  place  of  business  across  the  street  to  the 
Graves  block,  now  owned  by  Mrs.  Daniel  Chase,  where  he 
remained  until  about  two  years  ago  when  he  moved  to  his 
present  store  in  the  Knight  Block.  Mr.  Scott's  business  house 
is  said  to  be  the  oldest  in  town  today. 

The  manufacturing  firm  of  Case  &  Thomas  were  engaged 
in  making  mops,  which  business  was  afterwards  merged  into 
that  of  the  Waterbury  Manufacturing  Company.  They  also 
manufactured  sash,  doors  and  blinds.  Their  steam  mill  was 
the  old  one  formerly  occupied  by  Carter  &  Stowell  and  used 
by  the  Reform  School  for  making  chair  seats. 

Mr.  William  W.  Wells  organized  the  firm  of  Wells  &  Mc- 
Murphy,  makers  and  dealers  in  mops  and  chair  stock.  The 
mill,  owned  then  (i 865-1 866)  by  Mr.  Wells,  was  just  south 
of  the  Seabury  mill  and  derived  its  power  from  the  same  dam. 
It  was  taken  down  years  ago. 

One  of  the  industries  of  the  town  which,  if  properly  devel- 
oped, might  well  have  yielded  large  returns  was  that  of  brick 
making.  An  early  pioneer  in  the  industry  was  J.  McMurphy 
whose  yard  and  kilns  were  at  Mill  Village,  near  the  Perry  Hill 
railroad  crossing. 

George  C.  Ames  was  a  monument  and  gravestone  worker 
in  a  shop  near  the  station  where  Miss  Shaw  now  lives. 

A.  C.  Atherton  was  a  maker  and  dealer  in  paper,  whose  place 
of  business  was  in  a  wooden  building  where  Perkins'  store 
now  stand's. 

One  of  those  engaged  in  the  iron  business  was  Cecil  Graves. 
His  place  was  at  the  present  site  of  Lamb's  store.     He  built  the 


block  known  as  the  Graves  block.     He  was  succeeded  by  his 
son,  Charles. 

The  above  enumeration  will  convey  some  idea  of  the  prin- 
cipal industries  in  Waterbury  from  the  beginning  down  to  a 
point  well  within  the  memory  of  those  now  living. 

The  town  of  Waterbury  has  been  singularly  free  from  litiga- 
tion, at  least  of  the  kind  that  is  fought  through  the  Supreme 
Court.  However,  an  interesting  question  arose  when  John 
S.  Ladd,  a  highway  surveyor,  sought  reimbursement  for 
damages  he  was  obliged  to  pay  for  certain  acts  of  alleged  tres- 
pass. The  selectmen  had  given  Ladd  a  tax  bill  and  warrant 
for  his  highway  district  and  described  the  road  on  which  his 
tax  bill  was  to  be  worked  out  as  follows:  "Beginning  at  the 
school  house  on  Demeritt's  land  at  the  junction  of  the  roads, 
thence  to  John  S.  Ladd's  house."  A  part  of  this  road  crossed 
Rowell's  land;  he  denied  that  it  was  a  public  highway  and 
objected  to  Ladd's  working  out  the  tax  on  it  upon  his  land. 
The  selectmen  directed  Ladd  to  proceed  under  the  authority 
of  his  bill  and  warrant  and  repair  the  road.  He  did  so  in 
good  faith.  Rowell  sued  him  in  trespass  and  recovered. 
Ladd  then  sued  the  town  upon  the  ground  that  the  town  was 
bound  to  indemnify  him.  The  court  held  (Aldis  J.)  that  if  the 
selectmen  of  a  town  describe,  in  the  tax  bill  given  by  them  to 
a  highway  surveyor,  as  within  his  district  a  highway  which, 
though  never  legally  established  as  a  highway,  has  been 
recognized  and  repaired  as  such  by  the  town  and  used  by  the 
public,  and  the  surveyor  proceed  to  repair  said  highway,  and, 
in  consequence  of  its  never  having  been  legally  established, 
is  obliged  to  pay  damages  in  trespass  for  working  the  same, 
he  is  entitled  to  be  indemnified  by  the  town  for  such 
damages;  and  is  not  obliged  to  look  beyond  his  tax  bill  and 
warrant  to  ascertain  the  extent  of  his  district  and  the  roads 
which  he  is  to  repair.  [Ladd  vs.  Waterbury,  34  Vermont  426, 

Another  case  determined  by  the  Supreme  Court  at  the 

August  term,  1865,  was  Loren  D.  Watts  vs.  Town  of  Waterbury. 

This  action  against  the  town  was  for  damages  suffered  by 

the  wife  of  the  plaintiff,  from  injuries  received  by  reason  of  the 

PERIOD    1900-1915  207 

insufficiency  of  a  highway.  The  accident  occurred  just  east 
of  the  railroad  track  and  Doctor  Horace  Fales  was  called  in 
attendance  a  few  minutes  later.  Upon  the  trial,  counsel 
proposed  to  ask  Doctor  Fales,  upon  cross-examination,  if,  in 
conversation  with  Watts  and  his  wife  about  the  matter,  he 
did  not  tell  them  if  they  could  get  $100  they  would  better 
settle  it.  The  question  was  excluded  upon  objection.  The 
judgment  against  the  town  was  reversed,  the  court  holding 
that  in  this  suit  for  injury  on  a  highway,  the  physician  who 
attended  the  plaintiff  for  the  injury  being  a  witness  for  the 
plaintiff  on  the  trial  to  show  what  injury  was  sustained,  may 
properly  be  asked,  on  cross-examination,  the  question  as  to 
whether  he  had  not  advised  settlement  for  $100. 

Wrisley  vs.  Waterhury  (1869),  42  Vermont  228,  Jacob 
Wrisley  was  a  soldier  in  the  service  of  the  United  States  in 
Virginia  in  the  winter  of  1 863-1 864.  At  this  time  the  govern- 
ment was  offering  $402  as  bounty  and  a  furlough  to  those 
soldiers  who  should  reenlist;  that  prior  to  February  i,  1864, 
he  was  informed  that  the  town  of  Waterbury  was  paying  a 
bounty  of  $300  for  volunteers  to  its  credit;  that,  in  consequence 
of  this  information,  relying  on  having  $300  from  Waterbury, 
together  with  what  the  United  States  offered,  he  reenlisted 
February  i,  1864.  Wrisley  soon  took  his  furlough  and  natur- 
ally wanted  his  bounty.  Mr.  Janes,  the  first  selectman  of  the 
town,  told  him  the  quota  was  full  but  said  if  he  would  let  his 
name  remain  to  the  credit  of  Waterbury,  "if  they  had  another 
call  and  raised  any  more  men  and  paid  a  bounty,  they  would 
pay  him  as  much  as  they  did  them,  and  that  if  they  had  to 
raise  any  more  men,  if  they  paid  any  bounty,  they  would  pay 
the  plaintiff  as  much." 

The  application  for  the  town  meeting  in  the  month  of  Novem- 
ber, 1863,  was  "to  see  what  course  the  town  will  take  to  fill 
the  quota  of  men  required  of  the  town  of  Waterbury,  under 
the  last  two  calls  of  the  general  government  for  soldiers." 
The  warning  was  to  see  if  the  town  will  pay  any  additional 
bounty  to  volunteers  from  said  town,  and  if  any,  how  much, 
and  the  vote  was  "to  pay  each  volunteer  from  this  town  a 
bounty  of  $300  when  mustered  into  the  United  States  Service. " 


The  court  held  (Wilson  J.)  that  under  the  circumstances 
existing  the  $300  bounty  was  confined  to  such  as  should  enlist 
to  the  credit  of  the  town  on  the  quota  under  the  call  or  calls 
made  before  the  date  of  the  vote,  and  also  that  the  unauthor- 
ized promise  of  the  selectmen  to  pay  a  soldier  such  bounty  as 
the  town  might  pay  to  others  on  future  calls  would  not  bind 
the  town,  though  it  paid  a  bounty  to  others  on  future  calls. 

This  very  question  was  raised  in  the  case  of  John  P.  Jones 
vs.  Waterhury,  44  Vermont  113,  1871,  and  decided  the  same 

In  Topsham  vs.  Waterbury,  the  plaintifif  sought  to  collect 
by  suit  money  expended  in  support  of  one  P.  and  his  family 
while  in  Topsham.  P.  had  resided  in  Waterbury  for  three 
years  and  had  declined  the  town's  assistance  in  supporting 
himself  and  family.  Repeated  offers  were  made  by  Water- 
bury's  overseer  to  support  P.'s  family  in  the  town  poorhouse; 
the  overseer  of  Topsham  had  no  notice  of  the  last  offer; 
Waterbury  continued  to  support  the  family  until  October, 
1899,  and  then  the  family  was  supported  by  Topsham.  It 
was  held  by  the  court  that  a  determination  by  a  town  that  it 
will  support  one  of  its  paupers  within  its  own  limits,  as  upon 
its  poor  farm,  will  not  relieve  it  from  liability  for  assistance 
furnished  to  such  pauper  in  compliance  with  the  statute  by 
another  town  in  which  such  pauper  comes  to  need,  unless, 
upon  receiving  the  required  notice  from  such  other  town,  it  in 
return  notifies  such  other  town  of  said  determination.  [73 
Vermont  185,  1901.] 

Various  Legislative  Acts  Affecting  Waterbury 

An  Act  to  incorporate  the  Waterbury  Falls  Manufacturing 
Company.  The  following  were  named  in  the  charter  as  incor- 
porators: Ithamer  A.  Beard,  William  Carpenter,  Ferrand  F. 
Merrill,  George  W.  Collamer  and  William  Howes.  The 
company  was  empowered  "to  construct  and  make  such  dams 
and  canals  and  aqueducts  on  lands  owned  by  said  company  as 
may  be  necessary  for  the  use  and  improvement  of  the  water 
power  at  said  Falls  and  to  rent  the  use  of  such  water  power  or 
any  part  thereof,"  etc,     (October  31,  1849.) 

PERIOD    1900-1915  209 

An  Act  to  incorporate  the  Waterbury  Quarrying  and  Mining 
Company.  The  following  were  named  as  incorporators  in 
the  charter:  S.  H.  Stowell,  S.  L.  Cole,  H.  M.  Bates,  Perlev 
Belknap,  George  W.  Dana,  T.  P.  Redfield  and  H.  P.  Allen. 
The  object  was  quarrying  and  working  soapstone,  lead,  and 
other  minerals  and  stone  in  the  State  of  Vermont.  (Novem- 
ber 13,  1856.) 

An  Act  to  incorporate  The  Waterbury  Hotel  Company. 
The  following  were  named  as  incorporators  in  the  charter: 
J.  C.  Batchelder,  Sidney  Brown,  William  Moody,  Curtis  N. 
Arms,  Paul  Dillingham,  Luther  Henry,  W.  H.  H.  Bingham  and 
L.  L.  Durant,  "for  the  purpose  of  purchasing,  repairing  or 
building  a  house  of  public  entertainment  in  the  village  of 
Waterbury,"  etc.     (November  21,  i860.) 

An  Act  to  incorporate  the  Waterbury  Falls  and  Crouching 
Lion  Hotel  and  Road  Company.  The  following  incorporators 
were  named  in  the  charter:  Samuel  Ridley,  Jesse  J.  Ridley  and 
Dunning  Steward  of  Duxbury,  Eastman  W.  Case,  Cecil  Graves, 
L  C.  Brown,  Sidney  Brown  and  Curtis  Arms  of  Waterbury, 
and  Calvin  Blodgett,  Sion  E.  Howard  and  George  H.  Bigelow 
of  Burlington,  for  the  purpose  of  "purchasing,  building  and 
furnishing  upon  the  mountain,  called  Camel's  Hump,  or 
Crouching  Lion,  a  house  or  houses  of  public  entertainment, 
and  of  building  and  repairing  a  public  road  from  Ridley's 
Mills  in  Duxbury  to  the  summit  of  said  mountain,"  etc. 
(November  6,  1865.) 

An  Act  to  incorporate  the  Waterbury  Cemetery  Association, 
The  following  incorporators  were  named  in  the  charter:  Paul 
Dillingham,  J.  C.  Batchelder,  J.  F.  Henry,  William  W.  Wells, 
C.  N.  Arms,  George  J.  Colby  and  Luther  Henry.  Authorized 
"to  take  by  purchase  or  gift  and  hold  within  the  towns  of 
Waterbury  or  Duxbury,  real  estate  not  exceeding  forty  acres 
of  land,  to  be  held  and  occupied  for  a  cemetery  for  the  burial 
of  the  dead,  and  for  no  other  purpose,"  etc.  (November  8, 

An  Act  to  authorize  the  towns  of  Morristown,  Stowe,  and 
Waterbury  to  aid  in  the  construction  of  a  railroad.  Under 
this  Act  each  town  named  was  authorized  to  raise  by  tax  on 


the  grand  list  a  sum  not  exceeding  $50,000,  etc.,  to  be  appro- 
priated to  aid  in  building  the  Mount  Mansfield  railroad,  either 
by  subscription  for  stock  or  otherwise,  etc.  (November  24, 

An  Act  authorizing  the  Village  of  Waterbury  to  issue  bonds. 
"The  inhabitants  of  that  part  of  the  town  of  Waterbury  em- 
braced within  a  survey  made  by  H.  F.  Smith  on  the  22d  of 
October,  1902,  and  found  recorded  in  Volume  28,  at  pages 
525  and  526  of  the  land  records  of  the  town  of  Waterbury 
.  .  .  are  hereby  incorporated  and  made  a  body  politic 
and  corporate  by  the  name  of  the  Village  of  Waterbury,  etc., 
amending  Section  i.  No.  205,  of  the  Acts  of  1882,  Village 
Charter."     (December  3,  1908.) 

Naturally  religious  matters  assumed  the  complexion  of  and 
were  regulated  largely  by  the  customs  and  laws  prevailing  in 
the  communities  or  states  from  which  the  early  settlers  in 
Vermont  emigrated.  As  the  dominant  or  ascendant  persua- 
sion or  sect  in  Massachusetts  and  Connecticut,  communities 
from  which  the  later  Vermont  communities  took  their  origin, 
was  Congregational,  it  was  sought  to  engraft  this  denomina- 
tion upon  the  new  Green  Mountain  settlements  by  compulsory 
support  of  the  gospel  ministry.  Two  laws  were  passed  by  the 
Vermont  Legislature  in  1787  and  1789,  substantially  the  same 
in  effect,  binding  the  inhabitants  of  each  town  to  be  of  and  to 
support  "the  leading  denomination,"  or  to  show  that  they 
were  of  different  views  and  supported  the  gospel  ministry 
elsewhere.  The  Baptists,  as  might  be  expected,  resented  and 
vigorously  opposed  this  arbitrary  policy.  Followed  then  a 
controversy  of  two  years  in  the  Legislature,  during  which 
Elder  Ezra  Butler  became  an  active  member  of  the  State 
Council  and  Aaron  Leland,  a  Baptist  clergyman,  became 
speaker  of  the  House.  These  influential  men  had  much  to 
do  with  the  ultimate  repeal  of  the  obnoxious  laws  in  1807, 
and  Waterbury,  in  common  with  other  Vermont  towns,  was 
guaranteed  her  rightful  measure  of  religious  liberty  thereby. 

It  must  not  be  inferred,  however,  from  this  early  local 
struggle  for  religious  liberty  that  Waterbury  was  an  exception 

PERIOD    1900-1915  211 

to  the  rule  that  the  church's  beginning  is  far  from  being  coin- 
cident with  the  town's  inception.  Contrary  to  the  prevaihng 
opinion,  frontier  settlements  in  the  past  were  no  more  predom- 
inantly religious  than  those  of  the  present.  It  is  only  in 
exceptional  cases  widely  noted,  and  for  that  reason  more  or 
less  misleading,  that  churches  begin  with  the  town.  Exi- 
gencies of  frontier  life  were  not  conducive  to  prolonged  and 
sustained  mental  activity  in  the  realms  of  theology  and  phil- 
osophy. The  doctrinaire  of  the  day  was  often  interrupted 
in  his  dogmatic  flights  by  the  prosaic  necessity  of  filling 
the  larder  from  the  hunt  or  fishing  expedition. 

Ezra  Butler's  narrative  of  his  early  religious  experiences, 
as  given  by  Reverend  C.  C.  Parker,  is  a  story  of  doubt,  struggle 
and  triumph.  He,  by  his  own  confession,  came  to  Waterbury 
a  profane  and  irreligious  boy,  "not  a  little  disposed  to  quarrel 
with  certain  great  doctrines."  A  period  of  four  years  elapsed 
during  which  he  was  not  only  irreligious  himself  but  did  not 
know  a  religious  man  in  the  settlement.  As  for  gospel  preach- 
ing, there  had  not  been  a  single  sermon  preached  in  the  town. 
Mr,  Butler's  own  account  graphically  sets  forth  the  then  con- 
ditions: "Being  obliged  to  work  hard  during  the  week  and 
there  being  no  public  worship  in  town  which  he  could  attend 
if  he  desired,  he  was  in  the  habit  of  spending  much  of  the 
Sabbath  in  sleep.  On  a  certain  Sabbath,  awakening  from  his 
sleep,  he  found  his  wife  reading  a  pamphlet,  and  proposed  that 
she  read  it  aloud  for  the  benefit  of  both."  Much  to  his  per- 
plexity, the  author  was  contending  that  we  are  justly  con- 
demned for  wrong  dispositions  as  well  as  wrong  actions.  Mr. 
Butler  was  quite  willing  to  admit  the  justice  of  God  in  punish- 
ing overt  acts,  but  not  wrong  propensities,  and  was  unable  to 
see  how  a  man  could  be  held  blameable  for  a  disposition  he 
did  not  create.  To  quote  Mr.  Parker:  "After  days  of 
profoundest  darkness  and  sharpest  distress,  bordering  on 
despair,  he  was  brought  into  the  clear  light  and  liberty  of  the 
Gospel.  His  feet  having  been  set  in  the  way  of  Life,  he  walked 
circumspectly  in  that  way  to  the  end."  Mr.  Butler's  con- 
version was  followed  by  his  baptism  and  reception  into  the 
Baptist  Church  of  Bolton. 


A  Reverend  Mr.  Call  of  Woodstock  had,  in  the  meantime, 
preached  the  first  sermon  in  Waterbury.  Soon  after  this, 
between  1800  and  1801,  the  Baptist  Church  was  organized  in 
Waterbury  with  Mr.  Ezra  Butler  as  first  ordained  pastor. 
Deacon  Allen  and  David  Austin  brought  with  them,  from 
Massachusetts  and  Connecticut,  their  love  for  the  discipline 
in  the  straight  ways  of  their  home  states  and  soon  began  to 
cast  about  for  assistance  of  others  similarly  disposed  in  order 
to  make  some  organized  effort  at  maintaining  regular  meetings 
on  the  Sabbath.  After  Waterbury  had  emerged  from  her 
first  revival  season  in  1800,  under  the  labors  of  Reverend  Jedi- 
diah  Bushnell  of  Connecticut  and  later  of  Cornwall,  Vermont, 
the  Congregationalists,  Baptists  and  Methodists  established 
churches,  the  first  named  being  organized  by  Mr.  Bushnell 
in  1801.  Mr.  Bushnell,  as  yet  unordained  and  a  graduate  of 
Williams  College,  came  probably  as  an  evangelist  at  the  behest 
of  the  Missionary  Society  of  Connecticut,  founded  two  years 
previously.  The  Congregational  Church  numbered  among 
its  first  members:  Asaph  Allen,  David  Austin,  Hugh  Blair,  Ed- 
ward Bates,  Moses  Bates,  David  Towne,  Amos  Slate,  Thomas 
Kennan,  Zebulon  Allen,  Mary  Austin,  Jane  Blair,  Ruth  Rich, 
Lydia  Towne,  Esther  Slate  and  Bathsheba  Slate. 

We  have  already  seen  how  Mr.  Jonathan  Hovey's  unfor- 
tunate propensity  for  controversy  handicapped  his  ministry. 
He  was  the  first  called  to  settle  over  the  new  Congregational 
Church  as  its  minister,  from  which  fact  he  was  disposed  to 
argue  that  he  was  the  "first  settled  minister"  within  the 
meaning  of  the  Wentworth  Charter.  His  ordination,  attended 
with  certain  difficulties  raised  by  his  opponents,  occurred  in 
1803.  He  was  dismissed  for  lack  of  support  in  1807.  Mr. 
Hovey  came  by  his  argumentative  habits  naturally  enough, 
having  been  trained  to  the  law  which  he  practiced  in  Randolph 
before  coming  to  Waterbury.  He  is  described  as  possessing 
"a.  clear,  strong  mind — was  more  remarkable  for  sternness  and 
rigor,  than  for  benignity  and  affability,  had  more  power  to 
convince  than  to  win,  to  gain  respect  than  affection.  .  .  . 
His  meetings  were  alternately  in  his  own  neighborhood  (Knee- 
land  district),  in  barns  and  private  houses  and  in  the  school 

PERIOD    1900-1915  213 

house  at  the  Street,  or  at  'the  River'  as  the  village  was  then 
called."  It  is  not  difficult  to  conjure  up  in  the  mind  such  a 
personality — impatient  and  intolerant  of  certain  mannerisms 
easily  affected  to  pass  current  for  affability;  rather  too  direct 
and  sledge-hammer-like  in  argument  for  his  politico-religious 
opponents  but  no  match  for  them  in  diplomacy  and  finesse; 
finally,  a  sincere  man  who  addressed  himself  to  his  calling 
according  to  his  lights  but  ever  and  anon  tripped  by  his  un- 
fortunate temperament  and  uncompromising  ways. 

The  period  between  the  organization  of  the  Congregational 
Church  and  the  settlement  of  its  next  pastor  after  Mr.  Hovey — 
eighteen  years — was  filled  in  by  itinerant  preachers  and  local 
deacons.  Sabbath  services  were  maintained  under  direction 
of  Deacon  Asaph  Allen,  with  some  layman  to  read  a  sermon, 
often  L.  B.  Peck,  Esq.,  a  lawyer. 

It  has  been  already  noted  how  the  first  meeting  house  was 
built  forty  years  after  the  settlement  of  the  town,  by  the 
Waterbury  Meeting  House  Society.  Reverend  Daniel  Warren 
came  to  the  church  the  following  year  (December  7,  1825). 
He  happened  to  be  in  Waterbury  one  Sabbath  and  resolved 
to  hear  Reverend  Mr.  Blodgett  of  Jericho  preach.  On  Mr. 
Blodgett's  non-arrival  Mr.  Warren  was  invited  to  preach  and 
was  afterwards  asked  to  remain  as  pastor.  He  continued 
with  the  church  for  thirteen  years,  during  which  time  there 
were  two  fruitful  revivals  in  1 826-1 827  and  1 835-1 836.  The 
revival  of  1 835-1 836  was  inaugurated  and  conducted  by 
Reverend  Orris  Pier,  the  pastor  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal 
Church  at  Waterbury  Center,  and  was  most  remarkable  in 
its  character.  Having  its  beginning  among  the  Methodists 
it  soon  gained  such  power  and  strength  that  it  embraced  all 
classes  throughout  the  town.  The  two  revivals  before  men- 
tioned yielded  to  the  Congregational  Church  one  hundred  and 
twenty-four  new  members.  The  Center  churches  by  this 
time  had  permanent  buildings  and  were  given  new  life  and 
energy''  through  large  accessions. 

After  Jonathan  Hovey  and  Daniel  C.  Warren  (1825-1838) 
the  incumbent  was  Reverend  John  F.  Stone,  who  was  installed 
January  6,  1839,  and  was  dismissed  June  9,  1847,     Following 


him  was  Reverend  A.  G.  Pease,  who  was  born  at  Canaan, 
Connecticut,  in  February,  i8ii,  son  of  Salmon  and  Matilda 
(Huntingdon)  Pease,  born  at  Norfolk,  Connecticut,  in  1783, 
and  Ashford,  Connecticut,  in  1780,  respectively.  Reverend 
A.  G.  Pease  was  graduated  from  the  University  of  Vermont 
in  1837  and  Andover  Theological  Seminary  in  184 1.  He  was 
married  to  Miss  Anne  Page,  daughter  of  Deacon  William  Page 
of  Rutland,  October  18,  1842.  Mr.  Pease  was  installed  as 
pastor  of  the  Congregational  Church  in  Waterbury  in  1849, 
after  two  years'  residence.  From  Waterbury  he  went  to 
Norwdch  in  1853.  He  came  to  Waterbury,  after  supplying  the 
churches  at  Royalton  and  Poultney  between  the  time  of  leaving 
Pittsford  in  1845,  the  place  of  his  first  ordination,  and  the 
assumption  of  his  labors  here. 

The  longest  pastorate  of  the  Congregational  Church  was 
that  of  Reverend  C.  C.  Parker,  a  sketch  of  whom  has  already 
been  given  and  whose  ministrations  during  the  Civil  War 
kept  at  white  heat  the  spirit  of  patriotism  locally.  Mr.  Parker 
also  served  Waterbury  as  superintendent  of  schools  during  a 
part  of  his  incumbency  as  pastor. 

Mr.  Parker  was  succeeded  at  the  Congregational  Church 
by  Reverend  Jonathan  Copeland,  who  came  from  the  Presby- 
terian Church  at  Champlain,  New  York,  to  Waterbury  in 
answer  to  a  call  in  1867.  Mr.  Copeland  was  a  graduate  of 
Union  College  and  the  Theological  Seminary.  He  married 
Kezia  Clark  of  Niskayuna,  New  York,  and  was  the  father  of 
three  sons,  Clark,  Edward  and  William  and  three  daughters, 
Katharine,  Alice  and  Minnie.  Mr.  Copeland  found  no 
difficulty  in  conforming  to  Congregational  usages  although 
he  had  been  converted,  educated,  licensed,  installed  and  a 
co-worker  among  Presbyterians.  The  church  in  Waterbury 
prospered  healthfully  during  his  incumbency,  which  endured 
from  1867  to  1875. 

In  order  after  Mr.  Copeland's  term  of  service,  came  thecall  to 
Reverend  S.  H.  Wheeler,  who  was  ordained  and  installed  De- 
cember 16, 1875,  and  continued  as  pastor  until  1886.  During  his 
pastorate  there  were  one  hundred  additions  to  the  church  mem- 
bership and  the  church  building  was  repaired  to  the  extent  of 
$2,000.     Mr.  Wheeler  was  followed  by  Reverend  Charles  M. 

PERIOD    1900-1915  215 

Sheldon,  extracts  from  whose  characteristic  letter  will  be 
found  elsewhere.  Mr.  Sheldon  was  ordained  and  installed  in 
1886  and  remained  until  December,  1888,  when  he  resigned 
to  go  to  the  Central  Congregational  Church  at  Topeka,  Kan- 
sas. During  1889  Reverend  S.  H.  Wheeler  supplied  until 
December  4,  1892.  In  1889  and  1890  the  church  received  a 
memorial  communion  service,  stained  glass  windows,  interior 
decorations  and  upholstery,  and  other  needed  improvements. 
In  1892  the  church  extended  a  call  to  Reverend  A.  J.  Covell 
of  Flint,  Michigan,  who  was  installed  pastor  February  28, 
1893.  His  ministry  of  three  and  one-half  years  was  fruitful 
of  many  additions  to  the  church.  Reverend  George  Ladd  suc- 
ceeded Mr.  Covell,  after  an  interval  of  seven  months,  and 
served  from  May  2,  1897,  until  June  10,  1901.  Reverend 
F.  B.  Kellogg  succeeded  Mr.  Ladd  and  served  from  July,  1901, 
until  July,  1910.  It  is  said  that  only  three  pastors  in  the 
one  hundred  and  twelve  years  of  the  church's  existence  up  to 
that  time  had  rendered  longer  service  continuously. 

Reverend  W.  L.  Boicourt  began  his  pastorate  November 
I,  1910.  In  January,  1912,  forty-three  persons  were  admitted 
to  membership  in  the  church,  twenty-eight  of  these  on  con- 
fession of  faith.  Mr.  Boicourt  was  born  at  Gaylord,  Kansas, 
July  9,  1877  ;  he  was  married  to  Sarah  R.  Huse,  September  14, 
1904.  He  received  his  early  preliminary  educational  training 
at  the  common  schools  of  Kansas.  He  was  graduated  from 
Baker  University  of  Baldwin,  Kansas,  A.  B.  1901,  and  from 
the  Boston  University  School  of  Theology  S.  T.  B.  in  1904. 
Mr.  Boicourt  came  to  Waterbury  from  Cliftondale,  Massa- 
chusetts. He  was  previously  a  member,  for  five  years,  of 
the  Cincinnati  Conference  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church, 
supplying  pulpits  in  the  vicinity  of  Cincinnati. 

The  famous  revival  of  1 835-1 836,  inaugurated  by  the 
Methodists  under  the  leadership  of  Reverend  Orris  Pier, 
resulted  not  only  in  large  accessions  to  the  Methodist  Episcopal 
Church  at  Waterbury  Center,  but  in  establishing  a  large  class 
in  Waterbury  Village  and  the  organization  of  a  church  so- 
ciety at  that  place.  In  1841  their  first  house  of  worship  in 
Waterbury  Village  was  erected.  Next  the  Freewill  Baptist 
Church  was  to  follow  five  or  six  years  later  with  a  permanent 


church  building  on  the  Waterbury  River.  There  had  been  a 
Methodist  organization  as  early  as  1800,  whose  founder  was 
Elder  Stebbins.  In  the  roster  of  members  were  Thomas  Gup- 
til  and  wife,  John  Henderson  and  wife,  Timothy  Parcher  and 
wife,  John  Jones,  David  Straw  and  wife,  John  Hudson  and 
wife,  Joseph  Fiske  and  wife,  Simeon  Woolson  and  wife,  George 
Scagel  and  wife,  Lemuel  Lyon  and  wife,  Moses  Nelson,  Nathan 
Nelson,  Samuel  Bryant,  Benjamin  Fiske,  Orrin  Gregg,  Araunah 
Lyon  and  Chester  Lyon.  These  last  three  entered  the  Metho- 
dist ministry  from  the  church.  The  new  church  of  1836  num- 
bered among  its  members  John  Lathrop,  Paul  Dillingham, 
C.  C.  Arms,  William  Carpenter,  A.  A.  Atherton  and  A;  S, 

It  has  been  said  that  Methodism  entered  Vermont  from  the 
west  side.  Waterbury's  Methodist  genealogy  is  traced  back 
to  the  Cambridge  (New  York)  Circuit  in  which  Ash  Grove 
Society  in  Shaftsbury,  Vermont,  was  situated.  It  is  fairly 
well  settled  that  Methodism  had  penetrated  beyond  the  banks 
of  Lake  Champlain  into  the  mountainous  district  of  Water- 
bury  by  the  year  1799.  By  this  time  the  district  north  of  the 
Onion  River  was  set  apart  and  called  the  Essex  Circuit,  to  be 
changed  to  the  Fletcher  Circuit  in  1801  and  the  St.  Albans 
Circuit  in  1813.  After  this,  the  south  part  of  the  circuit  was 
called  the  Stowe  Circuit,  and  Waterbury,  as  a  part  of  the 
Stowe  Circuit  in  1818,  continued  to  receive  the  circuit  rider 
until  the  town  of  Waterbury  became  an  appointment  in  1853, 
and  the  "Street"  finally  became  separated  from  the  Center  in 

No  history  of  Waterbury's  Methodism  would  be  complete 
without  mention  of  Reverend  Lorenzo  Dow,  the  zealous  young 
evangelist  who  fearlessly  rode  the  circuits  when  they  were 
practically  trackless  wildernesses.  This  young  man  is  de- 
scribed as  having  been  fired  with  something  of  the  zeal  of  the 
flagellants;  no  physical  hardship,  no  obstacle  of  floods,  streams, 
mountains,  storms,  or  darkness  would  he  permit  to  stand  in 
the  way  of  his  insistent  mission.  From  his  journal  it  seems 
that  he  preached  in  Waterbury  in  1799  while  yet  a  young  man 
of  twenty-one  years.     The  entry  reads:  "From  hence  I  came 

PERIOD    1900-1915 


to  Waterbury  on  the  Onion  River  where  a  reprobationist  gave 
me  the  words  to  preach  from :  '  No  man  can  come  unto  Me, 
except  the  Father  draw  him.'  The  Lord  loosed  my  tongue 
and  I  think  good  was  done."  Lorenzo  Dow  was  succeeded  in 
the  circuit  by  Reverend  (afterwards  Bishop)  EHjah  Hedding, 
who  was  then  a  mere  youth  of  nineteen. 

Methodist  ministers  stationed  at  Waterbury  from  1836  to 
1915  were: 

B.  M.  Hall,  2  years. 
P.  P.  Harrower,  2  years. 
J.  W.  B.  Wood,  I  year. 
George  Whitney,  i  year. 
Charles  H.  Leonard,  i  year. 
John  D.  White,  2  years. 
W.  M.  Chipp,  I  year. 
J.  F.  Craig,  i  year. 
Hawley  Ransom,  2  years. 
John  Kiernan,  i  year. 
D.  B.  Hulbard,  2  years. 
Albinus  Johnson,  i  year. 
William  A.  Miller,  2  years. 
Thomas  Dodgson,  i  year. 
J.  Phillips,  I  year. 
Israel  Luce,  2  years. 
Richard  Morgan,  i  year. 
B.  Hawley,  2  years. 
D.  B.  McKenzie,  3  years. 

H.  W.  Worthen  (1867),  2  years. 

E.  C.  Bass,  I  year. 
A.  B.  Truax,  2  years. 
W.  Underwood,  i  year. 
H.  A.  Bushnell,  i  year. 
A.  L.  Cooper,  2  years. 
William  I.  Johnson,  4  years. 

D.  E.  Miller,  i  year. 
G.  E.  Smith,  2  years. 

W.  R.  Davenport,  4  years. 

F.  W.  Hamblin,  i  year. 
W.  M.  Newton,  4  years. 
L.  K.  Wilman,  3  years. 
P.  A.  Smith  (1903). 

W.  S.  Smithers  (i  904-1 906). 
W.  C.  Johnson  (1907-1910). 

E.  F.  Newell  (191 1). 

W.  E.  Douglass  (1912-1914-1915). 
Verne  L.  Smith  1915 — . 

Methodist  ministers  stationed  at  Waterbury  Center  for  the 
period  named,  or  those  who  have  preached  there,  were: 

Orris  Pier,  2  years. 
R.  M.  Little,  I  year. 
H.  Foster. 
M.  Townsend. 
Daniel  F.  Page. 
Thomas  Kirby. 
Aaron  Hall. 
Miles  Fish. 
Samuel  Hewes. 
Alexander  Campbell. 
John  Haslam. 
J.  S.  Mott. 
C.  F.  Ford. 

R.  McElroy. 

J.  A.  Canoll. 

C.  C.  Bedell. 

S.  M.  Merrill. 

W.  H.  Tiffany. 

A.  L.  Cooper. 

H.  N.  Munger. 

A.  Cox. 

Reverend  Robinson. 

I.  Luce. 

W.  R.  Puffer. 

George  Whitney. 

J.  M.  Puffer. 


Reverend  Verne  L.  Smith,  the  present  pastor  of  the  Metho- 
dist Episcopal  Church  in  Waterbury  Village,  was  born  in 
Barrington,  Nova  Scotia,  April  19,  1890;  moved  to  Massa- 
chusetts when  three  months  old.  He  married  Miss  Trena 
Brooks  and  has  a  family  of  two  children,  Marion  E.  and 
Harriet  B.,  aged  two  and  one-half  years,  and  seven  months, 
respectively.  He  was  transferred  to  Waterbury  from  Hing- 
ham,  Massachusetts,  May  i,  1915,  to  take  the  place  of  Rev- 
erend W.  E.  Douglass.  He  was  formerly  a  member  of  the 
New  England  Southern  Conference,  now  of  the  Vermont 
Conference  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church.  Mr.  Smith  is 
a  graduate  of  the  public  schools  of  Massachusetts  and  of 
Boston  University  School  of  Theology. 

The  present  Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  planned  and 
erected  so  largely  through  the  efforts  of  Senator  W.  P.  Dilling- 
ham assisted  by  Justin  W.  Moody  and  Reverend  W.  R. 
Davenport,  was  completed  and  the  first  services  were  held 
there  on  the  25th  day  of  December,  1892.  The  church  was 
dedicated  January  20,  1893. 

The  Baptist  Church  began  its  life  in  Waterbury  in  1800. 
The  first  few  members,  of  course,  included  Ezra  Butler  and 
Mrs.  Tryphena  Butler.  There  were  also  Mrs.  Densmore, 
Mrs.  Silas  Loomis,  Deacon  David  Atkins,  Edmund  Towne, 
Orrin  Atkins,  Mercy  (Nelson)  Green,  Mrs.  E.  Towne,  Mrs.  At- 
kins, Deacon  Paul  Dillingham,  the  founder  of  the  Waterbury 
family,  Deacon  Chester  Whitney  and  Guild  Newcombe. 
After  reorganization  in  1819,  there  were  added  Polly  W. 
Whitney,  Anna  Peck,  Isaac  Stevens,  Richard  Kneeland, 
Robert  Broderick,  John  Atkins,  Temperance  Atkins,  Mary 
Hart,  Hannah  Dillingham,  Sally  Broderick,  Betsy  Parcher, 
Silena  Brown.  The  following  members  were  some  of 
those  admitted  in  1820:  Job  Dillingham,  Seth  Towne,  Isaac 
Marshall,  Jr.,  Arad  Worcester,  C.  C.  P.  Crosby,  and  William 
Smith.  The  first  church  edifice,  built  in  1832,  was  removed 
and  another  built  in  1859-1860. 

The  church  of  the  Free  Baptists  was  erected  on  the  bank  of 
the  Waterbury  River,  about  two  miles  west  of  the  Center. 
At  the  outset,  in  1840,  it  numbered  eighteen  members  with  Ira 

PERIOD    1900-1915  219 

Gray  as  pastor.  The  church  building  was  finished  in  1845 
and  could  comfortably  seat  two  hundred  and  eighty  persons. 
The  present  pastor  is  the  subject  of  the  following  sketch : 

Benjamin  P.  Parker  was  born  in  Kittery,  Maine,  May  16, 
1835.  When  he  was  two  years  old,  his  parents  moved  to  New- 
buryport,  Massachusetts.  He  received  his  education  principally 
in  the  public  schools  of  that  city.  On  March  3,  1858,  he  mar- 
ried Miss  Katie  McGinley,  daughter  of  Reverend  Edward 
McGinley,  a  Methodist  Episcopal  clergyman.  On  June  2, 
1859,  he  was  licensed  by  the  Otisfield  (Maine)  Quarterly 
Meeting,  and  was  ordained  a  Freewill  Baptist  minister  at 
Greenwood,  Maine,  January  18,  i860.  His  first  pastorate  was 
at  New  Gloucester,  Maine.  He  has  had  other  pastorates  in 
Maine,  New  Hampshire,  Nova  Scotia  and  Vermont. 

Mr.  Parker  came  to  Waterbury  Center,  Vermont,  in  May, 
1909,  and  is  pastor  of  the  Waterbury  Center  and  Waterbury 
River  Free  Baptist  churches. 

The  Freewill  Baptist  Church  at  the  Center  was  organized 
in  January,  1871,  with  Reverend  D.  H.  Adams  as  first  pastor. 
Here,  too,  a  new  church  edifice  was  erected  at  a  cost  of  $3,000,, 
with  seats  for  three  hundred  persons.  Before  taking  possession 
of  the  church  building,  the  worshipers  used  the  seminary 
hall  as  an  audience  room.  The  pulpit  was  supplied  at  inter- 
vals by  Reverend  E.  B.  Fuller, 

The  Freewill  Baptist  Church  had  its  local  organization  in 
1817-1818.  The  membership  included  Samuel  Lord,  Deacon 
Conant,  S.  Gaskell,  Asa  Towne,  Mrs.  Towne,  Ira  Towne,  Mrs. 
Ira  Towne,  Deacon  Abner  Fuller,  John  Cotton,  Mrs.  John  Cot- 
ton, Elisha  Towne.  Elder  Bowles  had  charge  of  the  service, 
but  Elder  Lord  was  shortly  afterwards  ordained  pastor. 
Elder  Lord  was  born  in  Barnstead,  New  Hampshire,  in  1779. 
He  began  his  preaching  very  early  in  life.  He  came  to  Water- 
bury from  Walden,  Vermont,  in  181 1  and  lived  the  rest  of  his 
life  in  this  village,  dying  at  the  age  of  seventy  years. 

The  Advent  Church  in  Waterbury  came  into  being  in  1858 
as  a  crystallization  of  the  hopes  (and  sometimes  the  fears)  of 
those  who  had  previously  been  influenced  by  the  preaching 
of  William  Miller  in  1839.     Miller  delivered  a  series  of  lee- 


tures  in  Waterbury  in  which  he  set  forth  his  theory  of  the 
Second  Coming  with  startling  and  solemn  emphasis.  Not 
content  with  vague  prophecies,  he  went  so  far  as  to  fix  the 
actual  date  of  the  end  of  the  world  (1843),  His  theories  were 
buttressed  by  copious  citations  from  the  books  of  Daniel  and 
Revelation,  whose  relevancy  it  was  his  task  to  explain. 
There  is  no  denying,  however,  the  weight  given  his  preaching 
by  men  and  women  of  mature  years  and  understanding.  In 
spite  of  the  failure  of  the  long  heralded  Event  to  occur, 
thousands  still  remained  imbued  with  the  idea  that  it  had  been 
but  temporarily  deferred.  The  movement  spread  throughout 
the  middle  west  and  is  instructively  described  in  Edward 
Eggleston's  "The  End  of  the  World." 

The  Waterbury  Advent  Church  was  established  in  May, 
1858,  commencing  with  something  less  than  fifty  members. 
The  services  were  conducted  by  Elder  Joshua  V.  Himes  who 
had  previously  conducted  a  series  of  meetings  in  Washington 
House  hall.  The  meeting  house  proper,  afterwards  St.  An- 
drew's Church,  was  dedicated  in  1859. 

There  was  a  long  period  of  inaction  in  the  Advent  Church  of 
Waterbury.  Two  women  evangelists  came  to  Stowe  South 
Hollow  in  November,  1892,  and  held  protracted  meetings. 
Encouraged  by  the  results  of  these  meetings  certain  of  the 
reclaimed  and  new  converts  induced  Elder  H.  D.  Selby  of 
Kingscraft,  Canada,  to  reorganize  the  church.  By  his  assist- 
ance, June  23,  1893,  a  new  church  was  organized,  called  the 
Advent  Christian  Church  of  Stowe  South  Hollow.  Tent  meet- 
ings were  held  at  Waterbury  Center  and  regular  meetings  at 
the  house  of  Mr.  E.  C.  Gibbs.  In  August,  1894,  tent  meetings 
were  held  at  Colbyville.  A  new  church  building  at  Colbyville 
was  made  possible  by  the  donation  of  one-half  acre  of  land  by 
Mr.  Francis  Joslyn  and  various  donations  of  lumber,  money 
and  labor.  This  church  was  built  by  the  Advent  Christian 
Society  and  was  presented  to  the  Advent  Christian  Church  of 
Stowe  South  Hollow  conditionally  upon  its  changing  its  name 
to  the  Advent  Christian  Church  of  Colbyville.  The  church 
numbered  thirty-six  in  membership,  and  Elder  George  W. 
Tabor  was  called  as  pastor.     He  began  his  pastorate  in  No- 

PERIOD    1900-1915  221 

vember,  1894,  and  remained  until  November,  1897.  The  list 
of  pastors  since  that  time  follows:  Elders  W.  H.  Blount,  second 
pastor;  Elder  Smith,  third  pastor;  J.  T.  McLucas,  fourth 
pastor;  W.  G.  Knowlton,  fifth  pastor ;  J.  T.  Mead,  sixth  pastor; 
W.  H.  Jackson,  seventh  pastor;  A.  D.  Page,  eighth  pastor. 

The  present  pastor,  Elder  A.  D.  Page,  was  born  at  New 
Milford,  Connecticut,  April  16,  1886.  He  is  married  and  is 
the  father  of  four  children.  He  received  his  education  in  the 
grammar  school  there  and  a  short  course  at  the  Centenary 
Collegiate  Institute,  Hackettstown,  New  Jersey.  He  came 
to  Waterbury,  November  i,  1911.  He  had  previously  held 
pastorates  at  Sharon,  Connecticut,  in  1909-1910,  and  at  Bris- 
tol, Vermont,  in  1910-1911.  He  speaks  hopefully  and  en- 
couragingly of  his  work  and  pleasantly  of  his  associations  and 

An  early  Roman  Catholic  mission  in  Waterbury  was  at- 
tended at  intervals  by  Reverend  Father  O'Callaghan  of  Bur- 
lington, and  also  by  the  missionary  priest.  Father  J.  Daley. 
Also  at  intervals  visits  were  made  by  Reverend  Hector  Drolet, 
the  Oblate  Fathers  of  Burlington,  Reverend  Z.  Druon  and 
Father  Duglue,  who  was  stationed  at  Montpelier.  The  first 
church  edifice,  built  by  the  Roman  Catholic  Church  in  Water- 
bury, was  one  dedicated  to  St.  Vincent  Ferrier  in  1857,  and 
stood  on  a  hill  to  the  east  of  the  railroad  and  a  short  distance 
from  the  station.  This  building  was  enlarged  ten  years  later 
by  Father  Duglue.  Reverend  John  Gallighan  came  to  take 
charge  in  1869.  Eight  years  later.  Father  Gallighan  pur- 
chased a  residential  property  on  Upper  Main  Street  and  the 
Adventist  Church  property  adjoining.  This  latter  was  con- 
verted by  him  into  a  suitable  place  for  Catholic  purposes. 
The  house  adjoining  was  turned  into  the  parochial  residence, 
now  the  home  of  Father  Robert  Devoy. 

The  church  was  dedicated  as  St.  Andrew's  Catholic  Church, 
November  30,  1876,  and  the  church  property  is  valued  at 
$25,000.  The  interior  of  the  church  presents  a  pleasing 
aspect.  The  walls,  ceilings  and  altars  are  tastefully  decorated. 
The  seating  capacity  is  three  hundred  and  fifty.     The  com- 


municants  and  Catholic  population  in  Waterbury  in  191 5  are 
one  hundred  and  sixty-five  families. 

The  first  settled  priest  in  Waterbury  was  Father  Gallighan. 
He  remained  here  eighteen  years.  After  his  departure  there 
was  a  fifteen-year  interval  when  Waterbury  again  became  a 
mission,  attended  in  order  by  Reverends  Brelivette,  McConly, 
Father  Donahue  now  of  Northfield,  Father  Blais  in  1895, 
Father  McLaughlin  and  Father  Maillet,  until  January,  1903. 
Those  following  were:  Reverend  J.  A.  Lynch,  Reverend  J.  A. 
Cahill  in  1904-1905;  Reverend  P.  J.  Doheny,  1905-1909; 
Reverend  Daniel  Coffey  1909-1913.  The  Right  Reverend 
Monsignor  Cloarec,  vicar  general  of  the  Diocese,  now  eighty- 
two  years  of  age,  said  Mass  in  Waterbury  fifty-seven  years 

The  present  resident  priest  is  Reverend  Father  Robert 
Devoy.  Ordained  in  Sherbrooke,  Province  of  Quebec,  No- 
vember 29,  1903,  Father  Devoy  became  assistant  at  the 
Church  of  Holy  Angels  in  St.  Albans.  He  was  born  in  the 
diocese  of  Nicolet,  Province  of  Quebec  in  1876,  and  received 
his  education  in  Nicolet  and  St.  Laurent's  colleges.  He 
completed  his  theological  studies  at  the  Seminary  of  St.  Charles 
Borromee,  and  was  ordained  by  Bishop  Larocque.  He  was 
appointed  to  his  present  charge  in  Waterbury  in  1914,  and  has 
charge  also  of  the  neighboring  churches  of  Moretown  and 

Library  facilities  in  Waterbury  are  good  and  are  growing 
better.  Mr.  A.  H.  Smith,  in  a  comparatively  recent  paper, 
pointed  out  that,  at  the  time  of  which  he  wrote,  Burling- 
ton, with  her  number  of  volumes  exceeding  Waterbury's  seven- 
fold and  her  population  six  times  as  large,  had  only  four  and 
one-half  times  as  large  a  circulation.  This  in  Waterbury,  for 
the  time  named,  averaged  17,000,  or  5,125  more  than  the 
average  of  12,125  for  the  five  towns  of  Barton,  Fairhaven, 
Lyndon,  Northfield  and  Randolph.  These  are  next  in  size  to 
Waterbury,  with  an  average  population  of  3,220,  as  against 
Waterbury's  3,273. 

In  tracing  the  library  beginnings,  locally,  it  is  necessary  to 
go  back  to  the  time  when  the  Colby  brothers  came  here  in 

PERIOD    1900-1915  223 

1856.  George  and  Edwin  A.  Colby  brought  with  them  some- 
thing more  than  a  capacity  for  inspiring  their  neighbors  to 
industrial  effort.  The  eldest  brother,  assisted  by  the  younger 
brothers,  his  mother  and  sister,  set  about  planning  for  a  place 
where  the  young  could  derive  entertainment  of  an  instructive 
nature  and  foster  a  love  for  reading  and  culture.  These  early 
efforts  resulted  in  the  organization  of  a  so-called  lyceum  at 
whose  weekly  meetings  papers  were  read  and  momentous 
questions  debated. 

These  intellectual  festivities  were  varied  from  time  to  time 
by  the  advent  of  the  "platform  lecturer" — an  institution  now 
fast  passing  into  a  memory.  These  platform  lecturers  did  not 
derive  their  characterization  from  the  fact  that  they  were  at 
any  time  rash  enough  to  attempt  to  reconcile  political  plat- 
forms with  performances,  but  from  their  custom  of  speaking 
from  a  platform  or  rostrum.  Naturally  the  lyceum  created  a 
demand  for  reading  and  this  was  met  by  the  organization  of 
an  association  and  the  purchase  of  about  five  hundred  books. 
The  number  of  accessions  was  small  for  the  next  ten  or  twelve 
years  and  the  inevitable  reaction  against  letters  followed  their 
sudden  renaissance,  as  has  been  noted  elsewhere.  It  was 
neatly  put  in  Hemenway's  "Washington  County  Gazetteer": 
"But  after  the  novelty  of  the  first  few  years  had  worn  away, 
the  very  inexpensiveness  of  its  advantages  seemed  to  diminish 
its  usefulness,  since  some  estimates  value  only  by  cost."  The 
library  was  kept  alive  in  some  way,  however,  and  in  1882  there 
were  several  hundred  books  in  charge  of  Mr.  George  W.  Ken- 
nedy as  assistant  librarian. 

A  new  impetus  was  given  the  movement  in  1 887-1 888  under 
the  leadership  of  Reverend  Charles  M.  Sheldon,  now  a  noted 
Congregational  clergyman  of  Topeka,  Kansas,  We  are  en- 
abled to  give  something  of  the  details  of  organization  through 
the  courtesy  of  Mr.  A.  H.  Smith,  from  whose  paper  the  follow- 
ing is  an  extract: 

A  corporation  was  formed  under  the  Laws  of  Vermont  to  be  known  as 
the  Waterbury  Public  Library  Association.  The  capital  stock  was  to  be 
one  thousand  dollars,  to  be  divided  into  one  thousand  shares  at  one  dollar 
each.  None  of  the  subscription  to  the  stock  was  to  be  valid  unless  five 
hundred  shares  were  sold  before  May  i,  1888.     The  first  four  subscribers 


to  this  stock  were  Mr.  Sheldon,  G.  W.  Randall,  C.  C.  Warren  and  Doctor 
Henry  Janes.  The  necessary  amount  of  stock  was  subscribed  for  and  the 
first  meeting  of  the  association  was  called  for  June  22,  1888.  The  organi- 
zation was  completed  and  the  real  management  of  the  association  placed 
in  the  hands  of  seven  trustees  to  be  elected  by  the  shareholders.  These 
trustees  were  W.  P.  Dillingham,  C.  E.  Richardson,  L.  H.  Elliott,  Mr. 
Sheldon,  Mrs.  Henry  Janes,  Mrs.  Mary  Atherton  and  Mrs.  W.  P.  Dilling- 
ham. At  the  next  meeting  held  July  9,  it  was  voted  to  receive  the  books 
of  the  Waterbury  Library  Association  (those  bought  under  the  leadership 
of  Mr.  Colby)  and  to  issue  to  each  member  of  that  association  one  share  of 
the  stock  of  the  Waterbury  Public  Library  Association,  and  the  secretary 
was  directed  to  issue  said  stock  to  a  list  of  the  shareholders.  Thus  these 
books,  which  had  been  stored  for  several  years  in  the  office  of  George  W. 
Kennedy,  were  turned  over  to  the  present  association  and  became  a  part 
of  their  stock.  The  association  obtained  the  room,  now  occupied  by  Mr. 
Douglass  as  a  barber  shop,  for  the  library.  Miss  Etta  Straw  was  appointed 
librarian,  and  the  library  was  formally  opened  to  the  public  November  24, 
1888.  The  first  report  of  the  circulation  of  the  library  was  in  1900,  when 
the  records  state  that  1,000  books  had  been  taken  out  during  the  year. 
During  1912  over  20,000  were  taken  out,  showing  the  increased  interest 
and  usefulness  of  the  library.  In  1904  it  was  voted  by  the  association  to 
lend  the  books  of  the  association  to  the  town  of  Waterbury,  if  said  town 
would  vote  to  maintain  a  Free  Public  Library.  An  article  containing  this 
offer  was  placed  in  the  warning  for  the  town  meeting  and  was  passed  over 
by  the  voters.  The  association  then  offered  to  receive  and  care  for  the 
books  owned  by  the  town  (which  had  been  secured  by  state  aid)  and  this 
offer  was  accepted.  The  association  also  voted,  in  1907,  "That  we  extend 
to  all  legal  residents  of  the  town  of  Waterbury  the  free  use  of  all  books 
contained  in  the  library,  provided  that  said  town  shall  furnish  and  maintain 
a  suitable  room  for  said  books  and  furnish  a  librarian  to  care  for  same." 
This  was  accepted  and  the  present  room  secured.  The  munificent  endow- 
ment from  the  Horace  S.  Fales  Estate  became  available  at  this  time  and  the 
future  prosperity  of  the  association  seemed  assured.  For  twenty  years  it 
had  been  resolutely  maintained  by  an  earnest  band  of  book  lovers.  They 
had  given  of  their  time  and  their  talents  without  price.  Funds  for  new 
books  and  current  expenses  had  been  raised  in  various  ways — lectures, 
entertainments,  ice  cream  sales,  and  soliciting.  Many  of  the  original 
founders  had  passed  away  and  their  places  had  been  filled  by  new  recruits. 
The  history  of  our  library  is  similar  to  that  of  thousands  of  others  scattered 
all  over  our  country.  Nearly  every  library  in  our  state  has  grown  up  in 
this  same  way.  Scarcely  one  of  them  had  a  home  ten  years  ago;  very  few 
had  an  assured  income  with  which  to  purchase  books. 

In  response  to  a  request  for  information  from  Reverend 
Charles  M.  Sheldon,  a  letter  was  received  from  him  from  which 
an  interesting  excerpt  is  given: 

PERIOD    1900-1915  225 

I  think  that  I  can  truly  say  that  in  some  ways  the  town  of  Waterbury  at 
that  (1887-1888)  time  was  an  ideal  town  in  its  social  and  educational  life. 
We  organized,  the  first  winter,  a  reading  club,  composed  of  all  the  young 
people  in  the  town.  We  read  through  aloud  Dickens'  "Tale  of  Two 
Cities,"  with  historical  research  work  connected,  and  at  the  end  of  the 
year  the  interest  was  so  great  that  we  established  the  Waterbury  Reading 
Room  and  Library.  It  was  that  same  winter  that  the  people  kindly  allowed 
me  the  great  privilege  of  boarding  about  in  their  homes.  I  would  go  home 
with  a  family  after  the  Sunday  morning  service  and  take  dinner  with  them; 
go  back  to  my  room  in  the  hotel;  go  back  and  take  the  supper  meal  with  the 
family;  go  to  church  and  return  with  the  family  after  service  for  a  Sunday 
evening  visit.  During  the  week  usually  I  took  dinner  and  supper  every 
day  with  this  family,  visiting  with  the  members  between  meals.  In  this 
way  I  had  the  great  privilege  of  seeing,  in  the  family  life,  nearly  fifty  differ- 
ent homes  in  Waterbury.  I  can  never  repay  the  great  kindness  and  cour- 
tesies shown  me  during  that  time.  It  was  an  insight  into  the  home  life  of 
the  town,  rarely  permitted  to  any  one  outside  of  the  family.  I  can  truly 
say  that  my  experience  revealed  a  remarkable  condition  of  social  and 
educational  life  among  the  people. 

I  have  been  asked  to  say  a  word  about  the  old  "sprinkling  cart,"  which 
ran  up  and  down  the  Waterbury  streets  one  summer  season,  laying  the 
dust.  I  do  not  remember  myself  where  I  found  the  cart  or  who  was  its 
driver,  but  I  do  remember  the  amount  of  time  I  spent  trying  to  get  water 
down  from  the  spring  at  the  lower  end  of  the  street  and  conveying  it  into 
a  tank  in  the  upper  story  of  a  barn.  I  spent  much  valuable  time  doing 
this,  which  should  have  been  used  in  the  work  of  the  pastorate,  but  I  was 
determined  to  make  that  sprinkling  cart  do  its  work  if  I  spent  the  last  cent 
I  had.  I  do  not  remember  now  how  much  it  cost,  but  I  am  sure  it  was  far 
more  than  it  was  worth.  I  feel  far  more  repaid  by  the  establishment  of  a 
library  which,  I  am  told,  is  still  in  existence. 

My  memory  of  my  Waterbury  pastorate  is  grateful  as  I  recall  the  num- 
berless kind  things  done  for  me  while  I  was  there.  I  can  never  return 
these  many  kindnesses  and  can  only  express  in  this  brief  article  my  appre- 
ciation of  them,  as  I  understand  now,  better  than  I  could  then,  what  it  all 

The  library  now  has  about  5,000  volumes,  covering  well- 
selected  fiction,  works  of  travel,  biography,  history,  economics, 
sociological  subjects,  standard  reference  and  the  better  weekly 
and  monthly  periodicals.  The  library  needs  new  accessions 
of  late  critical  treatises  on  American  History,  Constitutional 
and  International  Law  and  Government — subjects  constantly 
being  investigated  at  such  crucial  periods  as  this.  With  its 
present  facilities,  the  library's  affairs  are  efficiently  adminis- 
tered and  the  books  well  chosen.     The  officers  and  trustees  are : 


president,  Willis  B.  Clark;  secretary,  A.  H.  Smith;  treasurer, 
C.  C.  Graves;  Doctor  W.  L.  Wasson,  Mark  H.  Moody,  Mrs. 
George  S.  Bidwell  and  Miss  Margaret  O'Neill.  The  muni- 
ficent gift  of  a  home  for  the  library,  in  the  will  of  the  late  Doc- 
tor Henry  Janes,  has  been  mentioned  elsewhere. 

Doctor  Horace  Fales'  name  was  inseparably  connected 
with  village  and  town  annals  from  1848,  when  he  came  to 
Waterbury,  until  his  death,  September  15,  1882.  He  was  born 
in  Sharon,  Vermont,  February  16,  1823;  was  graduated  at 
Woodstock  Medical  College  in  1848.  He  had  received  a  pre- 
liminary academic  education  at  the  Kimball  Union  Academy, 
Meriden,  New  Hampshire.  Immediately  prior  to  his  medical 
course,  he  studied  under  the  preceptorship  of  Doctor  Reuben 
Spalding,  his  uncle,  in  Brattleboro.  He  sustained  himself 
through  his  medical  course  without  outside  assistance.  In 
1851  he  was  married  to  Miss  Henrietta  Sheple,  daughter  of 
David  Sheple.  The  Fales  home,  as  has  been  pointed  out  be- 
fore, was  on  that  tract  of  land  on  Upper  Main  Street,  in  the 
easterly  part  of  the  village,  where  Ezra  and  Azaph  Butler 
first  made  their  pitch  in  1785;  the  property  passed  succes- 
sively to  Richard  Holden,  Judge  Dan  Carpenter  and  General 
John  Peck.  It  then  passed  from  General  Peck's  personal 
representative  to  David  G.  Sheple,  Doctor  Fales'  father-in- 
law,  thence  to  Doctor  and  Mrs.  Fales.  The  present  building, 
occupied  as  the  Hospital  Annex,  was  built  by  Doctor  Fales  to 
replace  his  burned  residence. 

Doctor  Horace  and  Mrs.  Henrietta  (Sheple)  Fales  were  so 
much  a  part  of  Waterbury  that  when  they  died  childless 
the  town  was  left  bereft  indeed.  It  is  recalled  that  Doc- 
tor Fales'  practice  was  a  large  and  exacting  one.  His  min- 
istrations as  physician  were  in  request  from  Middlesex, 
Moretown,  the  Duxburys,  Stowe  and  Bolton.  He  is  described 
by  Miss  M.  Morrissey,  for  a  long  time  a  member  of  the  Fales 
household,  as  being  about  six  feet  in  height,  of  about  two  hun- 
dred pounds  in  weight,  having  jutting  eyebrows  overshadow- 
ing piercing  eyes.  His  forehead  was  high  and  massive.  He 
wore  the  customary  closely  cropped  beard  of  the  physician. 
He  was  quick  and  of  decisive  manner,  but  not  abrupt  or 

Dr.  Horace  Fales 

Franklin  Sylvester  Heary 

Mrs.  Horace  Fales 

Dr.  Henry  Janes 

Mark  C.  Canerdy 




PERIOD    1900-1915  227 

thoughtless  in  demeanor.  His  voice  was  pleasant  and  sooth- 
ing in  a  sick  room.  It  is  said  that  his  very  presence  there 
charged  the  atmosphere  with  healing. 

He  was  an  enthusiastic  farmer  and  gave  much  of  his  spare 
attention  to  his  magnificent  farms  on  the  meadows,  which  are 
now  the  Vermont  State  Hospital  property.  He  was  always 
interested  in  horses  and  cattle  and  was  never  so  happy  as 
when  he  was  busying  himself  about  their  care  and  keep.  Many 
patients  in  so  large  a  territory  as  was  covered  by  Doctor 
Fales'  practice  were  unable  to  pay,  at  all  times,  even  his  mod- 
erate fees.  With  cheerfulness  and  good  will  he  stood  as 
ready  to  respond  to  the  calls  of  such  as  to  those  of  his  more 
well-to-do  patients.  Doctor  Fales'  professional  work  and  his 
farm  left  him  little  time  for  recreation;  an  occasional  visit  to 
Saratoga,  Messina,  New  York,  and  Philadelphia,  represented 
about  the  extent  of  Doctor  and  Mrs.  Fales'  wanderings  from 

Though  absorbed  in  his  practice  and  farm.  Doctor  Fales 
still  found  time  to  give  to  public  service.  He  served  as  select- 
man for  several  terms  and  in  other  public  capacities.  The 
household  consisted  at  different  times,  aside  from  Doctor 
and  Mrs.  Fales,  of  young  Doctor  D.  W.  Lovejoy,  a  cousin  of 
Doctor  Fales,  and  a  medical  student  under  his  preceptorship ; 
two  nephews  and  one  niece  of  Mrs.  Fales  who  were  cared  for 
in  the  Fales  home,  and  Miss  M.  Morrissey. 

Mrs.  Henrietta  Fales  {nee  Sheple)  was  born  November  7, 
1823,  and  died  in  1906.  Mrs.  Fales  is  well  remembered  as  a 
woman  of  remarkable  strength  of  character.  Her  home  and 
the  care  of  the  members  of  her  household  held  for  her  ample 
interest  and  occupation.  Keenly  alive  to  the  growing  needs  of 
Waterbury  along  cultural  and  educational  lines,  she  made 
provision  in  her  last  will  and  testament  for  a  trust  fund  to  be 
known  as  the  Horace  Fales  Fund  "for  aiding  in  the  mainte- 
nance of  a  public  library  in  the  village  of  Waterbury  in  loving 
memory  of  my  deceased  husband  who  had  a  home  there  during 
the  major  portion  of  his  business  life  and  whose  intimate  social 
and  professional  relations  with  its  people  produced  an  interest 
in  and  affection  for  the  place  which  it  is  my  wish  to  commem- 


The  trust  fund  was  in  Mrs.  Fales'  residuary  estate  and  the 
income  was  to  be  paid  over  to  the  trustees,  for  the  time  being, 
of  the  Waterbury  Public  Library  Association,  to  be  used  in 
the  purchase  of  books  and  periodicals.  Upon  the  failure  of 
the  association  to  open  its  rooms  for  a  period  of  two  months 
for  the  distribution  and  exchange  of  books,  as  often  as  once  in 
each  calendar  week,  the  income  shall  cease  and  the  principal  of 
the  trust  remaining  in  the  hands  of  the  trustee,  or  his  successor, 
shall  go  to  the  incorporated  village  of  Waterbury  "for  the  ex- 
press purpose  of  establishing  and  helping  to  maintain  a  public 
library  in  said  village  under  the  authority  and  provisions  of  the 
statute  law  of  Vermont  in  such  case  made  and  provided." 
The  estimated  value  of  the  fund  was  found  to  be  $15,000.  By 
a  codicil,  Mrs.  Fales  released  Honorable  William  P.  Dilling- 
ham as  trustee  of  this  fund  and  substituted  in  his  place  and 
stead  Mr.  George  W.  Morse  who  in  turn  was  succeeded  by  the 
Waterbury  Savings  Bank  and  Trust  Company. 

Mark  Carter  Canerdy's  place  in  the  town's  chronicles  is  one 
earned  by  a  long  life  of  industry  and  useful  public  service. 
Born  in  Duxbury  June  4,  1828,  the  son  of  John  and  Hannah 
Canerdy,  he,  with  the  eight  other  children,  passed  his  child- 
hood at  his  father's  home  near  the  Bolton  Falls,  the  present 
site  of  the  electric  plant  of  the  Consolidated  Company.  In 
1 85 1  he  married  Louisa  M.  Corse  of  Duxbury,  a  daughter  of 
Eben  and  Corina  (Huntley)  Corse.  There  were  no  children. 
Mrs.  Canerdy  died  in  1895.  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Canerdy  started 
housekeeping  at  what  was  afterwards  known  as  the  John 
Preston  place.  They  moved  into  the  village  from  there,  and 
of  their  forty  years'  residence  here  they  spent  thirty  years  in 
their  Main  Street  home. 

Mr.  Canerdy  was  extensively  engaged  in  dealing  in  live 
stock  and  was  one  of  the  pioneer  drovers  of  this  vicinity,  often- 
times driving  large  herds  to  the  Boston  market,  an  enterprise 
attended  with  great  labor  and  risk.  He  was  chosen  selectman 
by  his  fellow  townsmen  and,  during  his  term,  succeeded  in 
reducing  the  indebtedness  of  the  town,  thereby  calling  atten- 
tion to  his  ability  as  a  financier.  While  engaged  in  this  work 
he  was  asked  by  the  stockholders  of  the  Waterbury  National 

Waterbury  Public   Library  Building 

Gift  of  the  late  Dr.  Henry  Janes 

THE  NEW  YORK    ; 

ASTOfi.  Lfc'NOX 

PERIOD   1900-1915  229 

Bank  to  act  as  a  director;  he  accordingly  became  a  member  of 
the  board  in  1899.  In  1904  he  became  the  vice-president  of 
the  bank  and  continued  in  that  office  until  his  death,  Septem- 
ber 20,  1 9 10.  It  was  during  his  connection  with  the  bank 
that  Mr.  Canerdy's  firm  friendship  for  young  business  men 
was  often  shown  in  a  practical  and  substantial  way.  Many  a 
young  man  of  the  community  has  profited  by  his  advice  and 
assistance  financially.  Such  a  man  naturally  became  influen- 
tial and  the  depositary  of  his  neighbor's  perplexities  and  aspira- 
tions, in  spite  of  himself;  but  he  was  ever  ready  with  a  kindly 
word  and  helpful  hand. 

Like  many  another  modest  benefactor,  Mr.  Canerdy  chose 
to  continue  to  render  service  to  his  townspeople  after  his  death. 
This  he  accomplished  by  his  last  will  and  testament,  dated 
December  20,  1905,  under  which  he  devised  and  bequeathed 
to  the  Congregational  Church,  located  in  Waterbury  Village, 
and  the  Waterbury  Public  Library,  share  and  share  alike,  the 
residuary  part  of  his  estate,  subject  to  a  life  estate  of  its  use 
and  income  to  Emma  A.  Manning,  who  had  acted  as  house- 
keeper in  the  Canerdy  home  after  Mrs.  Canerdy's  death. 
Emma  Manning  died  October  24,  1912,  and  the  share  of  the 
residue  of  the  estate  in  the  hands  of  the  trustee  for  the  Public 
Library  Association  was  found  to  be  $10,000. 

It  would  be  beyond  the  scope  of  this  attempt  to  do  more 
than  outline  the  educational  work  done  in  the  town.  We  have 
seen  how  the  matter  of  education  lay  very  near  to  the  hearts 
of  the  early  settlers  and  how  difficult  it  was  to  make  provision 
for  the  housing  of  the  schools.  As  early  as  November  3,  1801, 
the  Legislature  passed  an  act  creating  the  "Corporation  of  the 
Chittenden  County  Grammar  School,"  and  naming  Benjamin 
Wait,  Richard  Holding  (Holden?),  John  Cray,  Styles  Sher- 
man, John  Peck,  David  Austin,  Asaph  Allen  and  William  Utley 
as  trustees;  the  act  contained  a  proviso  that  the  town  should 
"build  and  finish  a  good  and  sufficient  house  of  the  value  of 
$700  within  two  years."  It  has  been  noted  elsewhere  how 
far  short  the  town  fell  of  carrying  out  this  proviso.  As  time 
went  on,  the  two  original  school  districts  were  subdivided  into 
new  districts,  these  being  added  as  occasion  required. 


The  action  of  the  Legislature  in  1801  erecting  the  Corpora- 
tion of  the  Chittenden  County  Grammar  School  had  been 
preceded  by  action  at  the  March  meeting  of  the  town  in  1791 
warned  "to  see  if  the  town  would  take  any  measures  for  the 
promotion  of  schools."  A  committee,  consisting  of  John 
Craig,  Reuben  Wells  and  Caleb  Munson,  was  appointed  to 
set  apart  the  two  school  districts  of  the  town.  Waterbury 
River  was  made  the  dividing  line  between  the  two.  For  a 
long  time  each  district  worked  out  its  own  salvation  as  best 
it  might.  The  subdivision  of  the  districts  was  made  neces- 
sary, of  course,  by  the  scattered  condition  of  the  town's 

About  the  year  1872,  the  town  was  in  receipt  of  a  small 
income  arising  from  public  land  rentals,  interest  on  the  general 
government  surplus  money  and  the  state  school  tax,  amount- 
ing in  all  to  less  than  $1,200.  This  was  parcelled  out  among 
the  districts  and  was  made  to  go  as  far  as  possible.  The  main 
or  village  district  had  a  graded  school  for  the  support  of  which 
a  50-cent  tax  on  the  dollar  of  the  grand  list  was  voted.  This 
school  was  the  first  to  be  housed  comfortably.  The  old  school- 
house,  standing  near  the  Dillingham  homestead  on  Main  Street, 
was  moved  away  by  its  purchaser,  James  Hattie,  to  a  site  on 
what  is  now  known  as  Elm  Street  in  the  autumn  of  1900. 

The  present  beautiful  and  commodious  school  building  is 
the  outcome  of  a  resolution  offered  by  William  P.  Dillingham 
at  the  March  meeting  of  1898,  authorizing  the  school  directors 
to  purchase  a  site  and  erect  a  school  building  thereon,  in  the 
village  of  Waterbury,  at  an  expense  not  to  exceed  $20,000,  and 
to  sell  the  old  school  building  and  site.  The  selectmen  were 
also  authorized  to  borrow  a  sum  not  in  excess  of  $20,000. 

By  the  education  code,  passed  at  the  legislative  session  of 
1915,  a  town  is  made  to  constitute  a  school  district  having  a 
board  of  three  directors,  and  the  matter  of  appointing  and 
regulating  the  tenure  of  school  superintendents  rests  with  the 
State  Board  of  Education. 

The  Waterbury  High  School  has  gradually  been  develop- 
ing its  courses  of  study  to  meet  the  increasing  demands  of  pres- 
ent day  life.     The  University  of  Vermont  has  had  a  control- 

PERIOD    1900-1915  231 

ling  influence  upon  secondary  education  in  this  state  and, 
when  that  institution  joined  the  Association  of  Colleges  of 
New  England,  many  Vermont  high  schools  found  their  facili- 
ties inadequate  for  the  new  requirements.  In  1908,  one 
teacher  was  added  to  the  high  school  faculty  and,  with  the 
introduction  of  new  subjects,  an  effort  was  made  to  gain  the 
certificate  privilege  for  the  school.  The  splendid  results  ob- 
tained by  the  class  of  191 1  in  college  entrance  examinations 
won  for  the  Waterbury  High  School  the  approval  of  the  New 
England  College  Entrance  Certificate  Board.  Since  then  our 
students  have  entered  college  without  examination. 

However,  the  majority  of  boys  and  girls  must  finish  their 
education  in  the  public  schools  and  they  have  a  right  to  de- 
mand courses  of  study  which  will  fit  them  for  their  chosen 
occupations.  With  such  a  purpose  in  view,  the  college  pre- 
paratory course  was  more  closely  defined  and,  in  19 14,  a  com- 
mercial course  was  successfully  instituted.  A  further  im- 
provement will  be  made  in  1915  by  the  establishment  of  a 
course  in  agriculture,  under  the  supervision  of  a  special  teacher. 
Thus,  the  Waterbury  High  School,  with  a  staff  of  four  instruct- 
ors, is  doing  a  work  which  will  compare  favorably  with  that 
of  other  similar  schools. 

The  number  of  students  has  gradually  increased.  In  1907, 
the  enrollment  was  forty  and,  in  19 14,  seventy.  During  the 
past  eight  years,  the  High  School  has  graduated  fifty-seven 
students,  seventeen  boys  and  forty  girls.  Of  these  students, 
twenty-four  entered  college,  seven  qualified  by  examinations 
as  teachers,  two  pursued  normal  teacher  training  courses, 
three  became  nurses,  five  entered  business  college,  two  studied 
music  and  art,  and  eleven  took  up  miscellaneous  work,  such 
as  business  and  housekeeping.  The  school  has  lost,  by  the 
removal  of  families  to  other  towns,  a  number  of  students  who 
have  entered  college  after  work  done  in  the  Waterbury  High 
School.  Furthermore,  a  number  of  students  who  were  not 
graduated,  have  used  their  preparation  for  teaching,  business 
and  other  pursuits. 

Now  that  vocational  courses  have  been  established,  the 


work  of  the  school  will  become  more  intimately  connected 
with  the  life  of  the  community. 

Teachers  in  the  Waterbury  High  School,  i  899-1915 

Principal,  E.  M.  Roscoe,  1 899-1904. 
Miss  Julia  Moody  (Perry),  1899-1904. 
Principal,  W.  H.  Hosmer,  1904-1907. 
Miss  Delta  Collins,  1904-1905. 
Miss  Jeffries  Leete,  1 905-1 907. 
Principal,  F.  W.  Reimherr,  1907-1915. 
Miss  Ethel  Park,  1907-1908. 
Miss  Vera  Powell,  1908-19 12. 
Miss  Effie  Wells,  1908-1910. 
Miss  Belle  Anderson,  1910-1914. 
Miss  Clara  Buffum.  1910. 
Miss  Elsie  Hooker,  1912-1913. 
Miss  Margaret  Durgin,  1913-1914. 
Miss  Stella  Parrel,  1914-1915. 
Miss  Irene  Parris,  1914-1915. 

A  carefully  compiled  list  is  given  of  those  who  have  gone 
as  students  to  the  University  of  Vermont,  either  from  Water- 
bury  or  claiming  Waterbury  as  a  place  of  residence.  This 
is  made  possible  through  the  courtesy  of  President  Guy  Potter 
Benton  and  Registrar  Kehoe  of  the  University. 

b.  =  birth  at  Waterbury. 

f.  =  finished  preparatory  education  at  Waterbury. 
fr.  =from  Waterbury. 
d.  =  death  occurred  at  Waterbury. 
*Prefixed  to  a  person's  name  indicates  his  decease. 
Ch.=  chemistry  course. 
C.E.  =civil  engineering. 
E.E.=  electrical  engineering. 
CI.  =  classical. 
L.S.  =  literary,  scientific. 
Eng.  =  engineering. 
Med.  =  medical. 
Ag.  =agricultural. 
H.Ec.  =home  economics. 
Cm.  =  commerce  and  economics. 

PERIOD    1900-1915 





Giles  H.  Holding 


fr.  W.,  non-grad. 

Guy  J.  Holding 


fr.  W.,  non-grad. 

♦William  Wells 


b.,  d.  at  W. 

*William  Carpenter 


b.,  d.  at  W.,  non-grad. 

Seth  Chandler  Sherman 


fr.  W. 

Russell  Butler 


b.,  d.,  fr.  W. 

Mason  S.  Stone 



b.  W.  Ctr. 

Ferdinand  S.  Henry 


b.  W.  Ctr. 

George  R.  Huse 



b.,  fr.  W. 

Frank  P.  Lord 



b.  W. 

*Inez  E.  Moody 



b.,  d.,  W. 

Ida  May  Fuller 



b.,  f.,  fr.  W. 

Warner  J.  Morse 



b.,  fr.  W.  Ctr. 

Charles  W.  Worthen 



b.  W. 

Clayton  G.  Andrews 



formerly  located  at  W. 

Watson  L.  Wasson 



now  located  at  W. 

Don  D.  Grout 


now  located  at  W. 

George  S.  Bidwell 


now  at  W. 

Waldo  J.  Upton 


now  located  at  St.  Albans. 

Robert  W.  Palmer 




John  F.  Tice 




Degree       Year 













*The  above  5  names  are  recorded  as  located  at  Waterbury  and  having 
belonged  to  said  classes.     Where  they  came  from  or  went  to  school  is  not 



Clayton  W.  Guptil 

Ida  Blanche  Kennedy 

Harold  Earnest  Somerville 

Andrew  J.  Brown 
Joseph  Herschell  Smith 
Marjorie  A.  Duffus 

Lilla  C.  Montgomery 
Beulah  A.  Watts 
Mabel  N.  Watts 
Amy  E.  Wheeler 
Dean  S.  Fullerton 
Max  Fuller 

left  college 
Marjorie  E.  Luce 
Joseph  Ciminera 
Walter  LeBaron 
Norma  Marie  Perkins 
Loren  Watts 

Entrance  Course 
1903  L.S. 

Degree        Year 























Effie  Wells  fitted  for  college  in  Waterbury  High  School  and 
was  graduated  from  the  University  of  Vermont.  She  taught 
domestic  science  in  Middlebury  College  and  married  William 

It  is  quite  in  keeping  with  the  traditions  of  both  the  town  of 
Waterbury  and  Norwich  University  that  the  town  should 
have  been  creditably  represented  in  that  ancient  institution 
of  learning  and  that  the  spirit  fostered  and  nurtured  in  that 
splendid  school  of  patriotism  should  have  been  Waterbury's 
since  her  beginning.  A  list  of  former  students  and  graduates 
from  Waterbury  is  given : 

William  Carpenter,  son  of  Dan  and  Betsy  Carpenter,  was 
born  in  Waterbury  October  25,  1805;  died  March  16,  1881. 
He  was  prepared  at  Montpelier  Academy  and  entered  the  old 
"Academy,"  as  Norwich  University  was  then  known,  in  1821, 
and  was  graduated  in  1823.  He  afterwards  entered  the 
University  of  Vermont  with  the  class  of  1826,  but  was  forced 
by  ill  health  to  discontinue  his   course. 

PERIOD    1900-1915  235 

Frederick  Perkins  Drew,  U.  S.  A.,  M.  D.,  son  of  Doctor 
Oliver  W.  and  Lucretia  (Ames)  Drew,  was  born  in  Waterbury 
in  April,  1829,  and  died  at  Fort  Riley,  Kansas,  in  March, 
1864.  He  prepared  in  Waterbury  and  entered  the  univer- 
sity in  1844,  remaining  nearly  three  years.  Thereafter  he 
studied  medicine  at  Woodstock  and  was  graduated  M.  D. 
from  the  College  of  Surgeons  in  New  York  in  1859. 

Franklin  Allen  Goss,  A.  B.,  son  of  Benjamin  F.  and  Mary 
Jane  (Witherill)  Goss,  was  born  in  Waterbury  January  i, 
1859,  and  died  in  Troy,  New  York,  August  12,  1904.  He 
prepared  for  college  at  Highland  Military  Academy,  Worcester, 
Massachusetts,  and  at  Phillips  Academy,  Andover.  He  en- 
tered the  university  in  1864,  remaining  two  years,  and  served 
with  the  corps  of  cadets  at  Newport,  Vermont,  in  October, 
1864,  during  the  St.  Albans  raid  troubles.  He  was  gradu- 
ated from  Amherst  A.  B.  in  187 1. 

Ransom  Augustus  Gray,  son  of  Darius  A.  and  Louisa  P. 
(Smith)  Gray,  was  born  in  Duxbury,  Vermont,  February  28, 
1873,  and  died  of  tuberculosis  at  Sparhawk's  Sanatorium  in 
Burlington,  Vermont,  in  May,  1879.  In  1885  his  parents 
removed  to  Waterbury.  He  fitted  for  college  at  Green  Moun- 
tain Seminary,  Waterbury  Center,  and  entered  the  university, 
March,  1894,  remaining  until  June,  1895.  He  studied  law  and 
taught  school  in  Waterbury  until  he  was  stricken  with  his 
fatal  disease. 

Roy  Morse  Bachelder,  B.  S.,  son  of  John  Sargent  and  Ella 
Abbie  Morse  Bachelder,  was  born  in  Needham,  Massachusetts, 
January  10,  1885.  In  1888  his  parents  removed  to  Waterbury 
where  he  was  graduated  from  the  high  school  in  1903.  He 
entered  the  university  in  September  of  the  same  year  and 
was  graduated  B.  S.  in  C.  E.  in  1907.  He  was  afterwards 
employed  in  the  engineering  department  of  the  Missouri 
Pacific  Railroad,  July,  1907-April,  1908.  He  became  in- 
surance surveyor  for  the  Sanborn  Map  Company  of  New 
York.  He  is  a  member  of  the  Congregational  Church  in 

Earl  Albert  Boyce,  B.  S.,  son  of  Willard  Jairus  and  Mary 
Elna  (Robbins)  Boyce,  was  born  in  Waterbury  August  24, 


1887.  He  received  his  collegiate  preparation  in  the  local 
schools  and  entered  the  university,  September  12,  1905,  and 
was  graduated  B.  S.  in  C.  E.  in  1909.  He  became  an  assistant 
engineer  for  the  Northern  Pacific  Railroad  on  location  work  in 
North  Dakota,  August,  1909-March,  1910,  and  afterwards 
became  engaged  in  sewer  construction  work  in  Kentucky  and 
Tennessee.  He  studied  osteopathy  in  Kirksville,  Missouri, 
for  some  time  after  leaving  Tennessee. 

Earl  Asa  Parker,  son  of  Frederick  and  Ida  (Colby)  Parker, 
was  born  in  Waitsfield,  Vermont,  November  i,  1889.  He 
removed  to  Waterbury  with  his  family.  He  prepared  at 
Montpelier  Seminary  and  entered  the  university  as  a  cadet  and 
remained  as  a  student  from  September,  1908-June,  1910.  He 
became  instrument  man  with  the  Morgan  Engineering  Com- 
pany in  Poplar  Bluff,  Missouri;  assistant  engineer  with  C.  R.  T. 
and  P.  Railway  at  Topeka,  Kansas,  April-October,  191 1,  then 
with  the  A.,  T.  &S.  F.  Railway  in  New  Mexico,  from  October, 

Max  Gleason  Ayres,  son  of  Orlo  Leroy  and  Bessie  (Gleason) 
Ayres,  was  born  in  Waterbury,  Vermont,  October  27,  1890. 
He  prepared  at  the  Waterbury  High  School  and  entered  the 
university  in  September,  1909. 

Alton  Grover  Wheeler,  son  of  Stedman  Cyrus  and  Mabel 
Judith  (Grover)  Wheeler,  was  born  in  Waterbury,  Vermont, 
March  28,  1891.  He  was  prepared  at  the  Waterbury  High 
School  and  entered  the  university  as  a  cadet  in  the  civil 
engineering  department  in  September,  1910. 

Benjamin  Harrison  Grout,  B.  S.,  son  of  Doctor  Don  De 
Forest  and  Angle  M.  (Wilkins)  Grout,  was  born  in  Stowe, 
Vermont,  September  20,  1888.  He  was  prepared  for  college 
at  Waterbury  High  School  and  entered  the  university  from 
that  town  in  September,  1906.  He  was  graduated  B.  S.  in 
C.  E.  in  1910.  He  was  married,  April  19,  1914,  to  Miss  Hazel 
N.  Brackett,  and  now  resides  in  Brimfield,  Massachusetts. 

Harold  Price  Turney,  son  of  John  H.  and  Maria  (Price) 
Turney,  was  born  in  Waterbury  September  10,  1890.  He 
prepared  at  Goddard  Seminary,  Barre,  Vermont,  and  entered 
the  university  from  Middlesex  in  September,  191 1. 

PERIOD    1900-1915  237 

It  is  regrettable  that  only  a  partial  list  of  those  natives  or 
residents  of  Waterbury  attending  Middlebury  College  is 

Jeremiah  Flint,  son  of  Phineas  and  Hannah  (Clark)  Flint, 
was  born  in  Hampton,  Connecticut,  November  16,  1784;  was 
graduated  from  Middlebury  College  in  181 1,  and  the  Andover 
Theological  Seminary  in  18 14;  ordained  in  1817.  Pastor, 
Congregational  Church  in  Danville,  Vermont,  in  181 7-1 818. 
Lived  in  retirement  in  Waterbury  and  Eden,  Vermont,  1818- 
1842.  Married  Jerusha  Pratt,  April  7,  1830.  Their  children 
were  Helen,  Abby,  George  W.,  Phineas,  Jeremiah  C,  John  W. 
He  died  in  Eden,  Vermont,  October  29,  1842. 

Reverend  Jonathan  Hovey,  the  first  regularly  installed 
pastor  of  the  Congregational  Church  in  Waterbury,  received 
the  honorary  degree  of  M.  A.  from  Middlebury  College  in  1817. 

Calvin  Blodgett  Moody,  son  of  George  W.  and  Lucia  (Eddy) 
Moody,  was  born  in  Waterbury  October  26,  1855.  He  pre- 
pared for  college  at  Montpelier  Seminary.  He  was  graduated 
from  Middlebury  College  in  1877,  receiving  the  degree  of 
A.  B.,  and  afterwards  A.  M.;  studied  at  the  Hartford  Theolog- 
ical Seminary  and  was  ordained  in  1880.  He  was  successively 
pastor  of  Center  Harbor  (New  Hampshire)  Congregational 
Church,  at  Barton,  Vermont,  Osage,  Iowa,  and  of  the  Ply- 
mouth Congregational  Church  at  Minneapolis,  Minnesota. 
Afterwards  he  went  to  Syracuse,  New  York.  He  was  married 
to  Fanny  Ellen  Kingsley  July  29,  1880.  Children:  Helen 
Lucre tia,  Fanny  Kingsley  and  Lucia  Avis  (deceased).  The 
191 5  address  list  gives  his  present  residence  as  Kingfisher 
College,  Kingfisher,  Oklahoma. 

Doctor  Watson  Lowell  Wasson  of  Waterbury  was  a  non- 
graduate  student  in  the  class  of  1886  at  Middlebury  College. 

Sophia  Belle  Anderson  of  Waterbury  was  graduated  in  the 
class  of  1909  from  Middlebury  College. 

Edythe  May  Boyce  of  Waterbury  was  a  non-graduate 
student  in  the  class  of  1915  at  Middlebury  College. 

Margaret  Gates  Pike  of  Waterbury  was  a  non-graduate 
student  in  the  class  of  1915  at  Middlebury  College. 


Harriet  Edna  Boyce  of  Waterbury  was  a  member  of  the 
class  of  1916  at  Middlebury  College. 

Justin  Mark  Ricker,  formerly  of  Waterbury,  now  of  Bridge- 
port, Connecticut,  was  graduated  in  the  class  of  1906  from 
Middlebury  College. 

Dan  J.  Ricker,  formerly  of  Waterbury,  was  graduated  from 
Middlebury  College  in  the  class  of  1909.  He  spent  some  time 
in  Honolulu  and  is  now  in  New  York  City. 

Robert  Hazeltine  prepared  at  Waterbury  High  School  and 
was  graduated  at  Middlebury  College  in  1907;  after  a  post- 
graduate course,  he  became  a  teacher  in  the  Baltimore  City 
College,  Maryland.  He  is  a  son  of  Holden  and  Jessie  M. 

Irene,  daughter  of  Harvey  and  Ella  R.  Henry,  was  gradu- 
ated from  Middlebury  College.  She  was  prepared  for  college 
at  the  Waterbury  High  School,  and  now  lives  in  Schenectady. 

Among  the  former  students  of  the  Waterbury  High  School 
who  attended  college  are:  Charles  Warren,  Jr.,  W.  H.  S. 
1905;  Dartmouth,  1909;  now  in  business  in  New  York.  Wil- 
liam Duff  us,  W.  H.  S.,  afterwards  Leland  Stanford  University. 
Robert  Duffus,  W.  H.  S.,  afterwards  Leland  Stanford  Univer- 
sity, now  a  newspaper  man  in  California.  John  Moran,  W.  H. 
S.,  afterwards  Holy  Cross  College. 

Under  the  grim  shadows  of  Camel's  Hump  and  Mount 
Mansfield,  in  Waterbury  Center,  was  finally  established  the 
Green  Mountain  Seminary,  founded  in  1862  by  D.  S.  Frost, 
F.  H.  Lyford,  J.  L.  Sinclair,  Ziba  Sprague,  Lyman  Sargent, 
L  P.  Moulton,  Jonathan  Woodman,  L.  T.  Harris,  M.  C. 
Henderson,  S.  W.  Cowell,  Obadiah  Hall  and  J.  Coffrin,  as 
incorporators;  to  this  list  were  added  the  names  of  Ezra  B. 
Fuller,  David  H.  Adams,  Roswell  Mason  Minard,  Hawley  W. 
Judson  and  David  Pratt  by  an  amendment  to  the  act  of  incor- 
poration in  1868.  The  institution  was  started  under  the  aus- 
pices and  by  the  hard  labor  of  the  Freewill  Baptists  and  it  was 
empowerd  to  furnish  such  education  and  to  confer  such  degrees 
"as  are  usually  conferred  by  the  best  Colleges,  Academies 
and  Seminaries." 

The  first  president  of  the  corporation  was  Reverend  J.  L. 

PERIOD    1900-1915  239 

Sinclair;  t'he  second  was  Reverend  Lyman  Sargent.  The  cor- 
ner-stone of  the  seminary  building  was  laid  in  July,  1868,  by 
President  Angell,  then  of  the  University  of  Vermont.  The 
building  was  completed  at  a  cost  of  $30,000,  in  1869,  and  was 
dedicated  September  i  of  that  year.  During  the  first  year 
there  were  five  teachers  besides  the  principal,  A.  J.  Sanborn. 
For  three  years  following  C.  A.  Moores  was  principal.  Rev- 
erend R.  N.  Tozer  was  principal  during  the  fifth  year.  The 
school  was  closed  during  the  sixth  year  from  its  opening;  but 
was  reopened  in  1875. 

In  1 88 1,  through  the  munificence  of  Doctor  R.  M.  Minard, 
the  Minard  Commercial  School  was  opened  in  connection 
with  the  seminary.  A  review  of  the  curriculum  for  1890 
shows  that  in  the  English  and  Classical  course  and  the  Col- 
lege Preparatory  Course,  about  the  usual  amount  of  classics, 
mathematics,  English  and  history  was  prescribed.  There 
was  also  a  Teacher's  Course  of  two  years.  As  time  went  on, 
however,  it  became  only  too  apparent  that  the  support  the 
institution  richly  deserved  was  not  forthcoming;  during  the 
winter  of  1905-1906,  instruction  continued  until  Miss  Colley, 
the  preceptress,  was  called  to  New  Hampshire. 

After  a  precarious  struggle,  the  institution  finally  closed  its 
doors  permanently  in  February,  1906,  and  the  seminary  build- 
ing became  the  property  of  the  town  in  191 3,  pursuant  to  a 
vote  at  town  meeting  March  4.  The  old  school  bell  that  for- 
merly hung  in  the  belfry  of  the  school  building  was  donated  to 
one  of  the  town  churches  by  a  vote  passed  at  the  March  meet- 
ing in  1915,  "with  no  string  attached."  This  vote  naturally 
raised  a  query  duly  noted  in  the  record,  as  to  how  the  bell 
could  be  rung  without  a  string  attached. 

That  Kaiser  Wilhelm's  now  famous  alliterative  restriction 
of  woman's  sphere  to  "Kinder,  Kuche,  Kleider  und  Kirche" 
has  not  been  enthusiastically  adopted  in  Waterbury  is  dis- 
tinctly emphasized  by  the  club  movement  locally.  This 
began  with  the  Philomathean  Club,  organized  in  1894,  which 
became  federated  with  the  Vermont  State  Federation  of 
Women's  Clubs  in  1899.  The  Pierian  Club,  limited  to  a 
membership  of  twenty-five,  was  formed  in  1904,  and  became 


federated  in  191 1.  This  is  a  study  club  and  affords  opportu- 
nities to  its  members  for  individual  research  and  the  prepara- 
tion and  discussion  of  papers  on  subjects  of  historical,  literary, 
political  and  miscellaneous  interest.  The  Hypatia  Club,  also 
a  study  club,  was  formed  in  1898,  and  federated  in  1901.  Its 
membership,  until  1914,  was  limited  to  twenty-five,  since  then 
to  thirty.  It  has  kindred  objects  with  the  Pierian  as  to  re- 
search and  investigation. 

The  officers  and  members  of  the  Pierian  Club  for  1915-1916 
are:  president,  Mrs.  Abbie  J.  Foster;  vice-president,  Mrs. 
Sarah  M.  Carpenter;  recording  secretary,  Mrs.  Bertha  D. 
Campbell;  corresponding  secretary,  Mrs.  Nettie  L.  Fife;  treas- 
urer, Mrs.  Elna  M.  Boyce;  critic,  Mrs.  Laurestine  Graves. 

In  addition  to  the  above-named  members  the  list  of  active 
members  includes:  Blanche  E.  Atherton,  Bessie  G.  Ayers, 
Sarah  M.  Carpenter,  Marion  B.  Clark,  Martha  F.  Clair,  S. 
Jane  Edwards,  Estella  E.  Gifford,  Ida  M.  Grout,  Nina  L.  B. 
Robinson,  Clara  K.  Swasey,  Florence  E.  Guptil,  Ida  W. 
Hattie,  Margaret  B.  Knowles,  Caroline  A.  Lamb,  Eva  Luce, 
Harriette  F.  Moody,  Maria  Park,  Belle  G.  Randall,  Beulah 
Russell,  Nellie  R.  Thompson. 

The  list  of  honorary  members  includes:  Ella  M.  Batchel- 
der,  Nellie  C.  Bates,  Tamar  Boyce,  Sarah  M.  Coburn,  Joseph- 
ine E.  Drew,  Cora  G.  Douglass,  Minnie  L.  Haines,  Ella  R. 
Henry,  Nellie  G.  Hoadley,  Mary  N.  Petty,  Susie  A.  J.  Smith- 
ers,  Elnora  Stalker,  Sue  G.  Stranahan,  Lillian  Tewksbury, 
Jane  Trowbridge,  Ellen  A.  Vassar. 

The  officers  and  members  of  the  Hypatia  Club  for  1915-1916 
are:  president,  Mrs.  Margaret  S.  Perry;  vice-president,  Mrs. 
Florence  T.  Joslyn;  secretary.  Miss  Rose  A.  Carpenter;  assist- 
ant secretary,  Mrs.  Maywood  P.  Perkins;  treasurer,  Mrs. 
Rena  Demeritt. 

Besides  those  named  the  active  member  list  includes: 
Jessie  H.  Atherton,  Florence  E.  Atkins,  Katrina  L.  Bidwell, 
Weltha  W.  Boeker,  Lottie  C.  Cooley,  Lillian  P.  Demeritt, 
Laura  P.  Fowler,  Harriet  B.  Farnham,  Annie  G.  Gilbert, 
Etta  F.  Graves,  Fontinelle  N.  Goodrich,  Mabel  C.  Jones, 
Marguerite  C.  Knight,  Inez  G.  Lease,  Lucy  G.  Moody,  Sadie 

PERIOD    1900-1915  241 

Moore,  Alice  L.  Seabury,  Eva  F.  Stanley,  Emilie  G.  Steele, 
Theda  W.  Twombly,  Pearl  R.  Wasson,  Mary  M.  VVhitehill, 
Maud  C.  Wood,  Mae  B.  VVheeler. 

The  list  of  honorary  members  includes :  Mabel  H.  Andrews, 
Mary  W.  Berry,  Sara  H.  Boicourt,  Bertha  D.  Bone,  Amy  G. 
Bingham,  Beatrice  A.  Boyce,  Lena  M.  Carpenter,  Margaret 
Colby,  Jasmine  S.  Cooley,  Ella  D.  Davis,  Mary  Drew,  Nan- 
nette  D.  Evans,  Drusilla  Fogg,  Carolyn  W.  Frary,  Mary  F. 
Kemp,  Clarissa  S.  Minard,  Florence  F.  Morse,  Mertie  H. 
Palmer,  Julia  P.  Parker,  Mary  A.  Patterson,  Julia  M.  Perry, 
Nella  S.  Roscoe,  Dora  C.  Sheffield,  Bessie  F.  Whittle,  Ida  B. 
Hatch,  Ida  B.  Houston,  Claire  D.  Hill,  Mary  K.  Kellogg. 

Waterbury  State  and  Federal  Officers 

Governors — Ezra  Butler,  1826-1827;  Paul  Dillingham, 
1865-1866;  William  P.  DiUingham,  1888-1890. 

Lieutenant-Governor — Paul  Dillingham,  1862,  1863,  1864. 

State  Councillors— Ezra  Butler,  1807,  1808,  1809,  1810, 
1811,  1812,  1815-1825;  John  Peck,  1826;  Henry  F.  Janes, 
1830,  1831,  1832,  1833,  1834. 

Representatives  in  Congress — Ezra  Butler,  1813-1815; 
Henry  F.  Janes,  1834-1837;  Paul  Dillingham,  1843-1847; 
Lucius  B.  Peck,  1848-1852. 

United  States  Senator— William  P.  Dillingham,  1900,  1902, 

1908,  1914. 

Members  Constitutional  Convention — Richard  W.  Holden, 
1793;  Dan  Carpenter,  1814;  Ezra  Butler,  1822;  Luther  Cleaves, 
1828;  Paul  Dillingham,  Jr.,  1836;  William  Carpenter,  1843; 
Eliakim  Allen,  1850;  Paul  Dillingham,  1857. 

Council  of  Censors— Ezra  Butler,  1806;  Henry  F.  Janes, 
1848;  William  W.  Wells,  1855- 

List  of  Town  Representatives 

Daniel  Bliss,  1792. 

No  representative,  1793,  1831,  1835,  1849,  1850,  1855. 

Ezra  Butler,  1794-1798,  1799-1805.  1807. 

George  Kennan,  1798,  1805-1806,  1808,  1810. 


Asaph  Allen,  1809. 

John  Peck,  1811,  1818. 

Sylvester  Henry,  1812-1813, 

Dan  Carpenter,  1814-1818,  1819-1827,  1829. 

Amasa  Pride,  1827-1828,  1832. 

Charles  R.  Cleaves,  1830. 

Paul  Dillingham,  Jr.,  1833-1834,  1837-1840. 

Thaddeus  Clough,  1836,  1846-1847. 

William  W.  Wells,  1840,  1 863-1 864. 

Eliakim  Allen,  1841. 

Henry  Douglass,  1 842-1 843. 

William  Carpenter,  1 844-1 845. 

Charles  C.  Arms,  1848. 

Calvin  Blodgett,  1851-1852. 

O.  C.  Howard,  1853. 

Henry  F.  Janes,  1854,  1861,  1862. 

James  Green,  1856. 

John  D.  Smith,  1857-1858. 

Orson  Putnam,  1859. 

James  M.  Henry,  i860. 

William  Wells,  1865-1866. 

Ezra  B.  Fuller,  1867-1869. 

Frank  E.  Ormsby,  1869-1870,  1872. 

George  W.  Randall,  1872-1874,  1882-1883. 

John  B.  Parker,  1874-1876. 

William  P.  Dillingham,  1876-1878. 

Leander  H.  Haines,  1878-1880. 

Edward  F.  Palmer,  1880-1882,  1888-1889,  1896-1897. 

William  P.  Dillingham,  1884-1885. 

George  E.  Moody,  1886. 

Henry  Janes,  1890-1891. 

Lester  H.  Elliot,  1892. 

Frank  N.  Smith,  1894-1895. 

H.  E.  Marshall,  1898-1899. 

George  Eugene  Moody,  1900-1901. 

Charles  Wells,  1902, 

James  F.  Shipman,  1904. 

Harvey  P.  Robinson,  1906. 

PERIOD    1900-1915  243 

Willard  J.  Boyce,  1908,  1910. 
Richard  Demeritt,  1912. 
Henry  F.  Hill,  1915. 

List  of  State  Senators  from  Waterbury 

Paul  Dillingham,  1841. 

William  Carpenter,  1848,  1849. 

Joseph  Moody,  1853. 

James  Green,  1854-1855. 

William  W.  Henry,  1865,  1866,  1867. 

William  P.  Dillingham,  1878,  1880. 

George  Eugene  Moody,  1906. 

The  Supreme  Court  Reporter  for  1882  and  1884  was  Edwin 
F.  Palmer,  Esq.,  who  also  served  as  State  Superintendent 
of  Education  in  1 888-1 890.  William  P.  Dillingham  served  as 
State  Tax  Commissioner  in  1886. 

List  of  Town  Clerks 

Ezra  Butler,  1 790-1 797,  1798,  1799,  1800. 

Ebenezer  Reed,  1797. 

Roswell  Wells,  1 801-1806. 

Abel  Dewolf,  1806. 

Dan  Carpenter,  1807,  1810,  1812,  1829. 

John  Peck,  1810,  181 1. 

Paul  Dillingham,  Jr.,  1829-1844. 

William  Carpenter,  1 844-1 851. 

John  D.  Smith,  1851-1874. 

Frank  N.  Smith,  1874-1896. 

James  K.  Fullerton,  1896. 

High  Sheriffs 

John  Peck,  1811,  1812,  1819,  1820,  1821,  1822,  1823, 

L  C.  Brown,  1859,  i860. 

Frank  H.  Atherton,  1884,  1886,  li 

C.  C.  Graves,  1898-1902. 

G.  B.  Evans,  1 902-1 904, 


Banking  History 

Prior  to  1854  the  people  of  the  town  of  Waterbury  and 
the  vicinity  were  without  local  banking  facilities.  A  period 
of  steady  mercantile  and  industrial  activity  demanded  that 
this  state  of  affairs  be  remedied.  The  nearest  banks  were 
located  in  Montpelier,  to  which  a  small  number  of  Waterbury 
depositors  had  recourse;  but  it  was  not  an  uncommon  practice 
for  local  merchants  to  act  as  depositaries  for  their  customers, 
particularly  with  regard  to  temporary  or  special  deposits  for 
purposes  of  convenience.  The  first  bank  at  the  state  capital 
was  the  Bank  of  Montpelier,  chartered  in  1825,  and  organized 
in  1826,  of  which  Elijah  Paine  was  president,  with  a  capital 
of  $50,000.  Upon  its  recharter  in  1840  the  capital  was  in- 
creased to  $75,000,  and  again,  in  1853,  to  $100,000.  This 
bank  was  succeeded  by  the  Montpelier  National  Bank,  under 
the  National  Banking  Act  in  1865.  The  second  bank  in 
Montpelier  was  the  Vermont  Bank,  chartered  in  1848  and 
organized  in  1849  with  a  capital  of  $100,000.  It  became  the 
First  National  Bank  of  Montpelier  in  1865. 

In  the  decade  preceding  the  breaking  out  of  the  Rebellion, 
Waterbury  participated  in  the  general  business  revival  follow- 
ing the  lean  years  of  the  late  30's  and  early  40's.  By  degrees 
banking  methods  were  becoming  systematized ;  business  men 
began  to  appreciate  the  necessity  of  coordinating  their  methods 
with  the  new  order  of  things.  There  was  still  much  to  be 
desired  in  regard  to  stabilizing  issues  of  state  banks  and  there 
was,  still,  constant  irritation  and  confusion  in  the  matter  of 
exchange,  but  upon  the  whole,  order  was  evolving  by  degrees. 
Added  incentives  to  habitual  thrift  were  found  in  the  rates 
of  interest  and  the  sense  of  security  afforded  by  the  banks 
in  each  locality.  Old  time  practices  of  hoarding  gave  place 
to  the  newer  ones  of  making  savings  productive.  Trans- 
mission of  funds  by  draft  opened  new  avenues  of  commercial 
and  industrial  dealings  and  brought  Waterbury  into  fiscal 
relationship  with  the  money  centers  of  the  country. 

The  third  banking  institution  at  Montpelier  was  the  State 
Bank  of  Montpelier,  organized  in  1858.  The  next  was  the 
Montpelier  Savings  Bank  and  Trust  Company,  organized  in 

PERIOD    1900-1915  245 

187 1.  Quite  naturally  these  banking  houses  and  others  in 
Burlington  had  acquired  a  number  of  active  and  inactive 
accounts  from  Waterbury  patrons  so  that  when  the  Bank  of 
Waterbury  was  established  in  1854,  and  for  some  time  after, 
there  was  the  competition  of  conservative  habit  to  combat, — 
conservative  habit  in  this  case  meaning  acquiescence  in  existing 
conditions,  but  considerations  of  local  needs  and  convenience 
prevailed  as  the  history  of  the  Bank  of  Waterbury  and  its 
successors  clearly  shows. 

An  act  to  incorporate  the  Bank  of  Waterbury  was  approved 
December  5,  1853,  with  an  authorized  capital  of  $100,000, 
divided  into  two  thousand  shares  of  $50  each.  The  institution 
created  by  this  act  was  expressly  made  subject  to  the  provi- 
sions in  force  of  chapter  eighty-four  of  the  compiled  statutes, 
"and  any  other  laws  of  this  state  relating  to  banks  and 
moneyed  corporations," 

The  commissioners  named  in  the  charter  were  William  W. 
Wells  and  Paul  Dillingham  of  Waterbury,  William  H.  H. 
Bingham  of  Stowe,  V.  W.  Waterman  of  Morristown,  Timothy 
P.  Redfield  of  Montpelier,  Rolla  Gleason  of  Richmond  and 
Dan  Richardson  of  Waitsfield.  They  were  empowered  to 
receive  subscriptions  and  to  make  allotments  of  stock,  which 
duty  they  performed  and  made  certificate  thereto  dated  Feb- 
ruary 13,  1854. 

Upon  notice  duly  given,  the  first  meeting  of  stockholders 
was  had  at  the  Washington  House  in  Waterbury  on  Monday, 
February  13,  1854,  at  which  the  following  five  directors  were 
chosen:  Leander  Hutchins  of  Waterbury,  Paul  Dillingham  of 
Waterbury,  William  W.  Wells  of  Waterbury,  Orrin  Perkins  of 
Stowe  and  Vernon  W.  Waterman  of  Morristown,  On  the 
20th  day  of  February,  1854,  at  a  meeting  of  the  board  of 
directors,  Leander  Hutchins  was  unanimously  elected  president 
of  the  board,  and  at  a  meeting  of  the  directors  on  the  9th  day 
of  March,  1854,  Samuel  Haskins  Stowell  was  unanimously 
chosen  and  appointed  cashier. 

By-laws  were  adopted  by  the  board  of  directors  on  the  19th 
of  April,  1854.  At  the  annual  meeting  of  stockholders, 
January  9,  1855,  Samuel  Merriam  and  B.  F.  Goss  were  added 


to  the  board  of  directors,  an  amendment  to  the  charter 
increasing  the  number  of  directors  to  seven  having  been 
approved  November  9,  1854.  The  first  dividend  of  $2  per 
share  on  the  stock  of  the  bank  was  declared  and  voted  to  be 
paid,  March  22,  1855.  Again,  at  a  directors'  meeting  held 
September  13,  1855,  it  was  voted  to  pay  a  dividend  of  $2  per 
share  on  or  before  October  3,  1855.  At  the  stockholders' 
meeting,  January  8,  1856,  J.  H.  Hastings  was  made  director 
in  place  of  William  W.  Wells.  On  March  6,  1856,  Mr. 
Benjamin  H.  Dewey  was  duly  appointed  cashier  of  the  bank. 
Mr.  Dewey  remained  with  the  bank  until  April  29,  1865, 
at  which  time  he  was  succeeded  by  Mr.  James  K.  Fullerton. 
Mr.  Dewey  accompanied  the  firm  of  John  F.  Henry  & 
Company  from  Waterbury  to  New  York  where  he  continued 
with  that  firm  until  he  entered  the  employment  of  the  Standard 
Oil  Company  then  occupying  the  old  building  at  44  Broadway. 
He  remained  with  the  Standard  Oil  Company  until  his 

The  board  of  directors  and  ofificers  remained  about  the 
same  for  years,  with  an  occasional  vacancy  to  be  filled.  Asa 
R.  Camp  was  chosen  director,  January  13,  1857,  in  place  of 
Orrin  Perkins;  while  H.  A.  Hodges  was  chosen,  in  place  of 
Vernon  W.  Waterman,  January  11,  1859.  On  the  retirement  of 
B.  F.  Goss,  January  10,  i860,  O.  W.  Drew  became  director. 

At  a  meeting  of  the  directors,  December  26,  1862,  upon 
a  report  of  an  auditing  committee,  to  investigate  the  financial 
concerns  of  the  bank,  it  was  voted  to  pay  a  semi-annual 
dividend  of  4  per  cent  on  the  capital  stock  of  the  bank,  exclu- 
sive of  the  government  tax  on  January  i,  1863,  and,  further, 
to  pay  $700  to  the  directors  as  salary  for  the  year.  An  entry 
in  the  record,  made  April  2,  1863,  is  significant  of  the  nation's 
predicament  at  that  time,  when  it  was  voted  "that  the  presi- 
dent invest,  ten  thousand  (10,000)  dollars  in  U.  S.  Five- twenty 
bonds  and  deposit  fifteen  thousand  (15,000)  U.S.  Currency 
with  the  U.  S.  sub-treasurer  of  the  bank  funds."  Profits  to 
June  26,  1863,  were  shown  to  be  $9,068.16,  and  a  dividend  of 
4  per  cent  was  voted  to  be  paid  to  the  stockholders  on  and  after 
July  1, 1863.     C.  N.  Arms  was  made  director,  February  3, 1864, 

PERIOD    1900-1915  247 

in  place  of  Samuel  Merriam,  resigned.  Profits,  up  to  June  30, 
1864,  were  shown  to  be  $12,348.52.  A  dividend  of  ']\  per  cent, 
free  of  government  tax,  was  voted  to  the  stockholders  Decem- 
ber 27,  1864.  At  a  meeting  on  January  10,  1865,  Healy  Cady 
was  elected  director  in  place  of  A.  R.  Camp,  resigned. 

At  a  directors*  meeting,  March  30,  1865,  it  was  voted  to 
take  steps  to  obtain  consent  of  the  stockholders  changing  the 
organization  of  the  bank  to  that  of  a  national  bank,  and  to 
take  measures  looking  to  an  increase  of  the  capital  stock  to 
a  sum  not  exceeding  $200,000.  A  resolution  was  duly  passed 
April  I,  1865,  by  the  stockholders,  converting  the  Bank  of 
Waterbury  into  the  Waterbury  National  Bank,  and  continuing 
the  old  board  of  directors  and  cashier.  The  total  number  of 
shares  represented  were  1,684,  divided  among  138  individuals. 
Appropriate  articles  of  association,  under  the  National  Bank- 
ing Act,  were  adopted  by  the  directors,  June  23,  1865,  and 
a  certificate  of  organization  was  duly  executed  by  the  directors. 
The  condition  of  the  Bank  of  Waterbury  June  23,  1864, 
showed  earnings  of  $14,421.51. 

The  Waterbury  National  Bank  was  authorized  to  com- 
mence business  (September  i,  1865)  under  a  certificate  of  the 
Comptroller  of  the  Currency,  dated  July  17,  1865,  with  a 
paid-up  capital  of  $100,000.  Mr.  Curtis  Wells  was  duly 
elected  cashier,  in  place  of  Mr.  James  K.  Fullerton,  March  29, 
1870.  Nathaniel  Moody  was  elected  director,  in  place  of 
O.  W.  Drew,  January  14,  1873.  On  withdrawal  from  the 
board  of  Leander  Hutchins,  January  13,  1874,  Paul  Dillingham 
was  elected  president  and  W.  P.  Dillingham  was  elected  a  direc- 
tor. W.  H.  H.  Bingham  replaced  Healy  Cady  on  the  board, 
January  12,  1875.  The  resignation  of  Mr.  Curtis  Wells  as 
cashier  became  effective  February  i,  1883,  and  Mr.  Charles 
Wells  was  elected  cashier  to  serve  after  February  i,  1883. 

An  amendment  to  the  articles  of  association  was  adopted 
extending  its  corporate  existence  to  June  23,  1905,  under  an 
act  approved  July  12,  1882,  and  the  same  certified  to  the 
Comptroller  of  the  Currency. 

At  a  meeting  held  June  30,  1887,  it  was  voted  "that  the 
directors  have  agreed  to  lease  of  Honorable  Paul  Dillingham, 


rooms  to  be  built  on  the  present  site  suitable  for  a  banking 
house,  with  a  good  fireproof  vault  and  safe,  for  the  term  of  ten 
years  at  the  option  of  the  officers  of  the  bank  at  a  rental  of 
two  hundred  dollars  a  year." 

The  first  meeting  of  the  directors  in  the  new  banking  rooms 
was  held  December  31,  1887.  J.  W.  Brock  was  elected  a 
director  January  14,  1890,  upon  the  withdrawal  of  Paul 
Dillingham  whose  letter  of  resignation  bore  that  date.  An 
appropriate  resolution  of  appreciation  and  gratitude  to  the 
retiring  president  was  passed  and  entered  on  the  record. 
William  P.  Dillingham  succeeded  to  the  office  of  president; 
J.  H.  Hastings  was  elected  vice-president,  and  W.  B.  Clark, 
assistant  cashier;  Justin  W.  Moody  was  made  director  in 
place  of  Nathaniel  Moody. 

Frank  N.  Smith  was  appointed  assistant  cashier  to  take 
the  place  of  Charles  Wells,  who  took  leave  of  absence  for  his 
health,  March  5,  1894.  Cornelius  L.  McMahon  of  Stowe 
was  elected  a  director,  in  place  of  W.  H.  H.  Bingham,  deceased, 
December  31,  1894.  Mark  C.  Canerdy  was  elected  director, 
in  place  of  J.  W.  Brock,  January  10,  1899.  J.  F.  Shipman 
was  elected  director,  in  place  of  C.  N.  Arms,  January  8,  1901. 
Charles  Wells  tendered  his  resignation  as  cashier  (effective 
November  i,  1901)  and  W.  B.  Clark  was  appointed  cashier 
in  his  stead,  October  7,  1902.  E.  E.  Joslyn  was  made  clerk 
on  the  same  day,  and  afterwards  (December  31,  1902)  assistant 
cashier.  A.  W.  Ferrin  was  elected  director,  in  place  of  J.  H. 
Hastings,  January  12,  1904. 

At  a  duly  called  meeting  of  stockholders,  February  24, 
1904,  it  was  resolved  to  reduce  the  capital  stock  in  the  sum 
of  $50,000,  leaving  the  total  capital  $50,000.  There  were 
2,206  shares  represented,  all  in  favor  of  the  resolution.  Cer- 
tification of  approval  of  this  reduction  of  capital  stock  was 
duly  made  by  the  Comptroller  of  the  Currency  March  2,  1904. 

At  the  meeting  of  January  8,  1907,  George  W.  Morse  was 
elected  director  in  place  of  H.  A.  Hodges,  who  retired,  receiving 
a  vote  of  appreciation  and  thanks.  W.  B.  Clark  was  made 
director  in  place  of  A.  W.  Ferrin.  On  January  12,  1909, 
H.  D.  Brown  was  elected  director  in  place  of  Justin  W.  Moody. 

PERIOD    1900-1915  249 

Mr.  Brown's  death  left  a  vacancy  which  was  filled  by  the 
election  of  C.  C.  Graves  as  director  on  August  24,  1909. 
The  death  of  Mr.  Canerdy  left  a  vacancy  in  the  board  which 
was  filled  by  the  election  of  Mr.  Harry  C.  Whitehill.  Mr. 
C.  C.  Graves  was  elected  vice-president,  in  place  of  Mr. 
Canerdy,  September  27,  19 10.  Resolutions  upon  the  death 
of  Mr.  Canerdy  were  passed  and  spread  upon  the  minutes 
October  4,  1910. 

July  10,  191 1,  was  the  dateonwhichit  was  voted  to  establish 
a  new  Savings  Bank  and  Trust  Company  at  the  present  loca- 
tion and  to  purchase  the  present  bank  building  at  the  price 
of  $3,000.  Notice  of  liquidation,  dated  May  11,  191 1,  was 
duly  sent  to  the  shareholders  and  a  meeting  was  called  for 
July  II,  191 1.  The  resolution  placing  the  Waterbury  National 
Bank  in  voluntary  liquidation  under  sections  5220  and  5221 
of  the  United  States  Revised  Statutes  was  passed  July  11, 
to  take  effect  October  i,  191 1,  1,073  shares  voting  in  the 
affirmative.  Subscriptions  were  thereafter  received  by  the 
commissioners  for  the  stock  of  the  Waterbury  Savings  Bank 
and  Trust  Company,  and  notices  of  allotment  were  sent  out. 
The  old  board  of  directors  and  officers  were  continued  with 
the  addition  of  W.  E.  Jones  as  director,  at  a  meeting  September 
5,  191 1.  The  formal  instrument  of  transfer  to  the  Waterbury 
Savings  Bank  and  Trust  Company,  reciting  the  consideration 
of  $75,000,  was  executed  by  the  Waterbury  National 
Bank  September  30,  191 1.  A  statement  of  the  bank's  con- 
dition showed  resources  to  be  $634,780.09.  Under  liabilities 
were:  capital,  $50,000;  circulation,  $35,000;  deposits,  $516,- 
549.47;  profit  and  loss,  $13,230.62;  surplus,  $20,000.  The 
appraised  value  of  resources  at  the  close  of  business,  September 
30,  191 1,  was  $627,980.09. 

Extracts  from  the  act  to  incorporate  the  Waterbury  Savings 
Bank  and  Trust  Company,  approved  November  24,  1896, 
follow : 

Section  i.  The  subscribers  to  the  capital  stock  of  the  corporation 
hereby  established,  and  their  successors  and  assigns  are  constituted  a 
corporation  and  body  politic,  by  the  name  of  Waterbury  Savings  Bank  and 
Trust  Company;  and  by  that  name  may  sue  and  be  sued,  may  have  a 
common  seal,  and  the  same  may  alter  at  pleasure;  may  purchase  and  hold 


real  and  personal  estate,  for  their  own  use,  and  such  real  and  personal 
estate  as  may  be  received  in  the  collection  of  debts,  and  may  sell  and 
convey  the  same,  and  shall  have  and  enjoy  all  the  privileges  incident  to 
corporations;  and  said  savings  bank  and  trust  company  shall  be  established 
in  the  town  of  Waterbury  in  the  county  of  Washington. 

Section  2.  The  capital  stock  of  said  corporation  shall  be  fifty  thousand 
dollars,  with  power  to  increase  the  same  to  an  amount  not  exceeding  two 
hundred  thousand  dollars,  by  a  vote  of  a  majority  of  the  whole  capital 
stock  at  a  meeting  of  stockholders  called  for  that  purpose  and  shall  be 
divided  into  shares  of  the  par  value  of  fifty  dollars  each  to  be  paid  in  at 
such  time  and  in  such  manner  as  the  board  of  directors  may  provide. 

Section  3.  William  P.  Dillingham,  Charles  C.  Graves,  W.  B.  Clark, 
J.  F.  Shipman,  George  W.  Morse,  H.  C.  Whitehill,  J.  F.  Somerville,  W.  J. 
Boyce,  J.  W.  Moody  of  Waterbury,  Vermont,  C.  L.  McMahon  of  Stowe, 
Vermont,  W.  E.  Jones  of  Waitsfield,  Vermont,  Frank  Gillett  of  Richmond, 
Vermont,  are  appointed  commissioners  for  receiving  subscriptions  for 
shares  in  the  capital  stock  of  such  corporation,  etc.,  etc. 

Section  10.     The  corporation  hereby  created  shall  have  power 

1.  To  receive  moneys  on  deposit  or  in  trust  at  such  rate  of  interest  or 
on  such  terms  as  may  be  agreed  upon,  the  rate  of  interest  to  be  allowed 
for  the  deposits  not  to  exceed  the  legal  rate. 

2.  To  accept  and  execute  all  such  trusts,  of  every  description  not  incon- 
sistent with  the  laws  of  Vermont  as  may  be  committed  to  it  by  any  person 
or  persons  whomsoever,  or  by  any  corporation,  or  by  order  of  the  supreme 
court,  probate  court  or  any  other  court  of  record  of  this  state. 

3.  To  take  and  accept,  by  grant,  assignment,  transfer,  devise  or  bequest, 
and  hold  any  real  or  personal  estate  or  trusts  created  in  accordance  with 
the  laws  of  this  state,  and  e.xecute  such  legal  trusts  on  such  terms  as  may 
be  declared,  established  or  agreed  upon  in  regard  thereto;  and  in  case  no 
terms  are  established,  declared  or  agreed  upon,  then  the  trust  property  is 
only  to  be  invested  as  provided  by  the  terms  of  this  act. 

4.  To  accept  from  and  execute  trusts  for  married  women,  in  respect  to 
their  separate  property,  whether  real  or  personal,  and  to  act  as  agent  for 
them  in  the  management  of  such  property. 

5.  To  accept  deposits  where  public  officers  or  municipal  or  private 
corporations  are  authorized  or  required  by  law  to  deposit  money  in  a 
bank,  and  such  deposits  may  be  made  by  such  officers  or  corporations  with 
the  said  Waterbury  Savings  Bank  and  Trust  Company. 

6.  To  act  as  agent  for  the  purpose  of  issuing,  registering  or  countersigning 
the  certificates  of  stock  or  other  evidences  of  debt  of  any  corporation, 
association,  municipality,  state  or  public  authority,  and  for  the  collection 
of  interest  and  dividends  on  such  terms  as  may  be  agreed  upon. 

7.  To  purchase  and  sell  stocks,  bonds,  mortgages  and  other  evidences  of 

8.  To  issue  letters  of  credit  upon  such  terms  as  may  be  agreed  upon  by 
the  directors. 

PERIOD    1900-1915  251 

By-laws  of  the  new  Savings  Bank  and  Trust  Company 
were  adopted  October  2,  191 1.  At  the  first  annual  meeting 
of  directors,  January  9,  1912,  held  after  the  beginning  of 
business  October  i,  191 1,  the  following  officers  were  elected: 
president,  W.  P.  Dillingham;  vice-president,  C.  C.  Graves; 
clerk,  Harry  C.  Whitehill.  These  officers  were  reelected  to 
office  for  1913,  1914  and  1915,  Mr.  Harry  C.  Whitehill  con- 
tinuing as  secretary  from  1913. 

The  by-laws  provide  for  eight  directors,  a  board  of  invest- 
ment to  loan  and  invest  funds,  the  receipt  of  moneys  as 
business  deposits  subject  to  check  as  well  as  for  savings,  upon 
which  latter  interest  is  allowed;  compensation  of  i  per  cent 
for  the  care  and  management  of  estates,  or  trust  property, 
in  the  absence  of  special  agreement,  terms  and  conditions 
of  loans,  monthly  statements  of  loans  and  condition  of  bank, 
rates  of  interest,  deposit  books  and  the  like. 

The  trust  department  of  the  Waterbury  Savings  Bank  and 
Trust  Company  is  charged  with  the  administration  of  all 
legal  trusts,  whether  committed  to  it  by  an  individual,  group 
of  individuals  or  corporations  voluntarily  or  under  order 
of  court.  Vermont  has  been  slow  to  adopt  the  trust  company 
idea  as  developed  elsewhere  in  the  administration  of  estates. 
The  old  practice  of  appointing  an  individual  to  act  as  execu- 
tor, trustee,  administrator  or  guardian  persists  in  spite  of 
almost  daily  examples  of  its  peril.  The  result  is  found  in  all 
the  probate  districts  of  the  state;  intermediate  and  final 
accountings  are  long  overdue,  as  a  rule;  lack  of  system  by 
individual  representatives  in  their  methods  of  accounting 
prevails;  hit-or-miss  compliance  with  statutory  requirements 
is  all  too  common. 

A  testator  reposes  faith  and  confidence  in  a  personal 
friend  and,  as  a  mark  of  his  friendship,  singles  out  his  friend 
as  one  upon  whom  to  impose  the  responsibility  of  administering 
his  estate.  He  does  this  often  without  considering  that  such 
assumption  of  responsibility  presupposes  ample  solvency,  not 
only  for  the  time  being,  but  for  the  indefinite  period  of  adminis- 
tration, ample  time  to  give  the  business,  systematic  and 
methodical  business  habits,  stability  of  and  accessibility  to 


the  personal  representative  at  all  times.  In  how  many  instan- 
ces of  individual  personal  representatives  arc  these  qualifications 
united?  It  should  be  clear  that  a  corporate  body,  organized 
for  the  purpose,  with  facilities  designed  for  the  purpose,  with 
a  self-perpetuating  life,  having  instant  accessibility,  unques- 
tioned solvency  and  solidity  and  superior  advantages  for  the 
legal  investment  of  trust  funds  under  the  strictest  supervision, 
is  much  to  be  perferred  to  an  individual  in  such  a  capacity. 
It  has  been  argued  that  in  the  case  of  guardianship  of  minor 
children,  nothing  can  supply  the  "personal  touch,"  or  the 
individual  ability  to  deal  with  the  problems  of  youth;  the 
answer  is  that  under  the  direction  of  a  skilled  and  experienced 
trust  officer,  competent  persons  may  be  found  with  the 
requisite  ability  for  dealing  with  all  necessary  problems  without 
the  danger  of  the  "personal  touch," — sometimes  a  thing  to 
be  avoided. 

The  officers  and  directors  of  the  Waterbury  Savings  Bank 
and  Trust  Company,  elected  January  12,  1915,  were:  W.  P. 
Dillingham,  president;  C.  C.  Graves,  vice-president;  Harry 
C.  Whitehill,  secretary;  W.  B.  Clark,  treasurer;  J.  F.  Shipman, 
C.  L.  McMahon,  W.  E.  Jones. 

An  effort  has  been  made  by  the  compiler  to  secure  returns 
from  those  in  active  professional  and  business  life  in  the  town; 
responses  have  been  delayed  for  one  or  another  cause  but 
3.  list  is  appended  containing  the  names  and  data  of  nearly  all. 

The  Consolidated  Lighting  Company  owns  and  operates 
the  power  plant  at  Bolton  (Winooski)  Falls.  The  water 
privilege  was  secured  by  the  Consolidated  Lighting  Company 
in  1895  and  1896.  Construction  of  the  plant  was  begun  in 
1898,  being  finished  late  in  that  year.  This  location  is  an 
extremely  irregular  gorge  of  solid  rock  and  very  great  difficul- 
ties in  construction  were  encountered.  These,  however,  were 
finally  overcome  so  that  in  1899  the  plant  was  in  fair  operating 
condition,  having  a  capacity  of  1200  horse  power,  which  was 
at  that  time  supposed  to  be  sufficient  for  all  time  to  come. 
The  capacity  of  the  plant  was  found  to  be  inadequate  as  early 
as  1903  and  in  1905  and  1906  an  addition  was  made  to  the 
power  plant  building  and  the  capacity   increased   by   about 

PERIOD    1900- 19 1 5  253 

1800  horse  power,  which  has  since  been  found  to  be  sufficient  to 
take  care  of  all  available  water  at  that  point,  so  that  the 
present  capacity  of  the  plant  is  approximately  2000  horse 
power.  The  plant  has  been  subject  to  the  usual  and  unusual 
recurrences  of  damage  by  flood  and  similar  severe  conditions 
which  have  necessitated  from  time  to  time  various  changes 
in  the  construction;  the  result  is  that  at  the  present  time 
the  plant  is  in  what  might  very  safely  be  called  excellent 
operating  condition.  This  is  the  largest  hydraulic  plant  at 
present  operating  in  this  territory.  The  transformer  houses 
are  in  Winooski  Street  and  at  Duxbury  Corners.  The  pres- 
ent officers  of  the  Consolidated  Lighting  Company  are: 
president,  A.  B.  Tenney;  first  vice-president,  D.  E.  Manson; 
second  vice-president,  H.  T.  Sands;  treasurer,  E.  A.  Bradley. 

The  lawyers  of  Waterbury  are :  Honorable  William  P.  Dill- 
ingham, whose  sketch  appears  elsewhere;  George  H.  Dale,  Esq., 
and  C.  B.  Adams,  Esq.,  Taking  them  in  reverse  order, 
C.  B.  Adams  was  born  in  Randolph,  Vermont,  September 
2,  1887,  the  son  of  J.  B.  and  Effie  (Thurston)  Adams.  He  was 
educated  at  the  district  schools  at  Randolph,  was  graduated  at 
the  State  Normal  School  at  Randolph  in  1905,  the  Montpelier 
Seminary  in  1907,  the  University  of  Maine  College  of  Law, 
taking  the  degree  LL.  B.,  in  1913.  He  was  admitted  to 
the  Maine  bar  in  August,  1912,  and  the  Vermont  State  bar 
in  October,  1914,  coming  to  Waterbury  that  same  month. 

George  H.  Dale,  Esq.,  was  born  in  More  town,  April  18, 
1858.  He  was  married  for  the  first  time  to  Hattie  L.  Sawyer, 
July  4,  1880;  for  the  second  time  to  Lettie  Lefebvre,  April  14, 
1903.  Mr.  Dale  was  educated  in  the  common  schools  of 
Moretown;  he  studied  law  in  the  office  of  Columbus  Clough, 
in  Waterbury,  and  was  admitted  to  practice  in  October,  1896. 
He  took  up  his  residence  in  Waterbury  nine  years  before, 
in  1887.  Mr.  Dale  is  a  justice  of  the  peace  and  an  assistant 
judge  of  Washington  County  Court.  He  has  served  as  presi- 
dent of  the  village,  treasurer  of  the  village  and  in  other  town 
and  village  official  capacities. 

The  physicians  and  surgeons  are:  George  Smith  Bidwell, 
born  in  Rutland,  Vermont,  January  8,   1865.     He  married, 


first,  Louise  G.  Bartlett  of  Hartford,  Connecticut;  two  daugh- 
ters of  this  marriage  are  living.  He  married,  second,  Katrina 
M.  Landt  of  Waterbury,  Vermont.  Doctor  Bidwell  received 
his  early  preliminary  education  in  the  public  schools  of  Ver- 
mont; was  graduated  from  the  Battle  Creek  (Michigan)  High 
School  in  1883;  received  the  degree  of  M.  D.  from  the  school 
of  Medicine  of  the  University  of  Vermont  in  1890.  Doctor 
Bidwell  was  a  resident  practitioner  in  the  Retreat  at  Hartford, 
Connecticut,  and  has  been  connected  with  the  medical  staff 
of  the  Vermont  State  Hospital  at  Waterbury.  He  has 
been  engaged  in  general  practice  in  Waitsfield  and  Water- 
bury since  1897,  He  is  a  member  of  the  Washington 
County  Medical  Society,  Vermont  State  Medical  Society  and 
the  American  Medical  Association.  Doctor  Bidwell  specializes 
in  diseases  of  the  heart  and  kidneys. 

Watson  Lovell  Wasson  was  born  in  Mineville,  New  York, 
January  8,  1874,  and  married  Miss  Pearl  Randall  of  Water- 
bury, Vermont,  October  11,  1905.  He  is  a  graduate  of  Sher- 
man Collegiate  Institute,  Moriah,  New  York.  He  spent  one 
year  at  Middlebury  College  and  received  his  professional 
education  at  the  University  of  Vermont  Medical  School,  taking 
the  degree  of  M.  D.,  in  1901.  Doctor  Wasson  also  took  short 
courses  at  the  Montreal  Hospital  and  the  Harvard  Medical 
School ;  he  began  practice  in  Waterbury  in  July,  1901 .  Doctor 
Wasson  is  a  member  of  Washington  County  Medical  Society, 
Vermont  State  and  American  Medical  associations,  member 
of  New  England  Society  of  Psychiatry,  professor  of  Mental 
Diseases  in  University  of  Vermont,  and  pathologist  in  tne 
Vermont  State  Hospital  at  Waterbury. 

Eugene  A.  Stanley  was  born  June  10,  1875,  at  Franconia, 
New  Hampshire;  he  married  Miss  Eva  B,  Fairbrother,  August 
22,  1901,  and  has  children,  Ruth  B.,  Esther  R.,  Margaret  G. 
and  Robert  C.  He  was  graduated  from  Dow  Academy  in 
Franconia;  was  graduated  from  Cleveland  (Ohio)  University 
of  Medicine  and  Surgery  in  1897  ^"d  in  1903  entered  Jefferson 
Medical  College  and  was  graduated  from  there  in  June,  1904. 
Doctor  Stanley  practiced  in  Bradford,  Vermont,  with  Doctor 
J.  H.  Jones  from  1897  to  April,  1899,  when  he  removed  to 

PERIOD    1900-1915  255 

Waterbury.  He  was  appointed  on  the  staff  of  the  Vermont 
State  Hospital  January  i,  1908.  He  is  a  member  of  the 
Washington  County  Medical  Society  and  the  Vermont  State 
Medical  Society. 

Stewart  Louis  Goodrich  was  born  in  Dorset,  July  4,  1882. 
He  received  his  preliminary  education  at  Hardwick  Academy 
and  Mount  Hcrmon  School.  He  received  the  degree  of  Doc- 
tor of  Medicine  from  the  University  of  Vermont.  Doctor 
Goodrich  practiced  in  Burlington  before  coming  to  Waterbury 
September  13,  191 1.  He  married  Miss  Fontinelle  Nichols  of 
Waterbury.  He  is  a  member  of  Chittenden  County  and  Ver- 
mont State  Medical  Societies,  American  Medical  Association 
and  the  Alpha  Kappa  Kappa  Fraternity. 

Fred  Elton  Steele,  Jr.,  was  born  in  Stockbridge,  Vermont, 
September  11,  1883,  and  married  Emilie  K.  Grow,  February  i, 
191 1 ;  there  is  one  son  of  the  marriage,  Fred  Elton  Steele,  3d, 
born  November  4,  191 1.  Doctor  Steele  received  his  pre- 
liminary education  at  Gaysville  High  School,  his  degree  of  B.S. 
at  Norwich  University,  M.  D.  at  Baltimore  Medical  College 
and  University  of  Maryland.  He  came  to  Waterbury  in 
June,  1907,  after  one  year  spent  in  Maryland  General  Hospital. 
Doctor  Steele  is  a  member  of  Phi  Chi  Medical  Society,  the 
Washington  County  Medical  Society,  the  Vermont  State 
Medical  Society  and  the  American  Medical  Association. 

Harry  Daniel  Hopkins  received  his  preliminary  educa- 
tion at  the  district  schools  and  Green  Mountain  Seminary. 
He  was  graduated  at  Montpelier  Seminary  in  1897,  and 
at  the  Baltimore  Medical  College  with  degree  of  M.  D.  in 
1901.  He  married  Miss  Bessie  B.  Crane  of  Baltimore,  Mary- 
land, April  25,  1901.  After  an  interneship  of  two  years  in 
Maryland  General  Hospital,  he  practiced  in  Jericho  Center  until 
1 910  when  he  came  to  Waterbury.  He  is  a  member  of  the 
Burlington  and  Chittenden  Clinical  Society,  Vermont  State 
Medical  Society  and  American  Medical  Association.  Doctor 
Hopkins  is  the  son  of  C.  S.  and  the  grandson  of  Daniel  Hopkins. 
Truman  James  Allen  (unmarried)  was  born  in  Royalton, 
Vermont,  May  12,  1888.  His  early  education  was  had  in  the 
public  schools  of  Royalton  and  at  Montpelier  Seminary,  being 


graduated  from  the  latter  in  1906.  Doctor  Allen  received  his 
degree  of  Doctor  of  Medicine  from  the  College  of  Medicine 
of  the  University  of  Vermont  in  1912.  After  serving  as  an 
interne  in  the  Mary  Fletcher  Hospital  at  Burlington,  Doctor 
Allen  came  to  Waterbury  December  i,  1913.  He  is  a  member 
of  the  Burlington  and  Chittenden  County  Medical  Society, 
Vermont  State  Medical  Society,  a  Fellow  of  the  American 
Medical  Association  and  a  member  of  the  medical  stafiF  of 
the  Vermont  State  Hospital. 

Doctor  Henry  H.  Fullerton  (unmarried)  practices  dental 
surgery.  He  was  born  in  Waterbury  August  21,  1873;  he 
received  his  preliminary  education  at  Waterbury  High  School 
and  Montpelier  Seminary;  was  graduated  as  Doctor  of  Dental 
Surgery  from  the  Pennsylvania  College  of  Dental  Surgery  in 
1908.  He  served  for  one  year  as  assistant  oral  surgeon  at 
the  College ;  was  for  two  years  dental  interne  at  the  Philadel- 
phia Hospital  for  Incurables;  was  appointed  dental  interne  at 
Philadelphia  General  Hospital  for  two  years,  having  passed 
the  state  dental  board  examinations  in  Pennsylvania  and 
Vermont.  He  is  entitled  to  practice  in  New  York  and  New 
Jersey.  Doctor  Fullerton  opened  an  ofhce  in  Odd  Fellows 
Block  in  the  autumn  of  1908;  in  1910  he  removed  to  the 
Knight  Block  where  he  maintains  his  present  office,  said  to  be 
one  of  the  best  equipped  in  New  England.  His  predecessors 
as  dentists  were  Doctor  A.  S.  Wrisley,  Doctor  J.  T.  Wheelock, 
Doctor  Avrill,  Doctor  A.  C.  Patterson,  Doctor  C.  M.  Bugbee. 

James  K.  Fullerton  was  born  January  2,  1837,  the  son  of 
Horatio  F.  and  Sophia  (Jeffords)  Fullerton,  at  Berlin,  Vermont. 
He  married  Sophia  Burnham  of  Brookfield,  Vermont,  in  1863, 
and  came  to  Waterbury  in  1864.  Mr.  Fullerton  became 
cashier  of  the  Bank  of  Waterbury  and,  when  this  became  the 
Waterbury  National  Bank,  he  remained  with  the  institution 
five  years.  Afterwards  he  became  associated  as  junior  mem- 
ber with  the  firm  of  Richardson  &  Fullerton,  successors  to 
Haines  &  Richardson;  after  sixteen  years  he  sold  out  his 
interest  to  his  partner  and  was  elected  town  clerk  in  1896. 
Mr.  Fullerton  is  one  of  the  local  justices  of  the  peace  and  is 
still  town  clerk.     He  also  scivcd  as  town  treasurer  for  about 

PERIOD    1900-1915  257 

fifteen  years  prior  to  1885.  There  are  four  children:  James 
B.  of  Willimantic,  Connecticut  (married),  Lema  (Fullerton) 
Somerville,  Henry  H.,  and  Dean  S.,  of  Waterbury. 

The  firm  of  W.  J.  O'Neill  and  T.  C.  O'Neill  began  business 
in  1896,  dealing  in  meat  and  groceries.  The  business  was 
organized  in  1882  by  H.  E.  Boyce  who  was  their  predecessor. 
W.  J.  O'Neill  sold  out  to  B.  A.  Campbell  June  4,  1915.  W.  J. 
O'Neill  was  appointed  postmaster  June  16,  1914. 

The  Mount  Mansfield  Electric  Railroad  Company  operates 
the  electric  trolley  line  connecting  with  the  Central  Vermont 
Railway  at  Waterbury  and  running  northwest  through  Water- 
bury  to  Stowe,  Vermont;  the  road  was  built  in  1897  and 
opened  December  18,  of  that  year. 

P.  G.  Lord  is  a  dealer  in  groceries;  the  business  was  or- 
ganized in  May,  19 10,  and  is  located  at  Colbyville.  Mr.  Lord 
came  here  from  Shrewsbury,  Rutland  County,  where  he  served 
as  postmaster  in  President  Roosevelt's  administration, 

O.  E.  Scott,  said  to  have  the  oldest  established  business  in 
town,  is  an  optometrist  and  dealer  in  jewelry,  watches  and 
clocks.  His  business  was  organized  in  1875,  April  i8th. 
His  predecessor  was  E.  F.  Rand.  Mr.  Scott  has  occupied, 
in  times  past,  the  M.  O.  Evans  drug  store,  George  H.  Atherton 
building  near  dry  bridge,  Cecil  Graves  building  about  thirty- 
two  years,  and  has  occupied  a  store  in  the  F.  L.  Knight  Block 
since  September  i,  1913. 

D.  T.  Harvey  is  the  proprietor  of  a  livery,  feed  and  sale 
stable,  organized  in  May,  1903.  He  was  formerly  a  farmer 
in  District  Number  13.  He  was  chairman  of  the  board  of 
selectmen  in  1 897-1 901,  and  again  in  1908.  He  has  served  as 
first  village  trustee  (191 3-1 91 4). 

M.  L.  Messer  is  an  optician,  having  his  place  of  business 
at  24  Main  Street,  next  door  to  the  millinery  parlors  of  Mrs. 
M.  L.  Messer.  Mr.  Messer's  business  was  established  in 
October,  1914,  and  Mrs.  Messer's  in  the  spring  of  1905. 

The  M.  Griffith  Estate  (Mrs.  C.  M.  Griffith,  Miss  Griffith 
and  Mrs.  Harry  Bingham)  conducts  a  harness  and  saddlery 
store,  organized  in  1890,  formerly  conducted  by  Mr.  Lease. 
The  place  of  business  is  now  in  the  Palmer  Block,  formerly  in 


the  Post-Office  Block.  The  business  is  soon  to  pass  into  the 
hands  of  C.  M.  Allen  who  will  take  it  over. 

S.  C.  Wheeler,  with  Alton  G.  Wheeler,  is  a  manufacturer 
of  lumber  at  Colbyville.  Their  saw  mill  was  formerly  run 
by  L.  J.  Roberts  but  was  purchased  by  them  January  i,  1895. 
Several  years  ago  the  Wheelers  purchased  the  Butler  box 
shop,  adjoining  the  saw  mill,  from  Mr.  G.  E.  Woodard. 
Here  are  manufactured  the  butter  print  boxes,  the  invention 
of  George  Dumas,  a  Waterbury  man.  The  Wheelers  also 
operate  a  portable  saw  mill  in  summer  situated  one  and  one- 
half  miles  from  Waterbury  Center. 

The  White  Cross  Pharmacy  does  a  retail  drug  business  at 
the  corner  of  Main  and  Stone  Streets.  The  persons  interested 
are  E.  R.  and  J.  W.  Brisbin  and  C.  D.  Vincent.  Their  pred- 
ecessors were  Moore  &  Twombley.  The  business  was  con- 
ducted for  many  years  under  the  firm  name  of  Evans  &  Bryan. 

Charles  B.  Cheney  (now  of  107  Warren  Avenue,  Boston) 
operated  the  photograph  studio  at  Waterbury  Center  from 
1900-1910.  Mr.  Cheney  spent  over  half  his  time  between 
1868  to  1895  at  Waterbury,  as  portrait  maker  and  publisher  of 
stereoscopic  views.  His  first  work  in  Waterbury  was  in  the 
car  "Florinda"  which  he  rented  of  E.  R.  Ober  in  1870-1871. 
This  car  stood  on  the  site  of  the  studio  erected  later  by  S.  B. 
Maxham,  where  Mr.  Cheney  afterwards  was  located  in  1881- 
1886.  E.  R.  Ober  succeeded  Louis  L.  Pollard  at  Waterbury  in 
1869.  Mr.  Pollard's  immediate  predecessor  was  one  Rand  in 
the  middle  60 's. 

George  J.  Burnham  is  a  dealer  in  boots  and  shoes  and  men's 
furnishings.  He  has  been  in  this  business  since  November  19, 
1886.  He  had  no  predecessor  and  occupies  the  location  in 
which  he  started. 

A.  A.  Newcomb,  at  Waterbury  Center,  is  a  dealer  in  general 
merchandise  and  has  been  since  July  i,  1907.  His  predecessor 
was  James  A.  Gilmore. 

E.  E.  Campbell  does  a  general  insurance  and  real  estate 
business  under  the  business  designation  of  E.  E.  Campbell's 
Agency;  the  business  was  organized  in  Waterbury  December  i, 
1908.     The  present  location  in  the  town  is  13  Stowe  Street. 

PERIOD    1900-1915  259 

C.  C.  Holmes,  a  retail  dealer  in  meats,  groceries,  fruits  and 
fish,  organized  business  about  July  i,  1914,  succeeding 
Ketchum  Brothers,  and  is  located  on  Park  Row,  near  the  rail- 
way station.  This  market  contains  a  sanitary  refrigerating 
plant  and  unexposed  display  cases  for  meats.  There  is  also 
a  rendering  plant  for  lard,  etc. 

J.  F.  Clair  is  a  practitioner  of  veterinary  medicine,  surgery 
and  dentistry  at  10  Union  Street.  He  began  practice  in 
Waterbury  April  i,  1910. 

Mrs.  Annie  J.  Barry  is  the  owner  and  manager  of  a  variety 
store,  dealing  in  dry  goods,  notions,  china,  glassware,  etc. 
The  business  was  organized  in  October,  1908,  by  Mrs.  Barry, 
soon  after  the  death  of  Mr.  Barry,  her  husband,  seven  years 
ago.  The  present  location  is  in  Calkins  Block,  14  Main 
Street.  Formerly  it  was  in  the  two  front  rooms  in  Mrs. 
Barry's  home.  Today  the  business  requires  the  whole  of  the 
first  floor  of  the  building.  Originally  the  business  was  a  5- 
and  lO-cent  store;  now  it  has  grown  to  larger  proportions. 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  A.  S.  Picard  are  dealers  in  staple  groceries 
and  baking  products  under  the  name  of  Picard's  Home 
Bakery.  Their  predecessors  were  E.  H.  Towne,  L.  H.  Smith, 
R.  J.  Knowles,  and  he  in  turn  by  Mr.  Waterman.  The  present 
location  is  in  the  Parker  Block,  South  Main  Street. 

A.  W.  Miller  operates  the  Waterbury  Steam  Laundry.  The 
business  was  organized  by  his  father,  E.  G.  Miller,  in  the  au- 
tumn of  1901 ;  A.  W.  Miller  conducts  operations  on  Elm  Street. 
A  predecessor  was  J.  A.  Fife. 

Sinclair  &  Lyon  (James  A.  Sinclair  and  Jack  Lyon)  are 
engaged  in  granite  cutting  in  their  sheds  on  the  Central  Ver- 
mont tracks  below  the  Drew  Daniels  plant.  This  business 
was  organized  February  18,  191 5.  Their  predecessors  were 
Peter  Blondin,  and  Kelly,  Sinclair  &  Brown. 

W.  H.  Sleeper  conducts  a  restaurant  on  Stowe  Street  which 
was  organized  October  i,  191 1.  The  place  is  much  resorted 
to  by  touring  parties  in  search  of  good,  substantial,  sustaining 
food,  well  cooked  and  cleanly  served.  Mr.  Sleeper's  place 
was  formerly  in  the  corner  of  Main  and  Stowe  streets. 

C.  C.  Graves  conducts  a  business  of  general  insurance  and 


is  a  dealer  in  mileages.  The  persons  interested  are  C.  C. 
Graves  and  William  Park.  The  business  was  organized  in 
1893.  Their  predecessors  were  Graves  &  Cheney.  Mr. 
Graves'  places  of  business  are  in  the  Waterbury  Bank  Block 
and  at  his  residence. 

P.  J.  Chase  is  a  dealer  in  art  goods,  cameras,  and  supplies, 
under  the  firm  name  of  Chase's  Art  Store.  The  business  was 
organized  October  15,  1909.  The  present  location  of  the 
store  is  on  Main  Street,  opposite  the  Waterbury  Savings  Bank 
and  Trust  Company. 

W.  Krinowitz  is  engaged  in  tailoring  and  dealing  in  clothing 
and  men's  furnishings.  The  business  was  organized  in  1912 
and  the  present  location  is  in  the  old  library  building  on  Main 
Street,  formerly  in  the  Palmer  Block. 

F.  C.  Lamb  is  a  dealer  in  groceries.  The  business  started 
in  December,  1905.  His  predecessor  was  Julius  H.  Daniels. 
The  present  location  is  on  the  north  side  of  Stowe  Street. 

The  Demeritt  Company  does  a  canning  business,  the  prin- 
cipal product  being  canned  vegetables.  The  persons  inter- 
ested are  R.  N.  Demeritt,  B.  R.  Demeritt  and  Roy  W. 
Demeritt.  The  business  was  started  by  B,  R.  Demeritt  and 
E.  F.  Palmer,  Jr.,  as  the  first  canning  factory  built  and  operated 
by  native  Vermonters  in  the  state.  The  present  location  is 
at  the  eastern  end  of  the  village  near  the  Central  Vermont 
tracks.  This  company  also  manufactures  the  holdfast  spring 
clothes  pin,  variety  turnings,  etc.,  and  operates  the  mill  for- 
merly owned  by  E.  W.  Huntley. 

Brisbin  &  Brisbin  are  dealers  in  drugs,  toilet  articles,  fine 
candies  and  confections,  etc.  The  persons  interested  are 
E.  R.  Brisbin  and  J.  W.  Brisbin  and  the  business  was  organ- 
ized March  29,  191 1.  The  predecessors  were  C.  I.  Hatch, 
then  the  Palmer  Pharmacy,  then  William  Carpenter.  The 
present  location  is  in  the  old  Carpenter  Block,  at  the  head  of 
Stowe  Street  and  facing  Main. 

Edwards  &  Edwards  are  engaged  in  the  business  of  manu- 
facturing scythe  snaths  on  lower  Main  Street.  The  persons 
interested  are  R.  J.  &  W.  E.  Edwards,  and  the  business  was 
organized  in  July,  191 1. 

PERIOD    1900-1915  261 

The  Union  Granite  Company  is  composed  of  the  following 
shareholders:  G.  Chiodi,  F.  C.  Luce,  G.  Gattoni,  U.  Prario, 
V.  Fracassi,  G.  Bianchi,  E.  Campi,  F.  Giacomini,  A.  Bai 
Rossi,  C.  Brusa,  P.  Caranchini,  L.  Cardazzo,  G.  Canale,  V. 
Dominioni,  G.  Bai  Rossi,  H.  Imbruglia,  G.  Bastai,  A.  Del 
Guidici,  L.  Savoini,  F.  Gattoni.  The  business  was  organized 
in  March,  1909,  for  the  purpose  of  cutting  granite.  The  loca- 
tion is  in  the  East  side  of  South  Main  Street,  west  of  the  rail- 
way tracks. 

F.  H.  Hoglund  conducts  a  photographic  studio;  besides 
specializing  in  portrait  work,  Mr.  Hoglund  devotes  considera- 
ble attention  to  landscape  photography  of  the  higher  class. 
The  business  was  organized  twenty  years  ago  by  E.  T.  Hous- 
ton. After  some  years  in  Stowe  Street,  Mr.  Houston  moved 
to  the  present  studio  in  Main  Street;  he  was  succeeded  by 
Howard  Rockwood  and  he  in  turn  by  F.  H.  Hoglund. 

Smith  &  Somerville  (A.  H.  Smith  and  J.  F.  Somerville) 
conduct  a  hardware  business  on  Main  Street,  at  the  head  of 
Stowe  Street,  in  one  of  the  oldest  business  stands  in  the  village. 
The  business  was  organized  in  1888  by  the  firm's  predecessors, 
Messrs.  Harwood  &  Smith  (Charles  Harwood  and  A.  H. 
Smith).  Two  years  later  Mr.  Somerville  bought  out  the  in- 
terest of  Mr.  Harwood  and  the  business  has  since  been  con- 
ducted under  its  present  firm  name  of  Smith  &  Somerville. 

The  VVaterbury  Inn,  an  attractive  hotel  and  resort  for  many 
touring  parties  and  permanent  guests,  was  built  in  1864  on 
the  site  of  the  old  Washington  House  and  Pride  home,  at  the 
corner  of  Main  Street  and  Park  Row.  Its  present  proprietor 
is  W.  F.  Davis  and  the  persons  interested  are  E.  D.  &  W.  F. 
Davis.  Their  predecessors  were  Ben  Barrett  and  John  C. 
Farrar.  Numerous  facilities  for  enjoyment  and  comfort  are 
afforded  by  the  new  casino  attached  to  the  hotel.  The  place  is 
resorted  to  largely  by  Canadian  guests. 

O.  L.  Ayers  conducts  a  hardware,  plumbing  and  heating 
business,  organized  November  i,  1901.  His  first  location 
was  in  the  Parker  Block,  now  occupied  by  Chase's  Art  Store. 
He  purchased  from  James  Hattie  the  blacksmith  shop  on  the 


present  location  in  Elm  Street,  remodeled  it  and  made  addi- 
tions suitable  for  his  present  needs. 

W.  H.  O'Brien  is  the  proprietor  of  the  combination  store 
and  deals  in  tobacco,  cigars,  candies,  fruit  and  soda.  Mr. 
O'Brien  also  conducts  the  barber  shop  at  his  place  of  business 
in  Park  Row,  which  he  opened  February  3,  1910.  His  pred- 
ecessor as  barber  and  the  keeper  of  a  pool  room  was  Jesse 
Morse.  Mr.  O'Brien  began  business  as  a  barber  in  April, 
1899;  he  occupied  premises  in  the  old  Post-Office  Block,  sold 
out  to  Frederic  Towne  and  removed  to  Burlington  in  March, 
1907,  but  returned  to  Waterbury  February  3,  1910. 

H.J.  Ennis,  also  a  barber,  conducts  a  shop  and  pool  room, 
three  doors  above  the  bank  on  Main  Street,  which  he  bought 
July  6,  1915,  of  A.  E.  Douglass. 

J.  H.  Ring  is  engaged  in  business  as  the  agent  for  the  Ver- 
mont Mutual  Fire  Insurance  Company,  and  is  also  a  substitute 
carrier  on  the  R.  F.  D.  route.  His  predecessor  was  the  late 
W.  E.  Marshall,  who  lived  on  the  village  farm  now  owned  by 
Mr.  Ring. 

The  Winooski  Valley  Creamery  is  owned  by  A.  G.  &  G.  F. 
Braley  of  Fairhaven,  Massachusetts.  The  local  manager  is 
E.  G.  Grant.  The  business  is  that  of  separating  cream  and 
doing  a  general  creamery  trade.  Their  predecessor  was  the 
Winooski  Valley  Creamery  Association.  The  business  was 
organized  July  i,  1915. 

Dow  Brothers  (L.  W.  &  E.  E.  Dow)  carry  on  a  wholesale 
and  retail  meat  and  provision  business  at  Waterbury  Center. 
The  business  was  organized  April  i,  191 5,  and  was  formerly 
in  the  hands  of  L.  W.  Dow  who  conducted  it  alone  for  six 
years.  The  firm  supplies  local  markets  with  pork  products 
at  wholesale. 

V.  L.  Perkins  &  Company  are  engaged  in  the  business  of 
undertaking  and  dealing  in  furniture.  The  business  was 
organized  in  October,  1907,  and  their  predecessor  was  W.  J. 
Boyce.  Their  location  is  in  Main  Street,  near  the  Methodist 

Parker  Brothers  do  a  dry  goods,  clothing,  boot  and  shoe 
business,  organized  in  April,  1906.     The  persons  interested  are 

PERIOD    1900-1915  263 

Barkette  T.  and  Marshall  T.  Parker.  The  founders  of  the 
firm  were  Thomas  M.  Parker  and  his  son,  Wilbert  T.  Parker. 
In  1909  Thomas  M.  Parker  sold  out  his  interest  to  his  sons 
mentioned  above  who,  in  191 1  after  the  death  of  Wilbert  T. 
Parker,  became  the  proprietors  of  the  business. 

Cooley-Wright  Manufacturing  Company  operates  a  machine 
shop  and  foundry  as  successors  to  Cooley  Manufacturing 
Company,  organized  in  1882.  The  persons  interested  are 
William  T.  Cooley,  E.  A.  Cooley,  Ralph  W.  Putnam  and 
William  Theriault.  Their  locations  are  at  Waterbury  Center 
and  in  Foundry  Street  in  the  village. 

J.  A.  Foster  is  a  dealer  in  groceries  at  1 15  South  Main  Street. 
The  business  was  organized  in  1910. 

V.  K.  Ducas  conducts  a  candy  and  confectionery  store  and 
ice  cream  parlor  in  Stowe  Street.  The  business  is  carried  on 
under  the  business  designation  of  the  Concord  Candy  Kitchen 
and  was  founded  April  i,  1914.  Mr.  Ducas  is  a  native  Greek 
from  Laconia.  He  came  to  America  in  1893  and  married 
Miss  Petras,  a  compatriote  from  the  province  of  Arcadia, 

L.  J.  Roberts  is  a  dealer  in  lumber,  laths  and  shingles,  and 
enjoys  the  distinction  of  succeeding  to  a  business  nearly  one 
hundred  years  old.  His  place  of  business  is  at  the  falls  on 
Waterbury  River  four  miles  from  the  village.  His  immediate 
predecessors  were  Randall  &  Roberts. 

The  Drew  Daniels  Company  owns  and  operates  a  granite 
cutting  plant  in  Foundry  Street,  formerly  operated  by  Drew 
Daniels,  and  organized  January  14,  1901.  The  persons  in- 
terested are:  W.  H.  B.  Perry,  M.  A.  Perry,  R.  B.  Perry, 
A.  S.  Perry,  C.  C.  Graves  and  C.  W.  Clark. 

Mrs.  A.  B.  Cooley  Greene  opened  a  millinery  store  in  parlors 
over  the  old  post-office  in  the  Opera  House  Block  in  February, 
1898.  From  there  she  removed  to  the  Davis  Block  in  1902; 
thence  to  her  present  location  opposite  the  Inn  in  1913.  Mrs. 
Greene  has  her  residence  in  the  same  building  with  her  millinery 

Leonard  Huntley  is  the  local  blacksmith  and  wheelwright 
at  Waterbury  Center.     The  business  was  established  in  1862, 


and  Mr.  Huntley's  predecessor  was  George  Wilson.  Formerly 
Mr.  Huntley  was  interested  with  O.  W.  Davis  in  the  Waterbury 
Nursery.  Davis  sold  his  interest  to  Albert  Lyon  and  the 
business  was  conducted  under  the  firm  name  of  Huntley  & 
Lyon  until  1881,  when  Mr.  Lyon  died.  Meanwhile  Mr. 
Huntley  continued  his  business  as  blacksmith  and  wheelwright 
as  he  does  today. 

H.  L.  Morse  conducts  a  coal  and  wood  business  organized 
in  1896.  The  coal  sheds  are  near  the  Central  Vermont  freight 
station  and  the  wood  yard  is  at  his  residence  in  Winooski 

The  F.  C.  Luce  Company  conducts  a  department  store 
at  23  Stowe  Street.  The  business  was  organized  March  i, 
1891.  The  owner  is  F.  C.  Luce.  His  predecessors  were 
C.  E.  Richardson  and  Richardson  &  Fullerton.  Mr.  Luce 
carries  a  large  stock  of  dry  goods,  notions,  clothing,  hats  and 
caps,  boots  and  shoes,  haberdashery  and  outfittings  generally. 

Winooski  Lodge,  No.  49,  F.  and  A.  M. 

Winooski  Lodge,  No.  49,  F.  and  A.  M.,  held  its  initial 
meeting  for  organization  on  May  11,  1859,  having  received 
a  dispensation  from  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Vermont  on  the  fifth 
day  of  the  same  month,  with  Horace  M.  Bruce,  Joseph 
Somerville  and  L.  L.  Durant  named  as  the  three  principal 
officers  of  the  new  lodge. 

At  this  meeting,  which  was  probably  held  at  the  home  of 
Horace  M.  Bruce,  the  following  officers  were  elected  and  ap- 
pointed: John  Poor,  treasurer;  John  F.  Henry,  secretary;  W. 
W.  Henry,  S.  D.;  A.  J.  Brown,  J.  D.;  G.  W.  Atkins,  tyler; 
N.  K.  Brown,  S.  S.;  L.  F.  Warner,  J.  S. 

A  committee,  composed  of  J.  F.  Henry,  W.  W.  Henry  and 
L.  L.  Durant,  was  appointed  to  draft  by-laws  to  govern  the 
lodge.  The  first  two  petitions  for  membership  ever  presented 
before  Winooski  Lodge  were  presented  at  this  meeting,  those 
of  C.  F.  Stone  and  B.  F.  Dewey. 

On  January  12,  A.  D.  i860,  the  charter  was  issued  to 
Winooski  Lodge  by  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Vermont,  with  the 
following    appearing    as    charter    members:    H.    M.    Bruce, 

PERIOD    1900-1915  265 

L.  L.  Durant,  Gersham  Rice,  W.  W.  Henry,  Amos  Crosby, 
N.  K.  Brown,  L.  F.  Warner,  G.  W.  Atkins,  Joseph  Somerville, 
John  Poor,  A.  J.  Brown,  E.  B.  Johnson,  and  J.  F.  Henry. 

At  the  date  of  this  writing,  only  one  of  the  charter  members 
is  living,  N.  K.  Brown,  now  residing  in  Burlington. 

Such  was  the  inception  of  Winooski  Lodge,  No.  49,  although 
Masonry  began  its  organized  existence  here  as  early  as  1821, 
when  a  charter  was  issued  to  King  David  Lodge,  No.  55.  This 
lodge  held  its  meetings  in  Stowe  and  Waterbury  until  1831, 
after  which  there  are  no  records  of  its  existence. 

This  fact  is  due  to  the  strong  anti-Masonic  agitation  which 
spread  over  the  country  at  this  period,  by  reason  of  the  mysteri- 
ous disappearance  of  a  Mr.  Morgan,  who,  it  was  claimed, 
had  been  put  to  death  by  the  Masonic  fraternity  as  a  penalty 
for  publishing  a  book  exposing  the  secrets  of  Masonry. 

Between  the  years  1837  and  1844,  on  account  of  the  anti- 
Masonic  feeling,  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Vermont  convened  only 
in  secret,  and  then  only  the  three  principal  officers  were 
present.  During  this  period,  Henry  F.  Janes,  father  of  the 
late  Doctor  Henry  Janes,  was  elected  to  Congress  on  the 
anti-Masonic  ticket. 

It  is  only  fair  to  state,  however,  that  this  charge  against 
Masonry  was  never  substantiated  in  any  degree  whatever.  It 
has  been  declared  that  Morgan  was  seen  years  after  in  a  for- 
eign country,  where  he  had  fled  for  reasons  of  his  own. 

It  is  sad  to  relate,  however,  that  even  to  the  present  day, 
we  find  those  who  still  hold  an  antipathy  against  the  Masonic 
fraternity  by  reason  of  this  incident,  and  withhold  their  support 
from  this  noble  and  humane  organization.  No  institution  was 
ever  raised  on  a  better  principle  or  more  solid  foundation,  nor 
were  ever  more  excellent  rules  and  useful  maxims  laid  down 
than  are  inculcated  in  the  several  Masonic  lectures. 

On  June  24,  1909,  Winooski  Lodge  held  its  fiftieth  anniver- 
sary at  Waterbury,  at  which  time  an  interesting  resume  was 
given  of  its  early  history. 

The  first  Masonic  hall  occupied  by  the  lodge  was  in  the 
upper  story  of  what  is  now  the  Smith  and  Somerville  Building, 
at  the  head  of  Stowe  Street,  and  was  dedicated  on  July  12, 



i860.  Later  it  moved  to  the  upper  rooms  of  the  J.  F.  Henry 
Building  on  Park  Row,  the  lower  part  of  which  is  now  occupied 
by  W.  H.  O'Brien  and  Wallace  M.  Green.  Several  years  later 
it  was  again  moved  to  more  commodious  quarters  in  the  Opera 
House  Block  on  Stowe  Street,  which  it  has  since  occupied. 

The  first  Masonic  funeral,  held  by  Winooski  Lodge,  was 
that  of  Sylvester  Flagg,  who  had  been  a  member  of  the 
fraternity  only  a  few  months.  The  services  were  held  in  the 
Congregational  Church,  but  not  without  considerable  opposi- 
tion by  some  of  the  church  members,  there  being  considerable 
anti-Masonic  feeling  even  at  that  date.  At  the  present  time, 
there  are  five  ministers  of  the  Gospel  who  are  enthusiastic 
members  of  this  lodge. 

We  find  that  this  great  fraternity,  which  had  its  inception 
for  the  uplift  of  humanity,  was  one  of  the  first  to  place  its 
ban  on  the  use  of  intoxicating  liquors.  As  early  as  1864 
their  use  was  considered  an  offense  against  the  teachings  of 
Masonry,  and  cases  are  on  record  where  charges  were  preferred, 
the  offender  found  guilty,  and  reprimanded  or  suspended. 

The  history  of  the  lodge  would  not  be  complete  without  the 
name  of  William  Deal,  a  familiar  person  on  the  streets  of 
Waterbury,  who  was  raised  to  the  sublime  degree  of  a  Master 
Mason  August  30,  1859,  rnaking  him  the  oldest  living  member 
in  town. 

Following  is  a  list  of  the  Masters  of  Winooski  Lodge,  No.  49, 
to  date:  H.  M.  Bruce,  W.  W.  Henry,  N.  K.  Brown,  B.  H. 
Dewey,  E.  A.  Newcomb,  M.  E.  Smilie,  E.  W.  Huntley, 
Seaver  Howard,  U.  H.  Hammon,  W.  B.  Clark,  G.  S.  Blaisdell, 
G.  H.  Dale,  E.  E.  Foss,  D.  D.  Grout,  L.  C.  Moody,  C.  C. 
Graves,  F.  B.  Kellogg,  J.  F.  Somerville,  E.  A.  Stanley,  E.  E. 
Campbell,  G.  C.  Scott  and  H.  H.  FuUerton. 

Capitular  or  Chapter  Masonry  in  Waterbury 

The  first  chapter  meeting  of  Royal  Arch  Masons  was  held  in 
Waterbury  on  February  16,  1870,  under  a  dispensation  issued 
February  5,  1870,  by  Charles  A.  Miles,  Grand  High  Priest  of 
Vermont,  upon  the  petition  of  Emory  Town,  M.  C.  Stewart, 
Warren  Skinner,  A.  J.  Brown,  Collins  Blakely,  H.  C.  Fay, 

PERIOD    1900-1915  267 

J.  L.  Farr,  H.  M.  Bruce,  Joseph  Somerville  and  A.  J.  Lawbom, 
At  this  meeting  the  following  officers  were  elected : 

Emory  Town,  M.  E.  H.  P.;  Warren  Skinner,  E.  K.;  M.  C. 
Stewart,  E.  S. ;  A.  J.  Brown,  C.  H. ;  Collins  Blakely,  P.  S. ;  H.  C. 
Fay,  R.  A.  C;  H.  M.  Bruce,  M.  ist  V.;  J.  L.  Farr,  M.  2d  V.; 
Joseph  Somerville,  M.  3d  V.;  Ira  W.  Sayles,  tyler;  A.  J. 
Brown,  treasurer,  and  J.  L.  Farr,  secretary. 

At  this  meeting  the  petitions  presented  for  membership 
were  as  follows:  E.  K.  Smith,  William  Deal,  G.  W.  Atkins, 
M.  E.  Smilie  and  E.  A.  Newcomb. 

The  chapter  continued  to  work  under  the  dispensation  until 
the  following  June,  when  they  received  their  charter,  issued 
by  the  Grand  Chapter  of  Vermont. 

Following  is  a  list  of  the  Excellent  High  Priests  of  Waterbury 
Chapter:  Collins  Blakely,  E.  A.  Newcomb,  C.  F.  Clough, 
W.  D.  Hall,  E.  G.  Hooker,  W.  B.  Clark,  L.  C.  Moody,  E.  W. 
Huntley,  E.  E.  Foss,  and  E.  A.  Stanley. 

Paul  Dillingham  Lodge,  No.  31,  Knights  of  Pythias,  was 
organized  March  31,  1905.  The  roster  of  chief  officers  since 
then  is:  1905,  F.  W.  Arnold,  C.  C;  H.  W.  Carr,  V.  C.  1906, 
A.  E.  Edwards,  C.  C;  W.  H.  Sleeper,  V.  C.  1907,  F.  W. 
Arnold,  C.  C. ;  F.  D.  Backus,  V.  C.  1908,  J.  R.  Arkley,  C.  C. ; 
Lawrence  Wright,  V.  C.  1909,  E.  E.  Campbell,  C.  C;  W.  H. 
Sleeper,  V.  C.  1910,  F.  C.  Luce,  C.  C;  F.  D.  Backus,  V.  C. 
191 1,  W.  H.  Fullerton,  C.  C;  B.  A.  Lavelle,  V.  C.  1912, 
H.  H.  Fullerton,  C.  C;  S.  E.  Ruggles,  V.  C.  1913,  E.  E. 
Campbell,  C.  C;  N.  N.  Vassor,  V.  C.  1914,  N.  N.  Vas- 
sor,  C.  C;  George  Howland,  V.  C.  1915,  B.  D.  Edwards, 
C.  C.;L.  A.  Willard,  V.  C. 

The  Modern  Woodmen,  local  organization,  was  established 
November  9,  1908.  The  election  of  officers  is  held  annually. 
The  trustees  for  1915  are  H.  F.  Whitcomb,  W^  C.  Lyon  and 
C.  A.  Gibbs.  The  venerable  consul  is  E.  C.  Harvey,  and 
the  worthy  adviser  is  W.  F.  Shontell. 

The  Mentor  Lodge,  No.  51,  of  Independent  Order  of  Odd 
Fellows,  was  instituted  in  Waterbury,  March  28,  1893.  The 
two  leading  officers  since  that  date  were:  1893,  first  noble 
grand,  W.  F.  Minard,  first  vice  grand,  C.  D.  Robinson.     Then 


followed  in  1894,  W.  F.  Minard,  F.  C.  Luce;  1895,  F.  C.  Luce, 
O.  E.  Scott;  1896,  J.  K.  Fullerton,  Frank  Carpenter;  1897, 
Frank  Carpenter,  J.  A.  Foster;  1898,  J.  A.  Foster,  E.  F. 
Savage;  1899,  E.  F.  Savage,  W.  J.  Boyce;  1900-1901,  W.  J. 
Boyce,  E.  W.  Chesley;  1902,  E.  W.  Chesley,  E.  E.  Joslyn; 
1903,  E.  E.  Joslyn,  James  Hattie;  1904,  C.  C.  Graves,  W.  B, 
Clark;  1905,  W.  B.  Clark,  J.  F.  Shipman;  1906,  J.  F.  Ship- 
man,  E.  E.  Campbell;  1907,  E.  E.  Campbell,  W.  J.  Red- 
mond; 1908,  W.  J.  Redmond,  E.  G.  Miller;  1909,  E,  G. 
Miller,  Henry  Marshall;  1910,  E.  G.  Miller,  G.  O.  Russell; 
191 1,  G.  O.  Russell,  R.  J.  Knowles;  1912,  R.  J.  Knowles, 
Henry  Marshall;  1913,  R.  J.  Knowles,  E.  W.  Chesley;  1914, 
E.  W.  Chesley,  J.  H.  Ather;  1915,  J.  H.  Ather,  M.  L. 

The  Alhambra  Encampment,  No.  20,  was  instituted 
October  18,  1894.  W.  F,  Minard  was  made  chief  patriarch 
and  continued  for  1895  and  1896.  Others  holding  that  office 
were:  D.  C.  Turner,  1897;  W.  F.  Minard,  1898;  J.  A.  Foster, 
1899,  1900,  1901,  1902;  W.  B,  Clark,  1903;  E.  F,  Savage, 
1904;  W.  J.  Boyce,  1905;  E.  E.  Joslyn,  1906;  C.  C.  Graves, 
1907;  E.  E.  Campbell,  1908,  1909;  E.  W.  Chesley,  1910,  191 1; 
E.  E.  Campbell,  1912;  G.  S.  Blaisdell,  1913;  G.  F.  Averill,  1914; 
R.  J.  Knowles,  1915. 

J.  A.  Foster  was  grand  patriarch  of  the  Grand  Encampment 
of  the  State  of  Vermont  for  19 14,  also  grand  representative  to 
the  Sovereign  Lodge  at  San  Francisco. 

The  Emerald  Rebekah  Lodge,  No.  33,  was  instituted  April 
30,  1895.  The  roll  of  officers  has  included:  Noble  grands, 
Mrs.  Alma  Moody,  1895;  Mrs.  Alma  Moody,  1896;  Mrs.  R. 
Crossett,  1897;  Mrs.  Nina  Robinson,  1898;  Mrs.  E.  Farrar; 
vice  grand,  Mrs.  J.  Shipman,  1900;  no  officers,  1901  and  1902; 
noble  grand,  Mrs.  J.  Shipman,  vice  grand,  Mrs.  Jesse  Foster, 
1903;  Mrs.  J.  Shipman,  Mrs.  Nellie  Bates,  1904;  Mrs.  Nellie 
Bates,  Mrs.  E.  E.  Campbell,  1905;  Mrs.  E.  E.  Campbell, 
Mrs.  J.  Fife,  1906;  Mrs.  J.  Fife,  Mrs.  W.  J.  Boyce,  1907;  Mrs. 
W.  J.  Boyce,  Mrs.  Emma  Turner,  1908;  Mrs.  Emma  Turner, 
Mrs.  J.  Hattie,  1909;  Mrs.  J.  Hattie,  Mrs.  Helen  Somerville, 
1910;  Mrs.  Helen  Somerville,  Mrs.  O.  L.  Ayers,  1911;  Mrs. 

PERIOD    1900-1915  269 

O.  L.  Ayers,  Mrs.  R.  J.  Knowles,  1912;  Mrs.  R.  J.  Knowles, 
Mrs.  G.  Russell,  1913;  Mrs.  G.  Russell,  Mrs.  C.  Sargent,  1914; 
Mrs.  C.  Sargent,  Mrs.  H.  Marshall,  1915. 

Fire  Record 

The  first  concerted  action  at  systematic  fire  fighting  was 
taken  in  1855  when  the  selectmen  duly  laid  out  one  square 
mile  as  a  fire  district.  This  area  afterwards  form.ed  the 
chartered  site  of  Waterbury  Village  and  included  most  of  the 
so-called  River  Village  and  a  part  of  Mill  Village.  By  volun- 
tary subscription  a  medium  sized  engine  and  a  limited  supply 
of  hose  were  bought.  It  was  not  until  the  extensive  fire  of 
1858  that  a  larger  and  better  engine  and  additional  appliances 
were  purchased.  The  old  engine  house  gave  place  to  a  new 
one  in  1871. 

It  is  said  that  the  first  building  burned  in  Waterbury  was 
a  tan  shop  of  Cephas  Wells,  situated  opposite  the  old  Fireman's 
Hall  (date  not  given).  The  first  district  school  building 
burned  in  1810  and  the  dwelling  house  of  D.  C.  Deming  in  1816. 

In  the  spring  of  1822  Amasa  Pride's  large  tavern  at  Stowe 
and  Main  streets  burned.  This  was  the  site  of  the  tavern 
k^pt  by  George  Kennan  at  an  earlier  day.  Mr.  Pride  rebuilt 
without  delay  and  the  new  tavern  was  presided  over  by 
Sayles  Hawley  as  host,  remaining  as  a  house  of  call  or  public 
house  until  after  the  coming  of  the  railroad. 

In  1834  the  tan  shops  of  M.  and  J.  H.  Lathrop  were  burned 
and  never  rebuilt. 

In  1838  a  factory  of  Thompson  &Seabury,  at  Mill  Village, 
was  burned  and  never  rebuilt. 

In  the  early  40's  a  store  of  J.  B.  Christy  was  destroyed  by 
fire  and  again  one  owned  by  J.  G.  Stimson  in  1856.  These 
were  partly  covered  by  insurance  and  were  rebuilt.  The 
largest  and  most  destructive  fire  prior  to  the  breaking  out 
of  the  Civil  War  occurred  in  October,  1858,  when  was  burned 
the  large  hotel  of  E.  and  W.  Moody,  in  one  wing  of  which  was 
housed  the  bank  of  Waterbury;  stores  of  William  Wells,  D. 
M.  Knights  and  I.  C.  &  S.  Brown  were  destroyed,  also  the 
livery  stables  of  Bruce  &  Ladd.     The  total  loss  was  $30,000 


and  was  partially  covered  by  insurance.     D.  Adams'  foundry 
and  the  railway  station  burned  about  1870. 

Other  fires  in  later  years  were:  C.  C.  Warren's  Tannery, 
November  18,  1899;  Perkins  Block,  Main  Street,  June,  1907; 
Moody  Block,  Stowe  Street,  December  16,  1907;  G.  W. 
Randall's  barn,  October  18,  1908;  Mrs.  A.  Spencer's  barn, 
March  i,  1898;  Vermont  State  Hospital,  November,  1909; 
Winooski  Valley  Creamery,  Winooski  Street,  March  22,  1912; 
Perry  Granite  Company's  building,  December  14,  1914; 
Moody  Saw  Mill,  August  3,  1908;  John  Williams'  Livery 
Stable,  Stowe  Street,  October  21,  1912;  Consolidated  Com- 
pany's Transformer  House,  August  27,  1908;  creamery  build- 
ing, Randall  Avenue,  March  31,  1915. 

A  laudable  effort  was  made,  September  6,  191 5,  at  giving 
a  historical  pageant  on  the  schoolhouse  grounds  under  the 
auspices  of  the  Lecture  and  Entertainment  Bureau,  a  sub- 
committee of  the  local  Board  of  Trade.  The  pageant  scenes 
were  designed  to  reproduce,  in  appropriate  settings,  important 
episodes  and  incidents  of  the  town's  history.  The  scenes 
included  an  Indian  encampment  before  the  white  man's 
arrival;  the  first  settler,  James  Marsh,  alone  in  the  wilderness; 
arrival  of  the  Marsh  family  with  the  first  cow  ever  brought 
to  Waterbury;  arrival  of  Ezra  Butler  and  bride,  with  their 
household  possessions;  first  town  meeting,  March  31,  1790; 
noontime  at  a  barn-raising  and  dance;  company  of  recruits 
ready  to  march  to  the  front  at  the  outbreak  of  the  Civil  War, 
the  drummer  "boy"  being  Mr.  Franklin  Carpenter,  who, 
fifty-four  years  ago,  marched  away  with  the  volunteers  in 
the  same  capacity.     Concluded  with  singing  "America." 

Those  taking  part  in  the  pageant  were:  Robert  J.  Burnham, 
Max  G.  Ayers,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  W.  J.  Le  Baron,  Mr.  and  Mrs. 
Mark  H.  Moody,  H.  F.  Hill,  A.  A.  Newcomb,  M.  E.  Hutchins, 
E.  E.  Campbell,  C.  B.  Adams,  H.  P.  Robinson,  D.  C.  Jones, 
A.  J.  Kelly,  E.  J.  Foster,  A.  H.  Bailey,  Raymond  Buzzell, 
Miss  Mary  Guptil,  Alton  G.  Wheeler,  S.  R.  Dady,  Franklin 
Carpenter,  D.  D.  Grout,  M.  D.,  E.  G.  Miller  and  W.  B. 

PERIOD    1900-1915  271 

The  soldiers'  monument,  a  gift  to  Waterbury  of  the  late 
Franklin  Sylvester  Henry,  formerly  of  Cleveland,  Ohio,  and 
Waterbury,  was  unveiled  with  appropriate  ceremony  Memo- 
rial Day,  May  30, 1914.  There  was  a  procession,  marshaled  by 
General  W.  W.  Henry  of  Burlington,  of  the  various  local 
orders,  the  Veterans  of  Stetson  and  Dillingham  Posts,  G.  A.  R., 
Modern  Woodmen  of  America,  members  of  Mentor  Lodge, 
I.  O.  O.  F.,  Woman's  Relief  Corps,  members  of  Marquis  de 
Lafayette  Chapter,  D,  A.  R.,  representatives  from  the 
Hypatia  and  Pierian  clubs.  Queen  Esther  Chapter,  O.  E.  S., 
Emerald  Rebekah  Lodge,  and  teachers  and  pupils  of  the 
public  schools.  The  unveiling  exercises  were  had  at  2.30  p.  m. 
at  the  monument  site,  which  is  on  the  western  slope  of  the  lawn 
of  the  high  school  grounds.  The  southern  face  of  the  monu- 
ment presents  a  bronze  tablet  containing  these  words : 




MAY  30,  1914. 










The  western  exposure's  tablet  bears  the  names  of  the 
commissioned  officers  and  the  northern  and  eastern  tablets  give 
the  names  of  the  non-commissioned  officers  and  privates 
from  Waterbury  participating  in  the  Civil  War.  The  names 
of  all  officers  and  men  who  were  killed  in  action,  or  died  in 
service,  are  indicated  on  the  tablets.  The  monument  is 
executed  in  excellent  taste  and  was  designed  by  W.  H.  B. 
Perry,  then  of  the  Perry  Granite  Company.  It  consists 
of  a  square  die  of  Barre  granite,  with  a  base  of  the  same  mate- 
rial ;  the  capstone  is  surmounted  by  carved  cannon  balls. 


Seated  on  the  platform  at  the  unveiHng  exercises  were  the 
members  of  the  monument  commission,  General  Henry, 
Senator  WiiUam  P.  DilHngham,  Harry  C.  Whitehill  and  O.  A. 
Seabury.  The  act  of  unveiHng  was  performed  by  Miss 
Gladys  Henry  and  Fred  B.  Henry,  Jr.  The  formal  presenta- 
tion speech  was  made  by  General  W.  W.  Henry  in  behalf  of 
the  trustees.  The  monument  was  accepted  for  the  town  by 
Carroll  C.  Robinson,  chairman  of  the  board  of  selectmen. 
Members  of  the  Henry  family  present  were:  Mr.  and  Mrs. 
Franklin  Sylvester  Henry  and  daughter,  Miss  Gladys  of 
Cleveland,  Ohio;  Robert  Henry  of  Waltham,  Massachusetts; 
Mrs.  Franklin  Sylvester  Henry  of  New  York  City;  Miss 
Frances  Elizabeth  Henry  of  Cleveland,  Ohio,  and  Mrs.  Albert 
Spencer  of  Waterbury. 

Allusion  has  already  been  made  to  the  panegyric  delivered 
on  this  occasion  by  Senator  Dillingham;  this  will  be  found 
reprinted  in  full  in  the  appendix  to  this  book. 

In  concluding  this  volume  it  seems  appropriate  to  say  that 
a  superficial  view  of  what  a  town's  history  consists  is  largely 
held.  This  is,  that  unless  each  day  furnishes  its  peculiar  thrill, 
there  is  nothing  in  the  town's  life  worth  recording.  The 
obvious  answer  is  that  events  are  purely  relative;  when  one 
speaks  of  "eventful  happenings,"  he  means  "relatively" 
eventful.  If  Waterbury  had  no  other  claim  upon  the  world's 
attention  as  a  maker  of  history  than  was  furnished  by  her  in 
the  years  1861  to  1865  inclusive,  the  town  still  would  remain 
entitled  to  a  very  proud  place  in  that  regard. 

Soldiers'  Monument 

Unveilod  May  20,  19 '4 

.p.y^.^/EW  YORK   , 




Delivered  by  Senator  William  P.  Dillingham,  May  30,  191 4, 
on  the  occasion  of  the  unveiling  of  the  Soldiers'  Monument, 
the  gift  of  Franklin  Sylvester  Henry  to  the  Town  of  Waterbury. 

Upon  the  tablets  of  the  monument  which  we  have  met  today  to  dedicate, 
there  appear  in  imperishable  bronze  the  names  of  those  who,  in  the  great 
struggle  for  the  maintenance  of  the  Federal  Union,  entered  the  military 
service  of  the  United  States  from  Waterbury;  all  of  them  to  serve,  and  some 
of  them  to  die  that,  in  the  language  of  the  immortal  Lincoln,  "the  nation 
shall,  under  God,  have  a  new  birth  of  freedom  and  that  government  of  the 
people,  by  the  people  and  for  the  people  shall  not  perish  from  the  earth." 
In  all  succeeding  centuries  generations  unnumbered  will  scan  this  list  with 
an  earnest  desire  to  trace  descent  from  men  whose  names  are  here  recorded, 
realizing  the  proud  distinction  which  attaches  to  one  in  whose  veins  runs 
the  blood  of  those  who  had  honorable  part  in  the  greatest  war  of  the  nine- 
teenth century,  and  the  result  of  which  has  demonstrated  to  the  world  the 
ability  of  a  free  people  to  maintain  free  institutions  upon  a  scale  so  gigantic 
as  to  challenge  the  wonder  and  admiration  of  all  nations. 

This  was  not  a  war  between  nations,  nor  one  in  which  one  people  were 
arrayed  against  those  of  another  race.  It  was  a  war  in  which  the  slave 
states  were  arrayed  against  the  free  states  of  the  North;  it  was  an  attempt 
on  their  part  to  withdraw  from  the  Union  and  establish  in  the  South  a 
government,  the  cornerstone  of  which  was  declared  by  Alexander  H, 
Stevens,  vice-president  of  the  Confederacy,  to  be  human  slavery. 

Speaking  of  the  Confederate  government  and  its  constitution,  he  said: 
"Its  foundations  are  laid,  its  cornerstone  rests,  upon  the  great  truth  that 
the  negro  is  not  equal  to  the  white  man;  that  slavery,  subordination  to  the 
superior  race,  is  his  natural  and  normal  condition.  This,  our  new  govern- 
ment, is  the  first  in  the  history  of  the  world,  based  upon  this  great  physical, 
philosophical,  and  moral  truth." 

The  denial  by  the  government  of  the  United  States  of  the  right  of  any 
state  to  secede  from  the  Union,  either  for  that  or  any  other  reason,  inaug- 
urated a  conflict  of  states  against  states,  of  a  brave  people  against  an  equally 
brave  people,  a  conflict  which  shook  the  very  foundations  upon  which  free 
institutions  are  established  and  that  upon  which  the  oppressed  of  all  nations 
had  builded  their  hopes.  It  was  a  conflict  intensified  and  made  bitter  by 
years  of  agitation  over  the  question  of  human  slavery  which,  firmly  estab- 
lished in  the  South,  was  seeking  to  extend  its  blighting  sway  over  the  free 
territory  of  our  great  northwest;  a  movement  which  had  shocked  the  moral 



sense  of  the  North  and  which  had  been  resisted  as  one  which,  if  successful, 
would  turn  the  wheels  of  human  progress  back  a  thousand  years!  It  was 
a  conflict  which  extended  over  a  territory  greater  than  all  continental 
Europe  outside  of  Russia.  It  was  one  in  which  the  numbers  engaged  were 
larger  than  the  entire  population  of  the  United  States  at  the  time  when  the 
constitution  was  adopted;  one  in  which  battles  were  fought  greater  in 
number  than  those  of  any  one  of  the  modern  wars  of  Europe  and  in  which 
the  army  of  the  dead  alone  was  four  times  greater  in  number  than  the  stand- 
ing army  of  the  United  States  today,  when  we  are  apparently  upon  the  eve 
of  a  war  with  Mexico. 

It  was  a  conflict  which  called  to  battle  the  flower  of  American  manhood, 
and  one  which  brought  sorrow  to  countless  homes,  both  North  and  South. 
But  these  sacrifices  were  not  in  vain:  Slavery  as  an  institution  has  been 
abolished;  its  blighting  curse  upon  the  conscience  of  the  nation  has  been 
removed;  a  new  birth  in  liberty  has  been  accomplished  in  the  nation,  and, 
most  remarkable  of  all,  there  has  been  established  an  indissoluble  Union 
representing  a  present  population  exceeding  one  hundred  million  souls,  in 
the  full  enjoyment  of  liberty  under  law,  and  in  whose  hearts  loyalty  to  the 
old  flag  burns  with  renewed  strength  and  whose  devotion  to  constitutional 
liberty  is  as  uniform  as  it  is  deep  and  abiding. 

Today  with  thankful  hearts  we  make  acknowledgment  to  Almighty  God 
because  that  in  the  fullness  of  time  He  has  delivered  this  great  people  from 
the  last  vestige  of  the  absolutism  of  the  past;  because  He  has  enabled  them 
to  throw  off  the  shackles  of  arbitrary  power,  to  establish  a  government 
which  recognizes  no  sovereign  save  God,  one  whose  civilization  stands  as 
proof  that  right  is  stronger  than  might,  that  truth  is  more  powerful  than 
error  and  that  light  always  drives  darkness  before  it. 

Whence  came  the  qualities  which  actuated  these  men;  from  which  their 
distinguished  gallantry  sprung  and  which  led  them  to  strive  even  unto 
death  for  the  great  principles  involved?  Were  they  qualities  inherited 
from  generations  of  liberty-loving  men  who  had  participated  in  the  great 
movement  toward  the  goal  of  human  freedom  and  which  has  appealed  to 
every  succeeding  generation  for  three  centuries  of  time? 

In  answering  this  question  we  must  remember  that  they  were  in  the 
main  "descendants  of  the  sturdy  Barons  and  Commons  who  demanded 
and  obtained  Magna  Charta  from  King  John  and  developed  an  independ- 
ent Parliament  to  direct  the  Lords  and  curb  the  King  and  who,  during  the 
absolutism  of  the  Tudors,  considered  well  the  lessons  of  the  times  and  who, 
during  the  last  three  centuries,  have  succeeded  in  stripping  royalty  of  every- 
thing but  its  fiction  and  who  have  established  the  sovereignty  of  England 
in  the  House  of  Commons  forever." 

The  oppression  which  centuries  of  absolutism  imposed  upon  the  human 
race  cannot  be  adequately  described.  True  it  is  that  Christianity  existed, 
but  its  principles  had  been  overshadowed  by  the  idea  of  authority  which 
all  the  world  had  inherited  from  the  dark  ages.  Down  to  the  occurrence 
of  the  great  intellectual  movement  of  the  sixteenth  century  the  history  of 


the  world  had  been  one  of  war  and  conquest  with,  as  Mr.  Bancroft  says, 
"hardly  a  sound  principle  or  a  grand  sentiment  to  justify  the  slaughter. 
Arbitrary  power  had  been  the  only  principle  of  government  and  force  its 
only  instrument."  The  ignorance  which  absolutism  imposed  upon  the  com- 
mon people  was  inconceivable,  and  we  have  it  upon  the  authority  of  Mr. 
Macaulay  that  as  late  as  the  fourteenth  century  not  one  out  of  five  hundred 
of  the  country  gentlemen  of  England  could  spell  out  one  of  David's  Psalms. 
Under  such  conditions,  he  tells  us,  there  was  little  general  exercise  of  the 
intellectual  faculties,  no  considerable  indulgence  of  the  speculative  powers; 
imagination  was  confined  mostly  to  the  senses  and  the  people  had  little 
conception  of  the  sublime  either  in  thought,  morals  or  nature. 

The  elements  which  marked  the  beginnings  of  the  twentieth  century  were 
found  in  the  Great  Movement,  so  called,  of  the  sixteenth  century,  when  the 
intellect  of  Europe  was  stirred  and  quickened  as  never  before  to  a  profound 
consideration  of  the  question  of  the  rights  of  man,  socially,  religiously  and 
politically.  The  century  of  conflict  which  followed,  between  arbitrary 
power  on  the  one  hand  and  the  assertion  of  the  natural  right  and  privileges 
of  the  English  people  on  the  other,  marks  a  period  which  did  more  to 
destroy  absolutism  and  to  establish  constitutional  government  in  Europe 
than  any  other  single  period  in  all  history,  and  in  it  were  laid  the  broad 
foundations  for  free  institutions  on  this  continent. 

During  the  reign  of  Henry  VIII,  Edward  VI,  Mary,  Elizabeth  and  James, 
a  period  covering  the  sixteenth  and  extending  into  the  seventeenth  century, 
the  effort  of  the  English  government  was  to  crush  out  any  exercise  of 
individual  rights.  Death  was  decreed  alike  to  the  Catholic  who  denied  the 
king's  supremacy  and  to  the  Protestant  who  denied  his  creed.  James, 
whose  reign  covered  the  early  part  of  the  seventeenth  century,  declared: 
"I  will  have  none  of  this  liberty  of  conscience,  I  will  have  one  doctrine, 
one  religion  in  substance  and  in  form."  Charles  I,  who  followed  him, 
was  the  embodiment  of  absolutism,  boldly  declaring  that  the  throne, 
not  the  people,  was  the  fountain  head  of  all  power;  that  the  laws  which 
he  permitted  to  pass  through  Parliament  were  only  streams  flowing  from 
this  kingly  source. 

With  the  marvelous  expansion  of  intellect  among  the  masses  to  which 
I  have  alluded,  life,  under  such  conditions,  became  intolerable;  a  desire 
for  something  better  was  created  and  grew  with  each  succeeding  generation 
until  it  became  irresistible.  A  self-consciousness  of  power  was  developed 
among  the  people  and  boldly  asserted.  Old  bonds  were  broken,  old 
systems  were  destroyed  and  England  took  her  place  among  the  nations 
as  a  government  which  had  been  compelled  to  recognize  the  people  as 
represented  in  Parliament. 

The  result  of  the  century's  work  is  well  stated  by  Scott  in  his  History 
of  the  Development  of  Constitutional  Liberty  in  the  Colonies,  where  he 

"The  forces  of  society  acted  only  in  violence  and  in  violence  which  sent 
England  reeling  to  the  ground.      When  the  conflict  ended  and  men  paused 


to  take  breath  and  look  around  them,  marvelous  were  the  changes 
wrought.  In  religion,  freedom  of  conscience  held  the  ground;  and 
intolerance,  or  the  doctrine  that  the  civil  power  was  at  the  service 
of  the  ecclesiastical  in  prescribing  faith,  in  regulating  doctrine  and  in 
extirpating  heresy,  had  sheathed  its  sword.  Absolutism  the  world  over 
had  never  recovered  from  the  shock.  Modern  England  dates  from  its 
extirpation,  and  with  it  ended  an  heroic  page.  Politically,  it  was  the 
revolt  of  the  middle  class;  intellectually  and  spiritually,  it  was  a  violent, 
uncontrollable  expansion  of  the  mind  and  soul;  historically,  it  was  the 
latest  popular  development  of  free  inquiry  in  the  British  Isles.  Taking  it 
altogether,  it  was  a  convulsive  effort  toward  freedom.  The  middle  class 
wanted  representation  in  the  government.  The  intellectual  class,  whose 
field  had  been  broadened  by  free  inquiry,  would  no  longer  stay, pent  up 
within  the  schools;  and  the  religious  class,  stimulated  by  the  sight  of  the 
open  Bible  and  frantic  from  the  stings  of  intolerance,  insisted  upon  absolute 
freedom  of  conscience.     All  three  got  what  they  wanted." 

In  this  great  movement  we  find  the  foundations  laid  for  free  institutions 
in  America.  Before  this  grand  achievement  of  their  brethren  in  the  mother 
country  was  fully  accomplished,  a  large  number  of  this  new  and  best 
element  in  English  life  had  established  themselves  and  made  homes  in  the 
new  world.  Between  1630  and  1641  two  hundred  emigrant  ships  crossed 
the  Atlantic,  and  more  than  twenty  thousand  liberty-loving  English  people 
found  a  refuge  in  New  England.  Green,  the  English  historian,  says: 
"They  were  in  great  part  men  of  the  professional  and  middle  classes. 
Some  of  them  of  large  landed  estate,  some  men  like  Cotton,  Hooker  and 
Roger  Williams,  some  shrewd  London  lawyers  or  young  scholars  from 
Oxford.  The  bulk  were  God-fearing  farmers  from  Lincolnshire  and  the 
eastern  counties.  They  desired,  in  fact,  only  the  best  as  sharers  in  their 
enterprise;  men  driven  forth  from  their  fatherland,  not  by  earthly  want,  or 
by  the  greed  for  gold,  or  by  the  lust  for  power,  but  by  the  fear  of  God  and 
the  zeal  of  godly  worship."  Our  American  historian,  Fiske,  tells  us  that 
in  all  history  there  has  been  no  such  instance  of  colonization  so  exclusively 
affected  by  picked  and  chosen  men.  In  it  there  were  as  many  graduates 
of  Cambridge  and  Oxford  as  could  be  found  in  any  population  of  similar 
size  in  the  mother  country. 

Desiring  that  the  colony  they  were  forming  should  be  governed  upon 
principles  diametrically  opposed  to  those  of  all  existing  governments;  that 
the  laws  should  be  formulated  by  the  people  and  for  the  people,  and  that 
every  citizen  should  become  a  living  and  potent  factor  in  the  affairs  of  the 
state,  they  realized  that  every  person  should  become  intelligent  as  well  as 
virtuous;  and  to  this  end  and  with  an  inspired  vision  of  the  results  which 
were  to  be  attained,  one  of  their  first  undertakings  was  to  establish  a  system 
of  elementary  schools  at  public  expense,  a  system  then  absolutely  new  to 
the  world,  but  which  has  since  expanded  until  it  has  become  the  policy  of 
states  and  nations. 

In  the  establishment  of  New  England  homes,   which  all  agree  were 


sanctuaries  of  morality;  in  their  churches,  in  which  reverence  was  incul- 
cated; in  their  town  meetings  and  other  gatherings,  where  citizenship  was 
recognized  and  in  which  every  man  became  an  active  factor;  in  their  pro- 
pensity for  debate  upon  all  questions  religious,  social  and  political,  and  in 
their  flaming  love  of  liberty  which  supplemented  all,  there  was  created  a 
citizenship  never  before  seen  nor  conceived  of. 

The  effect  of  this  colonial  life  was  to  make  good  thinkers  of  the  masses; 
it  developed  self-respect  and  individuality;  the  people  learned  not  only  to 
act  individually  but  collectively,  and  they  mastered  the  art  of  self-govern- 
ment. Their  leaders  were  statesmen  in  the  strongest  and  best  sense  of 
the  word;  the  system  thus  inaugurated  was  founded  upon  public  intellectual 
culture.  The  difference  between  such  conditions  and  those  existing  in  the 
mother  country-  has  been  pointed  out  by  Professor  Draper,  who,  calling 
attention  to  the  European  system  where  enlightenment  was  furnished  to 
certain  classes  only,  not  to  the  masses,  says  that  the  people  were  left  to 
grope  about  in  political  darkness,  not  knowing  whither  they  were  going  and 
afraid  to  look  into  the  future;  while,  on  the  other  hand,  "in  America  the 
sentiment  of  manifest  destiny  to  imperial  greatness  gave  everyone  a 
determinate  direction  and  an  energetic  life." 

During  the  century  and  a  half  of  their  splendid  colonial  life,  there  was 
built  up  in  our  colonies  a  constructive  democracy,  the  essential  elements 
of  which  are  embalmed  in  the  Declaration  of  Independence,  and  the  com- 
bined wisdom  of  which  found  expression  in  the  state  constitutions  and  that 
of  the  United  States. 

It  was  from  this  stock,  imbued  with  all  its  heroic  qualities  and  actuated 
by  its  lofty  motives,  that  Vermont  was  settled.  It  was  their  sturdy  inde- 
pendence which  led  them  to  oppose  the  aggression  of  the  crown,  and  it 
was  at  the  Westminster  massacre  as  early  as  March,  1775,  that  William 
French  was  killed  and  the  first  blood  in  the  momentous  contest  which  gave 
birth  to  a  nation  was  shed  upon  Vermont  soil.  It  was  this  independence 
and  zeal  for  liberty  which  led  the  Green  Mountain  Boys,  two  months  later, 
foreseeing  the  coming  struggle,  to  make  the  night  assault  upon  Ticonderoga, 
and  through  their  commander,  Ethan  Allen,  demand  and  receive  the 
surrender  of  that  fortress  in  the  name  of  the  Great  Jehovah  and  the  Con- 
tinental Congress.  It  was  their  instinct  for  self-government  which  led 
them  in  1777  in  the  courthouse  at  Westminster,  where  William  French 
had  been  slain,  to  adopt  that  immortal  declaration  that  they  would  at  all 
times  consider  themselves  a  free  and  independent  state,  capable  of  regulat- 
ing their  internal  police,  and  that  the  people  had  the  sole  and  exclusive  and 
inherent  right  of  ruling  and  governing  themselves  in  such  manner  and  form 
as  in  their  own  wisdom  they  should  think  proper.  And  it  was  the  quality 
of  this  early  citizenship  of  Vermont  that  led  them,  in  the  adoption  of  their 
constitution  in  July  of  the  same  year,  to  become  the  first  of  all  the  states 
to  forever  prohibit  slavery  within  her  territory — an  act  which,  had  it  been 
adopted  by  the  other  states,  would  have  prevented  the  perpetration  of 
that  great  wrong  whose  cancerous  growth  affected  the  very  vitals  of  a 


nation  dedicated  to  the  rights  of  man,  and  would  have  left  no  opportunity 
for  the  conflict  which  shook  the  foundations  of  the  government,  with  all 
the  sacrifices,  the  sorrows  and  the  sufTerings  which  it  entailed,  and  of  which 
we  are  so  vividly  reminded  today.  It  was  this  inheritance  which  enabled 
the  people  of  Vermont,  although  repulsed  by  the  Continental  Congress  in 
every  attempt  it  made  to  become  a  member  of  the  Federal  Union,  to  main- 
tain an  independent  government  throughout  the  War  of  the  Revolution, 
and  which  also  enabled  them  to  defend  even  by  force  of  arms  the  titles  to 
their  homes  against  the  claims  of  the  state  of  New  York.  And  it  was  the 
same  sturdy  sense  of  independence  and  the  same  capacity  for  self-govern- 
ment which  enabled  them  during  a  period  of  eight  years  following  the 
achievement  of  independence  by  the  thirteen  original  states,  to  maintain 
"the  Republic  of  the  Green  Mountains"  independent  of  the  government 
of  the  United  States  or  that  of  Great  Britain  or  any  other  power  or  poten- 
tate. They  exercised  all  the  functions  of  a  government  of  sovereign  powers; 
they  established  a  standard  of  weights  and  measures;  coined  money  and 
regulated  the  value  thereof;  established  a  postal  service  and  appointed  a 
postmaster-general,  and  in  various  other  ways  exercised  the  functions  of 
absolute  independence,  and  it  was  not  until  1791  that  Vermont  surrendered 
such  sovereignty  and  became  a  member  of  the  Federal  Union. 

And  it  was  from  this  sturdy,  intelligent  and  self-respecting  type  of  citizen- 
ship that  Waterbury  derived  her  early  settlers.  It  is  well  to  remember  that 
its  first  settler,  James  Marsh,  came  in  1783,  that  the  first  clerk  of  the  town, 
Ezra  Butler,  came  in  1785,  and  that  it  was  not  until  1790  that  the  town 
was  fully  organized  and  embarked  upon  its  history  of  progress  and  honor. 
Has  it  occurred  to  you  that  during  all  these  years  none  of  these  men  were 
citizens  of  the  United  States,  either  under  the  confederation  or  constitu- 
tion? It  is  a  significant  fact  that  although  they  had  fought  for  independ- 
ence side  by  side  with  the  citizens  of  the  thirteen  states,  they  were  citizens 
only  of  the  state  of  Vermont — "the  Republic  of  the  Green  Mountains" — 
and  it  was  not  until  the  year  after  the  organization  of  the  town  that  the 
state  became  the  first  admitted  member  of  the  Union  and  her  people  citizens 
of  the  United  States. 

Among  the  first  settlers  and  early  inhabitants  of  Waterbury,  those  who 
in  the  American  Revolution  had  carried  arms  to  establish  freedom  in  this 
land  of  promise,  were  Ezra  Butler,  Paul  Dillingham,  Sr.,  David  Towne, 
John  Gregg,  Stephen  Jones,  John  Hudson,  Joseph  Ayer,  Moses  Nelson, 
A.  Wilder,  James  Green,  George  Kennan,  Thomas  Eddy,  and  doubtless 
others  whose  names  I  have  been  unable  to  discover,  and,  besides  these, 
many  others  of  the  same  rugged  stock — and  these  were  typical  of  all. 

Did  the  stock  hold  good?  Did  the  sons  and  the  grandsons  of  such  sires 
maintain  the  characteristics  and  the  principles  of  those  from  whom  they 
sprung,  in  their  devotion  to  free  institutions?  Did  they,  in  upholding  free 
institutions,  make  sacrifices  equal  to  those  required  in  establishing  liberty 
upon  this  continent?  Did  they  have  part  in  the  grand  record  which  Ver- 
mont made  in  the  war  for  the  maintenance  of  the  Union?     Fortunately  for 


us,  an  answer  to  these  questions  can  be  found  in  the  records  both  of  the 
state  and  of  the  nation,  and  a  little  later  I  shall  have  occasion  to  speak  in 
no  uncertain  tone  of  their  devotion  to  the  sacred  cause. 

But  before  doing  so,  let  us  look  at  Vermont's  record  as  a  whole  and  ascer- 
tain whether  among  the  people  of  any  of  the  states  of  the  Union  there  was 
found  a  readier  response  to  the  call  for  service,  or  a  service  more  brilliant 
than  that  of  the  volunteers  from  our  little  mountain  state.  It  is  with  a 
feeling  of  glowing  pride  that  I  approach  this  subject,  and  with  deep  personal 
emotion,  also,  because  of  the  sacred  memories  which  hallow  my  thoughts. 

I  am  one  of  the  comparatively  few  among  those  present  on  this  occasion 
who  can  recall  in  memory'  that  April  day  more  than  half  a  century  ago  when 
the  news  that  Fort  Sumter  had  fallen  stunned  the  nation,  and  the  powerful 
reaction  which  followed  the  proclamation  of  President  Lincoln  calling  for 
75,000  troops. 

F"or  days  my  father,  strong  and  resourceful  in  character,  but  com- 
prehending, as  few  then  did,  the  strength  and  earnestness  of  the  South,  and 
foreseeing,  as  few  did,  the  bloody  years  of  war  which  were  to  follow,  had  sat 
with  bowed  head  vainly  seeking  light  where  all  was  darkness.  But  with 
this  call  to  arms  he  rose  in  the  strength  of  one  who  served  God  and  loved 
his  country,  and  turning  to  his  first-born  son,  exclaimed:  "Charley,  what 
are  we  to  do?"  The  response  was:  "  I  shall  answer  the  call  and  recruit  a 
company  as  quickly  as  I  can  secure  authority."  The  father,  with  the  same 
spirit  which  actuated  countless  other  fathers  throughout  state  and  nation, 
with  outstretched  arms  and  with  tears  gushing  from  his  eyes,  exclaimed: 
"Go,  my  son;  and  God  bless  you.  If  I  were  of  your  age,  I  would  go  with 

The  news  of  the  fall  of  Sumter  and  of  Lincoln's  call  to  arms,  was  received 
in  Vermont  on  the  14th  of  April.  Within  twelve  days  from  that  time  the 
Vermont  Legislature  had  met  in  extraordinary  session,  had  appropriated 
$1,000,000  for  war  purposes  and  had  provided  for  raising  and  equipping  six 
regiments  for  two  years'  service. 

Not  waiting  to  receive  from  Federal  authority  the  official  blanks  upon 
which  to  secure  enlistments,  the  work  of  recruiting  was  immediately  begun 
by  Charles  Dillingham  and  was  actually  completed  before  the  official 
blanks  were  received.  I  hold  in  my  hand  the  paper  employed,  which 
contains  the  original  signatures  of  the  first  men  of  Waterbury  and  sur- 
rounding towns  who  volunteered  for  three  years'  service  in  the  army  of  the 
United  States  for  the  suppression  of  the  rebellion.  For  fifty  years  it  has 
been  in  my  possession  carefully  preserved,  and  this  is  the  first  occasion 
when  it  has  been  publicly  exhibited.  Let  me  read  these  names  as  a  whole, 
for  those  from  neighboring  towns  who  honor  this  occasion  by  their  presence 
have  an  interest  equal  to  our  own  in  this  historic  group. 

The  contract  so  entered  into  by  these  men  clearly  indicates  their  patriotic 
zeal  to  defend  the  Union,  as  well  as  the  resolute  purpose  of  the  authorities 
of  the  state  to  prepare  in  advance  for  such  requisitions  as  might  soon  be 


made  upon  Vermont  by  the  general  government  for  troops.     It  reads  as 
follows : 

"State  of  Vermont." 

"We,  and  each  of  us,  who  hereunto  affix  our  names,  agree  to  enlist  and  be 
enrolled  in  a  Company  of  Volunteer  Soldiers,  to  be  raised  in  the  town  of 
Waterburyand  vicinity,  subject  to  the  orders  of  the  Commander-in-Chief 
of  the  State  of  Vermont,  or  of  the  President  of  the  United  States,  and  Con- 
sideration of  arms  and  equipments  to  be  furnished  us  and  each  of  us  by  the 
State,  and  of  such  pay  and  allowances  as  are  allowed  by  law,  we,  and  each 
of  us,  agree  to  serve  as  such  soldiers  for  the  period  of  three  years  from  and 
after  the  first  day  of  June,  1861,  unless  sooner  discharged  agreeably  to  law. 
We  enlist  and  agree  to  serve  for  the  first  two  years  under  and  by  virtue 
of  the  provisions  of  an  act  of  the  Legislature  of  this  State,  entitled  'An  Act 
to  Provide  for  Raising  Six  Special  Regiments  for  Immediate  Service  for 
Protecting  and  Defending  the  Constitution  and  the  Union,'  approved 
April  26,  1861,  and  are  to  receive  the  compensation  therein  provided." 

Those  from  Waterbury  were  Charles  Dillingham,  William  W.  Henry, 
Samuel  Morey,  William  Bruidnell,  James  W.  Nichols,  George  Brown,  John 
W.  York,  Wilber  Foster,  Charles  C.  Gregg,  Ira  A.  Marshall,  Frank  Huntley, 
Edwin  Parker,  Robert  Hunkins,  Lyman  Woodward,  Elihu  Wilson,  Charles 
Prescott,  Charles  N.  Collins,  Allen  Jewett,  Henry  F.  Parker,  Christopher 
P.  Brown,  John  Murray,  Luther  Merriam,  Franklin  Carpenter,  William 
Clark,  Tilton  Sleeper,  Hartwell  Moody,  George  E.  Smith,  Harvey  J. 
Wilson,  George  W.  Farnham,  Patrick  F.  Flaherty,  Lorenzo  B.  Guptil, 
Lorenzo  S.  Bryant,  Harper  A.  Demmon,  George  C.  Sherman. 

Those  from  our  sister  town,  Duxbury,  were:  Mason  Franklin  Atkins, 
William  Kelley,  George  C.  Center,  Nathan  F.  Huntley,  Warren  C.  Gilman, 
Edwin  Turner,  Sidney  Sherman,  Truman  M.  Dow,  Orin  Gilman,  Chancey 
Shonio,  Charles  H.  Gilman. 

Those  from  Stowe  were:  George  W.  Colby,  Isaac  S.  Pratt,  Albert  W. 
Russell,  Holden  S.  Hodge,  Alexander  Warden,  Dennis  H.  Bicknell,  John 
R.  Smith,  James  S.  Perrier,  John  Knapp,  Orlo  W.  Bickford. 

Those  from  Middlesex  were:     John  T.  Bass,  Rufus  S.  Marsh. 

Those  from  Moretown  were:  John  Travers,  Orlando  S.  Turner,  James 
Diamond,  Edwin  Murphy,  Henry  Newton,  Michael  Conway. 

Those  from  Montpelier  were:  Francis  Gravlin,  Richard  Dodge,  Andrew 
J.  Allen,  Ira  S.  Honan,  Robert  Lamont. 

From  Barre:  George  W.  Goodrich,  S.  D.  Strong,  Henry  C.  Jones,  Eldon 
A.  Tilden,  Orin  Beckley,  Jr.,  Albert  Smith. 

From  Berlin:  Daniel  K.  Stickney,  Obadiah  W.  Hill. 

From  Marshfield:  Chauncey  Smith,  Alfonzo  Lesser,  Hiram  Hall. 

From  Calais:  James  O.  Horey,  George  Soper. 

From  Woodbury:  Henry  Goodell,  Aaron  P.  Hall. 

From  Northfield:  Charlie  C.  Canning. 

From  East  Montpelier:  Samuel  Looker. 

From  Cabot:  Andrew  Hill. 


From  Hyde  Park:  Francis  Finnigan,  Philo  J.  Crowcll,  George  W.  Perry, 
John  Roddy. 

From  Elmore:  Edmond  Holdeq. 

From  Eden:  Terrence  Roddy. 

From  Orange  county:  C.  E.  Turner,  John  H.  Fuller,  Horatio  G.  Piatt. 

From  greater  distances:  H.  H.  Matthews  of  Barnet,  Edwin  M.  Suther- 
land of  Montgomery-,  Josiah  Watson  of  Granville,  and  John  Gowing  of 
Providence,  Rhode  Island. 

These  men  constituted,  in  the  main.  Company  D  of  the  Second  Vermont 
Infantry.  It  was  officered  by  Charles  Dillingham,  William  W.  Henry  and 
Charles  C.  Gregg.  This  regiment  was  the  first  body  of  men  enlisted  in 
Vermont  for  three  years'  service.  It  was  organized  early  enough  to  have 
part  in  the  first  battle  of  Bull  Run  and  its  organization  was  retained 
until  the  last  shot  had  been  fired  near  Appomattox. 

This  regiment  formed  the  nucleus  of  the  Old  Vermont  Brigade,  composed 
of  the  Second,  Third,  Fourth,  Fifth  and  Sixth  Regiments  of  Vermont  In- 
fantry— a  brigade  whose  service  measured  by  any  test  suggested  by  the 
exigencies  of  war  was  so  brilliant  as  to  merit  the  admiration  even  of  the 
army.  Its  steadiness  and  dependable  character  was  such  that  the  heaviest 
demands  were  made  upon  it  in  every  crisis.  If  the  presence  of  the  Sixth 
Corps  was  imperatively  demanded  in  the  neighborhood  of  Gettysburg  to 
repel  the  invasion  of  Pennsylvania  by  Lee  with  his  army  of  veterans,  and  a 
forced  march  was  required,  General  Sedgewick's  laconic  order  to  place  the 
Vermonters  at  the  head  of  the  column  and  keep  the  ranks  well  closed  up, 
told  the  story  of  his  trust  and  confidence  in  these  veterans  from  our  rugged 
little  state.  If  gallantry  and  dash  in  battle  ever  was  required,  the  Vermont 
Brigade  never  failed  to  respond  to  any  call,  and  if  stubborn  resistance  to 
the  onslaughts  of  the  enemy  was  necessary  to  turn  the  tide  of  battle,  then, 
also,  they  always  stood  as  firm  as  the  rocks  upon  the  mountains  among 
which  they  were  born.  It  is  not  necessary  on  this  occasion  to  deal  in 
rhetoric,  nor  to  indulge  in  any  flights  of  oratory^,  for  deeds  speak  louder 
than  words. 

In  this  month  of  May,  just  fifty  years  ago,  the  Vermont  Brigade,  which 
had  crossed  the  Rapidan  with  2,800  effective  fighting  men,  was  thrust  into 
the  terrible  battles  of  the  Wilderness  and  Spottsylvania,  where  they  fought 
with  a  desperation  which  can  never  be  described  but  which  is  in  part  indi- 
cated by  the  losses  they  sustained.  The  story  is  best  told  to  a  thoughtful 
listener  by  the  statement  that  out  of  the  2,800  brave  men  who  entered 
that  vortex  of  death,  1,645,  or  58  per  cent  of  the  whole,  had,  in  a  single 
week,  been  killed  or  wounded  or  reported  missing. 

But  the  story  is  not  fully  told  without  the  added  statement  that  this 
Brigade  during  its  long  service  fought  its  way  out  of  any  class  and  achieved 
a  distinction  all  its  own;  one  so  marked,  so  unequalled  in  character,  that 
it  comes  down  in  history  as  the  one  brigade  among  all  the  brigades  consti- 
tuting all  the  armies  of  the  United  States,  both  in  the  East  and  in  the 
West,  whose  losses  in  killed  and  mortally  wounded  in  battle  exceeded  all 


others.  These  brave  and  gallant  sons  of  Vermont  were  the  first  in  the 
field  and  the  last  to  leave.  From  Bull  Run  to  Appomattox,  every  step  in 
their  history  was  crowned  with  glory,  and  it  was  the  men  of  the  Brigade 
who  fired  the  last  shots  of  the  Sixth  Corps  while  engaged  with  the  rear 
guard  of  Lee's  retreating  army  in  the  final  battle  near  Sailors  Creek,  just 
preceding  the  surrender  of  Lee  at  Appomattox.  With  just  pride  they 
marched  together  at  the  grand  review  in  1865,  and  then,  in  the  exercise 
of  the  same  qualities  that  had  made  them  soldiers  of  the  grandest  type, 
they  laid  down  their  arms  to  become  equally  faithful  citizens  of  the  coun- 
try they  had  helped  to  save. 

The  regiments  of  the  Old  Brigade  were  hardly  in  the  field  when  succeed- 
ing calls  for  men  were  made,  and  regiment  after  regiment  was  rushed  to 
the  front.  The  First  Cavalry  went  out  in  the  autumn  of  1861,  among  its 
members  from  Waterbury  being  Lieutenant  William  Wells  of  Company  C. 
In  February,  1862,  the  state  equipped  and  sent  to  the  front  for  service  in 
the  gulf  states  the  Seventh  and  Eighth  Regiments,  Charles  Dillingham 
having  been  made  Major  and  later  Lieutenant-Colonel  of  the  latter.  In 
July  they  were  followed  by  the  Ninth  Vermont,  and  in  September 
by  the  Tenth,  Company  B  of  which  was  recruited  by  Edwin  Dillingham  and 
was  comprised  of  men  from  Waterbury  and  surrounding  towns.  It  was 
officered  by  Dillingham,  Stetson  and  Thompson,  who  sealed  their  devotion 
to  the  cause  by  giving  up  their  lives,  every  one  of  them  having  been  slain 
in  battle.  The  Eleventh  went  out  during  the  same  month,  and  in  October, 
following  the  nine-months'  regiments,  the  Twelfth,  Thirteenth,  Fourteenth, 
Fifteenth  and  Sixteenth  and  in  1864  another  three-year  regiment,  the 
Seventeenth,  went  out  to  a  distinguished  service,  and  among  those  enrolled 
were  Lieutenant  J.  Edwin  Henry  and  Frank  S.  Henry,  a  cousin,  whose 
action  in  presenting  this  monument  to  his  native  town  is  so  keenly  appre- 
ciated by  all  who  are  gathered  here  today. 

If  Vermont  was  so  greatly  honored  by  the  achievements  of  the  Old 
Brigade,  she  was  not  less  honored  by  the  men  thus  later  called  to  the 
service.  They  were  equally  brave,  equally  gallant.  Not  having  been 
brigaded  together,  comparison  with  other  regiments,  all  brave  and  doing 
well  their  part,  can  only  tell  the  story  of  their  sacrifices,  and  of  the  relative 
rank  they  achieved  among  the  other  organizations  constituting  the 
armies  of  the  Union.  Let  the  records  speak  in  unimpeachable  terms. 
In  the  Union  army  as  a  whole,  there  were  no  less  than  2,000  regi- 
ments in  active  service.  Measured  by  the  actual  losses  in  battle, 
there  were  300  individual  regiments,  which  specially  distinguished 
themselves  for  gallantry  as  measured  by  the  number  of  their  men  left 
dead  upon  fields  of  battle.  These  300  constitute  the  whole  number  of 
regiments  which  lost  more  than  130  men  each  in  battle.  And  of  Ver- 
mont's 12  regiments  enlisted  for  three  years  or  during  the  war,  nine 
are  found  in  this  distinguished  list.  In  the  Union  armies  also  there  were 
many  cavalry  regiments.  All  had  hard  and  even  desperate  service;  but, 
while  all  suffered  severely,  there  were  nine  whose  services  were  such  that 


they  lost  more  heavily  than  any  others.  And  among  these  nine  so  singled 
out  for  distinction,  the  First  Vermont  Cavalr>'  was  fifth,  while  it  was  first 
in  the  number  of  guns  and  prisoners  captured  in  battle.  To  tell  the  story 
of  Vermont's  record  as  a  whole  and  in  strictly  official  language,  I  again 
quote  from  Colonel  Fox,  who  says:  "  The  percentage  of  killed  in  the  quota 
furnished  by  Vermont  is  far  above  the  average,  and  is  exceeded  only  by 
one  other  state.  Its  large  percentage  is  easily  understood  by  a  glance  at 
the  battle  losses  of  its  regiments." 

Nor  do  we,  in  speaking  of  those  who  served  longest,  overlook  the  fact 
that  the  Second  Vermont  Brigade,  composed  of  the  Twelfth,  Thirteenth, 
Fourteenth,  Fifteenth  and  Sixteenth  Regiments,  enlisted  for  nine  months' 
service,  had  the  honor  of  being  a  part  of  that  wall  on  the  hills  of  Gettysburg 
against  which  the  highest  tide  of  the  Rebellion  struck  and  from  which 
it  receded  never  again  to  reach  a  similar  height.  To  some  of  these 
regiments  fell  the  lot  of  flanking  Pickett's  Corps  as  it  struck  the  Union 
lines  at  the  point  where  the  Vermont  state  monument  now  stands,  and 
to  gather  in  as  prisoners  the  men  who,  under  Pickett's  intrepid  leadership, 
had  exhibited  a  courage,  nay,  a  desperation,  never  surpassed  in  the  history 
of  battles,  and  to  hold  them  as  prisoners  of  war. 

But  if  Vermont  as  a  whole  was  so  greatly  distinguished  by  the  valor  of 
her  troops  in  this  great  conflict,  which  demonstrated  that  they  were  noble 
sons  of  noble  sires,  what  shall  we  say  of  Waterbury's  record  in  that  great 
struggle?  Bear  with  me  in  leading  up  to  the  subject  while  I  tell  you  of 
the  percentage  of  killed  and  wounded  in  the  greatest  armies  of  foreign 
nations  in  modern  wars  and  compare  them  with  the  losses  of  the  Union 
forces  during  the  Civil  War. 

In  the  Austrian  army  of  1866,  the  losses  of  killed  in  battle  were  2.2 
per  cent.  In  the  splendid  German  army  engaged  in  the  Franco-Prussian 
War  such  losses  were  3.1  per  cent.  In  the  allied  armies  in  the  Crimea 
they  were  3.2  per  cent. 

Compare  these  with  the  vastly  greater  losses  of  the  Union  army  in  the 
War  of  the  Rebellion,  where  they  amounted  to  4.7  per  cent.  And  remem- 
ber that  the  losses  among  the  Vermont  troops  in  such  army  were  6.8  per 
cent,  which  is  more  than  double  that  of  any  of  the  European  armies  in  the 
great  wars  I  have  mentioned,  and  almost  a  third  larger  than  that  of 
the  Union  armies  as  a  whole,  and  larger  than  that  among  the  troops  from 
any  other  state  in  the  Union  save  one. 

But  as  great  as  Vermont's  loss  was  upon  which  her  proud  record  is  based, 
we  remember  with  sad  but  enduring  pride  that  Waterbury's  loss  as  a  town 
was  still  greater,  and  that  the  proportion  of  the  slain  was  over  8  per  cent 
of  all  her  sons  whom  she  sent  to  the   field. 

Who  were  these  men  who  were  killed  or  mortally  wounded  in  battle? 
Ira  S.  Gray  at  Savage  Station,  Marcellus  Johnson  at  South  Mountain, 
and  George  S.  Woodward  in  a  cavalry  engagement  in  Virginia.  Who 
among  us  whose  memories  extend  back  to  that  period  can  forget  the  terrible 
year  of  '64,  when  the  armies  both  of  the  North  and  South  had  become 


veterans  and  had  entered  upon  a  struggle  which  must  go  down  in  the 
annals  of  war  as  unequalled  either  in  the  desperate  character  of  the  battles 
fought  or  in  the  multitude  of  those  who  were  slain?  For  while  men  fought, 
women  wept.  In  every  town,  village  or  hamlet,  however  small,  mothers 
mourned  for  their  sons,  wives  for  husbands,  and  children  for  fathers. 
Thirteen  times  during  that  year  of  sorrow  the  church  bells  of  this  place 
tolled  out  the  news  that  another  of  Waterbury's  sons  had  been  slain  in 
battle  and  that  another  household  had  been  made  desolate.  Willard  S. 
and  Horatio  G.  Stone,  Alva  Rowell,  Robert  Hunkins,  George  Hubbard, 
George  W.  York,  and  Theodore  Wood  fell  at  the  Wilderness  or  Spott- 
sylvania  in  the  budding  month  of  May.  In  June  Edward  C.  Bragg,  Henry 
B.  Burleigh,  Hamilton  Glines,  and  Mason  Humphrey  closed  their  earthly 
career  in  the  battle  of  Cold  Harbor,  and  Allen  Greeley  received  wounds  from 
which  he  died  the  following  month.  Captain  Stetson,  too,  who  went  out 
as  one  of  the  officers  of  Company  B,  Tenth  Vermont,  was  among  the  slain. 
July  brought  the  news  of  the  death  of  John  Brown  at  Andersonville,  and 
with  the  news  of  the  battle  of  Winchester,  on  the  19th  of  September,  came 
the  announcement  that  Major  Edwin  Dillingham  had  fallen  while  in  com- 
mand of  his  regiment.  Just  a  month  from  that  day,  on  the  19th  of 
October,  his  comrade  and  devoted  friend,  Captain  Thompson,  was  instantly 
killed  at  Cedar  Creek;  while  in  the  January-  following,  almost  at  the  close 
of  the  war,  came  the  news  that  Lieutenant  J.  Edwin  Henry  of  the  Sev- 
enteenth had  fallen  in  the  assault  upon  the  fortifications  at  Petersburg. 

But  in  recounting  the  valor  of  those  who  fell  in  the  shock  of  battle,  we 
must  not  forget  that  larger  number  who,  in  the  hospital  and  the  prison  pen, 
suffered  from  exposure,  hardships  and  disease,  showing  the  same  soldierly 
qualities,  and  who  laid  down  their  lives  with  equal  honor  and  devotion. 
Think  of  the  number  of  mourners  who  walked  our  streets  because  of  the 
death  of  Surgeon  Drew,  Lieutenant  Don  D.  Stone,  Corporal  Charles  B. 
Lee,  Dennis  A.  Bickford,  George  Brown,  H.  S.  Burleigh,  Charles  N.  Collins, 
Joseph  B.  Conant,  Henry  Dillingham,  Lyman  Godfrey,  Marcellus  B. 
Johnson,  Edwin  Joslyn,  Henry  Lee,  Sayles  H.  Locks,  Lucian  W.  Murray, 
George  C.  Rice,  Frank  Stearns,  Burton  C.  Turner,  Henry  Wells,  Henry 
M.  Wood,  William  H.  Wood,  Hiram  Young. 

But  if  the  loss  among  all  classes  representing  Waterbury  was  so  great, 
what  shall  be  said  of  that  among  the  officers  who  originally  went  out  in 
command  of  such  brave  men?  Do  not  let  it  be  forgotten,  write  it  upon  the 
tablets  of  your  hearts,  that  43  per  cent  of  these  gallant  officers  fell  in  the 
shock  of  battle  and  died  with  their  faces  to  the  foe,  counting  their  lives  as 
naught  when  the  life  of  the  nation  was  at  stake. 

This  record  of  sacrifices  made  by  the  men  of  Waterbury  in  the  Civil  War 
places  her  in  a  rank  by  herself.  If  the  valor  of  her  men  has  been  established 
by  these  terrible  losses  in  battle,  their  quality  as  soldiers  and  commanders 
has  been  equally  demonstrated  by  the  fact  that  of  the  three  men  entering 
the  service  with  the  Vermont  troops  who,  by  their  ability  and  gallantry, 
reached  the  rank  of  brevet  major-general  of  volunteers,  Waterbury  is 


credited  with  William  Wells  who,  entering  the  service  as  a  first  lieutenant, 
passed  through  every  grade  by  promotion  until  in  the  grand  review  of  the 
Union  armies  at  the  close  of  the  war  he  rode  proudly  at  the  head  of  the  Sec- 
ond Brigade  of  the  Old  Cavalry  Corps  of  the  Army  of  the  Potomac,  of  which 
corps  he  also  became  the  last  commander.  And  of  the  seven  brevet  brig- 
adier-generals of  volunteers  appointed  from  among  the  Vermont  troops, 
Waterbury  was  credited  with  one,  in  the  person  of  William  W.  Henry,  who, 
entering  the  service  as  a  lieutenant,  also  passed  through  each  successive 
grade  and  who  still  lives  to  tell  the  story  of  the  gallantn.-  of  Vermont  men. 

May  I  add,  also,  that  no  elements  entering  into  the  exercises  of  this 
occasion  can  so  impress  the  minds  of  those  whose  memories  reach  back  to 
the  period  of  the  war  as  the  presence  with  us  of  Doctor  Henry  Janes! 
The  tremendous  proportions  of  the  Civil  War,  the  magnitude  of  its  battles 
and  the  awful  slaughter  of  brave  men  are  indelibly  impressed  upon  the 
minds  of  those  who  remember  that  during  his  service  as  surgeon  of  the  Third 
Vermont  and  as  lieutenant-colonel  and  surgeon  of  United  States  volunteers, 
he  not  only  ministered  to  multitudes  of  those  who  suffered  from  exposure 
and  disease,  but  also  had  directly  under  his  charge  and  was  responsible  for 
not  less  than  50,000  wounded  men,  an  army  of  wounded  men  twice  as  large 
as  the  standing  army  of  the  United  States  before  our  war  with  Spain.  In 
the  honor  that  was  thrust  upon  him  in  being  placed  in  charge  of  all  the 
hospitals  in  and  about  Gettysburg  after  the  sanguinary  battle  at  that  place, 
Waterbury  was  equally  honored.  Every  person  within  the  reach  of  my 
voice  joins  with  me  in  an  expression  of  high  regard  and  deep  affection  for 
Doctor  Janes,  and,  by  reason  of  his  record  both  as  citizen  and  as  soldier, 
they  accord  to  him  the  first  place  in  the  citizenship  of  the  town. 

In  tracing  to  some  extent  the  struggle  for  individual  liberty,  the  over- 
throw of  arbitrary  power,  the  establishment  of  free  institutions  in  America 
and  the  successful  maintenance  of  them  in  the  great  war  between  the  states, 
I  have  had  a  definite  purpose.  In  addition  to  the  desire  which  fills  every 
heart  here  present  to  pay  a  just  and  affectionate  tribute  of  praise  to  the 
veterans  of  the  Civil  War,  whose  record  has  never  been  equalled  and  will 
never  be  surpassed,  as  well  as  to  the  few  who  gather  with  us  as  to  that 
larger  number  who,  having  fought  the  fight  and  kept  the  faith  of  good 
citizenship,  have  gone  to  their  reward,  I  have  desired  to  impress  upon  all 
who  hear  my  voice  the  priceless  value  of  the  legacy  which  has  been  be- 
queathed to  us  and  the  terrible  cost  through  which  it  was  obtained. 

I  have  done  this  at  the  express  desire  of  the  man  toward  whom  the 
thoughts  of  this  audience  are  most  directed,  to  whom  in  his  lifetime  their 
affections  went  out  in  generous  measure  and  for  whose  presence  with  us 
on  this  occasion  we  had  so  fondly  hoped.  Frank  S.  Henry  was  to  the 
manor  born.  His  love  for  Waterbury  was  an  inheritance  from  generations 
running  back  to  the  time  of  the  settlement  of  the  town,  strengthened  and 
developed  by  early  associations  and  later  by  his  military  service  with  the 
companions  of  his  boyhood.  It  was  perpetuated  through  friendships 
old  and  new,  resulting  from  family  and  social  relations  which  he  sustained 


through  life  with  the  people  of  this  community.  He  loved  us,  he  gloried  in 
our  history,  and  his  great  desire  was  to  make  a  lasting  impress  upon  our 
future.  He  remembered  that  the  boys  of  the  nation  fought  the  War  of 
the  Rebellion,  and  his  great  desire  was  that  the  boys  of  the  present  day  and 
those  of  the  future  should  be  prepared  to  do  well  their  part  in  perfecting 
and  carrying  out  the  work  of  the  fathers. 

It  is  an  astounding  fact  that  out  of  the  2,672,341  men  constituting  the 
Union  armies  during  the  war  between  the  states,  2,157,798  or  81  per  cent, 
were  under  twenty-one  years  of  age  when  they  enlisted,  and  that  of  this 
number  1,151,438 — 43  per  cent — were  under  eighteen  years  of  age.  The 
miracle  of  the  nineteenth  century  was  the  almost  instantaneous  develop- 
ment of  these  boys  into  strong,  rugged,  thoughtful,  determined  men,  when 
the  developing  powers  of  great  responsibilities  were  laid  upon  them. 

No  one  remembered  this  fact  more  perfectly  than  Mr.  Henry,  and  no  one 
comprehended  more  perfectly  the  importance  of  having  succeeding  genera- 
tions equally  well  equipped  for  great  national  exigencies.  His  generous 
and  patriotic  action  in  erecting  this  monument  was  born  not  alone  from  a 
desire  to  honor  those  who  had  been  his  comrades  in  that  great  conflict, 
but  by  placing  it  in  the  grounds  of  the  public  schools,  he  hoped  that  countless 
generations  would  daily  look  upon  it  and  derive  inspiration  from  the  record 
it  discloses.  So  strong  was  his  interest  in  those  who  are  to  succeed  us  in 
the  responsibilities  of  citizenship  that  even  when  upon  a  bed  of  suffering 
and  when  facing  that  great  change  in  which  the  mortal  puts  on  immortality, 
he  asked  me  to  impress  upon  the  heart  and  mind  of  this  audience  today  the 
value  of  patriotism,  of  loyalty,  of  devotion  to  free  institutions  and  the 
obligation  that  rests  upon  every  community  to  keep  alive  the  spirit  of  the 
fathers,  and  to  impress  it  upon  their  children;  and  he  was  particularly 
impressed  with  the  conviction  that  there  should  be  included  in  the  curricu- 
lum of  the  schools  not  only  proper  instruction  in  the  elements  of  patriotism, 
but  also  in  military  tactics  among  the  older  boys,  that  there  may  be  aroused 
in  them  an  enthusiastic  love  of  country  and  that  there  may  be  developed  in 
them  that  military  instinct  which  is  so  essential  as  an  element  of  character 
in  manly  men  and  model  citizens. 

May  the  memory  of  his  great  generosity,  his  deep  love  for  his  native 
town  and  her  people,  and  his  patriotic  interest  in  those  who  are  to  follow  us, 
remain  in  the  hearts  of  Waterbury's  sons  and  daughters  as  long  as  bronze 
and  granite  endure,  and  God  grant  that  such  memory  shall  ever  inspire 
them  to  a  high  conception  and  heroic  defense  of  the  great  principle  of 
liberty  under  law  which  the  fathers  established,  and  the  maintenance  of 
which  made  immortal  the  men  of  '61  to  '65. 



This  book  is 


under  no  circumstances  to  be 
en  from  the  Building 

f<Mlli     ill!